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About Omaha daily bee. (Omaha [Neb.]) 187?-1922 | View Entire Issue (July 3, 1892)
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10 THE OMAHA DAILY "BEE : SUNDAY , HTLY 3 , 1SS2--SEXTEEN PAGES.
Impressing Its nrlnctplos upon the minds of
\Vhllo the southern orRanlzatloo wns ex
tending Its Influence nmoiiR the farm
ers of the south , nnothor body
of similar chnrncUr , based ut > on
almost oxnctly the sntno principles and for
similar purposes hnJ boon organized In the
i state of Illinois. It bcgnti In the year 1877 ,
and was known ns the National Fnrmors
nlllancc. In n llttlo whllo It had extended
Into tbo states of Wisconsin , Minnesota ,
Iowa , Missotiri.Kunsnsnnd the then territory
of Dakota. The oojoct of tbl * body was de
clared to bo "to Interest the farmers of tbo
United States for tholr protection ncamst
class legislation , tuo encroachments of con
centrated capital , the tyranny of monopoly ;
to provide URnlnst being Imposed upon by
scandalous and scandallrlnK advertisements
In the public prints ; to oppotoiu our respec
tive political parties the election of any can
didate to ofllco , state or national , who Is not
in sympathy with the fatmors' Interests ; to
dotnnud that the existing political parties
eball nominate farmers or these who nro In
sympathy with them fornllofllccs within the
gift of the people ; and to do anything In n
legitimate manner that may servo to benefit
the producer. "
Alum of Hi" Northern Worker * .
This National farmers alliance was an open
body , transacting its business In public , the
tame as has always boon done by regular
political associations , and In this respect was
found Its onlv practical dlfToronoo from the
southern alliance , which had n secret worir.
In tholr social fcntures they weie much nllko ,
and their alms and objects were practically
At n mooting of the southern alliance In
1887 , the following declarations were inudo
and publlihod concerning its objoots :
"Tho objects of tbo National alliance ere
tounllo tbo farmers for the promotion of
tholr interests , socially , politically and
financially , to sncuro n Just representation of
the agricultural Interests of the country In
the national congress and state legislatures ;
'oiiouiaml the prohibition of nlion catllo
.ind land syndicates ; to oppose
ill forms of monopoly ns being detrimental
i.o the best Interests of thopubllc ; to demand
af our representatives In congress tholr votes
anil active inlluonco In favor of the prompt
passage of such laws us will protect livestock
Interests from contagious diseases ; to de
mand tnat agricultural Interests shall bo
represented by a cabinet ofllcor. "
Another Antl-MoMiipoly Ordur.
At about this time , in the fall of 1837 , an
other association of farmers was affected in
the soutncrn part of the state of Illinois : ,
which was known ns the "Farmers Mutual
Honoilt association. " Its object was to op
pose the encroachments of monopolies. This
body did not oxtund ns raniuly as the ethers ;
possibly , because lU ofllcors did not exert
themselves us the ethers had done to sprond
into now territory ; probably because of Its
later origin. Its principles were
almost Identical with these of the
older organizations. This body had
n secret work , after the fashion of the
alliance and grange , but unlluo them it did
not admit womor. to membership
Tliesovcro not the only organizations of
the soil tillers , ns there was the ' Farmers
League. " tno "Farmers Union,1' the "Farm
ers 1'rotecilvo association , " the "Anti-
Monopoly league , " and so on ad inllnitum.
These , however , were mostly in Ohio and
states to the eastward.
The difference between the alliance and
the other bodies of farmers named was
about this : The ulllanco was in ere nggres-
slvo along political lines than'any of the
others , and tno nllianco took nioro advanced
ground In favor of Independent political
action. In fact , It was due to the work of
the alliance leaders that tbo people's party
was finally born.
Uniting tlio Various Orilura.
A mooting of the Farmers and Laborers
Union of America was called at the city of
St. Louis oarlv In December , 1SS9 , for the
purpose of bringing together in 0110 great
organization ail of tbo different bodies of or
ganized farmers in tbo country. Invitations
had bnen seat out in lulvntiro to the onlcors
of all these dilTcrent bodies and to ttio
ofilcials of the Kulehts of Labor , and they
were all rowoscntod at this mooting.
Confereueu committees were appointed and
a co-operative atrangomout for political pur
poses was effected. Tlio various bodies were
not in reality all merged into one , but virtu
ally tbat was what was done. The object of
this partial consolidation was to inlluonco
legislation in the interests of farmers and la
borers generally , fc the now body was
styled the "Fanners Alliance mid Industrial
Again ITofcsHcd Noiimrtlimn lili > .
The alliance hero again declared Itself
nonpartlsan , but It was Intensely political.
Although primarily social , Its political fea
ture was its most powerful force , and while
there was no open disposition to go into poll-
tics independently , it was understood upon
all sides that every possible effort which
could legitimately serve the Interest of agrl-
culture ami labor should bo put forth. The
tit , Louis convention adopted a political plat
form , which was afterwards known ns "i'ho
Jt. Louis Demands , " and on this platform
were based the calls for subsequent meet
ings , which led to tbo ultimate formation of
the third parly.
At that convention , at which were rep
resented the states of Arkansas , Kentucky ,
Kansas , Virginia , Goorcia , Tnnnessob ,
Louisiana , Maryland , Alabama , Nebraska ,
North Carolina , youth Carolina , Indiana ,
Texas and Oklahoma territory , the following
ofticers were elected : President , L. L. Polk
of North Carolina ; vice president , D.
H. Clover of Kansas ; secretary , J.
H. Turner of Uoorgla ; treasurer ,
William UicKraan of Missouri ; national lec
turer , Ben Terrell of Texas. Dolinitn assur
ances of a coalition of all tbo larmors' organ
izations were secured , and arrangements for
mutually satisfactory action on the part of
the nllianco and Knights of Labor vvoio
made , although terms for a complota consoli
dation of the two bodies could not then bo
agreed upon , The convention adjourned to
try It ngaln n year later.
Itlitli of Mm Third Party.
In time It became a very serious question
with members of the ullianco whether they
should operate through the machinery of
tholr old parties , or whether they should
Join with other workers In a now and dis
tinct movement for n redress of the griev
ances of which they found causu to complain.
This was moro particularly the cuiu in Kan
sas. Olllcora of tliu Kansas stuto alliance
were called together In Ai.rll , IbUO , for ISO
purport * of considering this mutter. The
question was , "Shall wo romaln with the par-
llea to which wo hnvo belonged In the
past onil ask rollef through them , or shall
wo Invlto the co-oporauon of other workers
and with them form un independent politi
cal body ] "
After lengthy debute and mature consid
eration the latter course was udoptud , und in
June folllotving u mooting um nolil In tbo
city of TopeKa , at which delegates from the
farmers alliance * , from the Farmers Mutual
lienollt association , from tbn Knights of
Labor and nuvoral otnor bodies were pros
unt , and It waa agreed that members of these
different hoJIcs would Join with other voters
of Into belief In n political movement to bo
known as tlio pconlo's parly.
Having determined to onorulo upon nn in
dependent line , the Topokn meutlng called a
state convention to bo held at the same plnco
In August , at which time a regular state
ticket was placed in the Held and a platform
adopted based on the four fundamental Ideas
land , labor , transportation and money.
Tbo now pat ty elected ono state ofllcor ,
live members of congress , nlnoty-llvo of the
lower house of the legislature , "and In the
following January secured tbo election of u
United States senator.
Houtliuru farmum In l.luo.
lu December , 1890 , the supromn council of
the alliance met at Ocala , Tin. , and thirty-
, five states were represented. Delegates
from every body of organized farmers in the
country were present to participate or to
confer , fi'ha convention of the national alll-
auco of colored farmers was hold at the same
time and place , and fnondly greetings were
exchanged between the two bodies. There
was much talk of gonunil independent politi
cal notion , but no dollnlto stops were taken
beyond the adoption of u resolution declaring
lit favor of holding a convention at Cincin
nati the following spring , at which every
etato and all labor organizations , as well as
the alliance , should bo represented , In order
that tlio soiiso of uvory section of thu coun
try and of all brunches of organized labor
might bo first secured before deciding this
Important mattor. The olllcors of the preceding -
coding year were re-elected at Ocula , with
the exception of National Looluror Terrell ,
who vnis succeeded by J , b. tVllletts of
Northern Third Tarty .Mini.
The annual convention of the northern
illlauco was hold In Omaha u month later ,
beginning January 27 , IS'Jl ' , and there were
rcpnucututlvos prt' out from NoorasUn ,
Iowa , Ohio , Indiana , Illinois , Minnesota ,
Missouri , Washington , Kentucky , Wiscon
sin , Connecticut , Texas and Pennsylvania.
Hero , lee , the sentiment was avowedly In
favor of Independent political action ,
nltliouL'li that was n subject of minor im
The result In Kansas encouraged farmers
in other states , and soon n movement was
sot on foot looking to tlio organization of nn
independent political movement covering tlio
whole country. The first decisive stop In
that direction was that tikon ta the Ocala
masting , in arranging for the National union
conference that was held at Cincinnati May
10. 18111 , and ni which tmnrly 1,51)0 )
delegates , representing thirty-two states
nnd two territories , were prcsont.
They came from Alabama , Arkansas , Cali
fornia , Colorado , Connecticut , Florida , Illln-
nois , Indiana , Iowa , Kansas , Kentucky ,
Louisiana , Maine , Massachusetts , Michigan ,
Minnesota , Missouri , Nebraska , Now York ,
North Carolina , North Dakoln , Ohio , Penn
sylvania , HlioJo Island , South Carolina ,
South Dakota , Tennessee , Texas , Washing
ton , West Virginia , \Vyomlng , Oklahoma ,
District of Columbia.
The Clnvliiimtl I'liitfurni.
The conference adopted tlio following de
claratory and doctrinal principles :
First That in view of the great social , In
dustrial and economical revolutions now
dawning upon the civilized world und the
now nnd living Issues confronting the Amer
ican people wo hollovo that the time has
arrived for n crystalIzallon of tbo political
reform forces of our country and the forma
tion of what should bo known as the pooplo'.s
party of the United States of America.
Second That wo most ho.irtiiy endorse the
demand * of the platforms as adopted at St.
Louis , Mo. , In IbSi ) ; Ocalu , Flo. , in 1890 , and
Omaha , Neb. , In 181)1 ) , by industrial orgnnl-
rations there represented , summarized as
follows : ( a ) Thu right to make and Issue
money u a sovereign power to bo maintained
by the people for thu common bonollt. Hence ,
we demand the abolition of National banks as
banks of issue , and as a stlhslltuto
for national b.uik notes wo demand that legal
tender treasury notes ho Issued in sufficient
volume to transact tbo business of the coun
try on a C'isli ' h.isls without damage or i > spo-
cmt advantage to nnv class or calling , sucli
notes to bo legal tender in payment of all
debts , public mm private , nnd such
notes when demanded by the people
shall bo loaned to them at not
moro than - per cunt per annum upon nonperishable -
perishable products , as indicated in the sub-
treasury plan , and also upon real estatewith
proper limitation upon the quantity of land
and amount , ot money , fb ) Wo demand the
free nnd unlimited'coiuuiro of silver , ( c )
Wo demand the passage of laws
prohibiting nlion ownership of land
nnd that congress take prompt action
to devise some plan to obtain all lands now
owned by alien nnd foreign syndicates , nnd
that all land hold by railroads nnd other cor
porations In axeoss of such as is actually
used nnd nuodou by them bo reclaimed by
the government and held for actual settlor. }
only , ( d ) LJohovIng the doctrine of equal
rlchts to nil nnd special privileges to none
wo demand that taxation national , state or
municipal shall not bo used to build up ono
interest or class at tbo expense of nnothor.
( o ) Wo demand that all revenue national ,
state or county shall bo limited to ttio
necessary expenses of the government ,
economically and honestly administered , ( f )
Wo demand a Just and equitable system of
graduated tax on income , ( g ) Wo demand
the most rigid , honest nnd Just national con
trol nnd supervision of the means of public
communication and transportation , and if
this control nnd supervision does not remove
tlio nhuacs now existing we demand the gov
ernment ownership of such means of com
munication nnd transportation , ( h ) Wo de
mand the election of president , vice-presi
dent and United States senators by a direct
vote of the people.
Third That wo urge united action of nil
progressive organizations in attending the
conference called for February 23 , Ib'JJ , by
six of the leading reform orgntjiz.itions.
Fourth That a national central committee
bo appointed by this conference , to bo com
posed of n chairman , to bo clectod by this
body , and of throe members from each state
icpiosonti.'d , to bo named by each state dele
Fifth That this central committee shall
represent this body , ntlecid the national con
ference on February 2.3 , IbOJ , and if possible
unite with that and all other reform organi
zations there assembled.
Sixth If no satisfactory agreement can
bo oltccted , this committee shall call a na
tional convention not later than Junol , 189J ,
for the purpose of nominating candidates for
president and vice president.
Seventh That the members of the
central commlttoo for onch state where
there Is no independent political
organization conduct an nctivo system of po
litical agitation in tuoir respective status.
I'riilillntlon riank Sno\\ol Under.
Such -vas the platform over which the con
vention went wild. Tno report was adopted
with a whoop , and the now party was prac-
tlcallv ushered into existence on the spot.
An clfort was made to have prohibition and
universal suffrage plunks inserted , but they
were overwhelmingly repudiated.
Tim St. I.oulH .Mooting.
Arrangements were there made for a con-
oral union of nil tbo Industrial forces of the
country in a convention at St. Louis , Fobri-
23 , IS'JJ , for the purpose of completing organ-
i/ntion and arranging for putting a national
tlcltet in the Hold. A national committee ,
composed of the following earnest third
party advocates , was appointed to exorcise a
general supervision over the now movement :
Arkansas It. P. I'o.iUier.itono , Isaac K. Mo-
C'raokun , J. O. A. Hush.
I'.illforiila Marlon Cannon , H. C. Dillon , A.
Connecticut Hnbort I'lquo
Klorida W. I ) . Condon , J. 1) . Goss , L. lUs-
Ccorula O. C. Post.
Iowa J. 11. Weaver , M. L. Wheat. A. J.
Indiana 0. A. Powers , Lcroy Tomploton , J.
1) . UonisttM'lr.
Illlnols-S. N. Norton , A , J. Streater , II , E.
Kansas.- ! ' . 1' . Elder , Lovl Dnmbauld , U. S.
Kentucky L. Graves , S. V. Smith , T. G.
Louisiana J. J. Mills , Dr. U. . Pulno , John
aiiitsiirhiisalts 0. I' . Wasuburn , I' . G.
Brown , i : . M. lloynton ,
Mluhlxun Hen Oolvin , Mrs. S. IX V. i niory ,
John O. bonboll.
Miiiiii'sota Icniitlus Donnelly , 0. N , Pcr-
Klns , Andruw Slovenian.
Mlsinurl 1'uiil J. Dlulihun , J. W. Itodgrrj , W.
Miiliic-ll. 8. Hohbs , P. A. Howard , S. 31.
Njiuruska-J. H. Dlmuston , William Dysart ,
Now York Jacob H. Stndor , Joel J. Hoyt.
Uhlo-llugu 1'ioyor , J. 0. II. Cobb , II. V.
OUUhonm-Samuol Oroskor , A. R Light ,
Ponnsylviinla-P. A.Thompson. ! ' . It. Agnew ,
, ( Joutli Dakota J. W. Hurdln , H. N. Loucl ; ,
Tova * W. It. Lamb , Thomas Or. Inos , J. II.
Tunnusieo II. P. Osbornu , G. W. J. Kay.
J'hn A. Jamas.
Wisconslii-Koburt .Schilling , Alfred Mann-
hclimir. A. J. I'hllllpi
Wust Virginia Luther O. Slilnn , Georzo W.
llntiiinunt , TliDiiuiM It , Kuuvoy.
IIWiJ ! ° MirrittU ! llruto""ul"'Jll"IUi ! A. Smith ,
ilislrlutof Culnmbl.i Luo Orandall , S. A.
lllanil , 11. J. holuiltorsi.
1'lnul Coalition in : uliul.
On W ashlngton's birthday of the present
your , the St. Louis convention assembled ,
und It waa then und there that the final
coalition between all thu organizations was
uffocted , although the new party inovntnoiit
had boon practically agreed upon nearly a
year boforo. There was really but llttlo to
do Doyonit tt > o perfecting of details , but. this
llttlo guvu rise to several stormy sessions.
Prohibition and universal suffrage udvocato *
were bound to lie hoard , and worked bard to
got their favorite planks Inserted In the now
party platform. Tholr prospects for success
wuro brilliant until Just at the final moment ,
when thu convention deliberately turned its
back on them , so to speak , and they ware
unceremoniously snuffed out In u twinkling.
The selection of it place for holding thu
nominating convcptlou on July-1 was left tea
a co mm lit oo of rtn , und that couiuilttou do-
elded In favor of Omaha.
It was decided to allow four delegates for
each member In thu two houses of congress ,
or eight delegates from each state and four
from each congroisloiml district. This gave
the hUtoilcal number of 1,770 dolegutos ,
although 110 ono had autlclpitod it lu ad
Tin ) bt. I.iiuU riutfurm.
The platform adopted at Su Louis stated
that the nation U on the rargo of moral ,
political nnd material ruin ; that corruption
dominates the ballot box , lo Ulaturos , congress -
gross und touches even the orinlno of the
bunch ; newspapers art ) subsidized or muz
zled ; public opinion Is silenced ; U'jslnws
l > ro tratod ; homes covurod with mortgages. ;
lubor Impoverished , and laud ana inonov con
centrating la ttio hands of canltulUls. Worn-
men , It declared , nro denied the right of
organlzitlou for solf-pro'octlon ; Imported ,
pauperized tabor boats down wages ; n hire
ling standing nrmv , unrocognl/od by our
laws , Is established to shoot them
down ana they nro rapidly de
generating to tun European condition ,
The nntloml power to create inonoy Is ap
propriated to ourlch tha bondholders ; silver
has boon demonetized to ndd to the purchas
ing power of gold , und the supply of currency
is purposely abridged to f.Uton usurers , bank
rupt enterprise and enslave Industry. Tbo
platform declared that the old political par
ties allowed this to ovlst wl bout an effort nt
restraint , und , therefore , n now political or
ganization , rnpresontlnL' the political princi
ples heroin Mated , was necessary. A decla
ration of principles was then made , nnd n na
tional currency demanded that U snfu , sotind
and lloxlblo , to bo Issued by the general gov
ernment only , and which snail bo n full losal
tender for nil debts , public and private , nnd
that without the ttso of banking corporations ;
u Just und equitable mains of circulation ;
und n tax not to oxco3il 2 p2r cent , us
sot forth In the subtrcasury plan of the
farmers alliance , or snmo hotter system.
It demanded the free and unlimited coinage
of silver , no that tbo amount of circulating
medium may bo speedily increased to not
less than $ , " > ( ) par capita ; n graduated Income
tax : that nil national and state revenues bo
limited to thnnoccssary expenses of the government -
ornmont , and that postal savings banks bo
established oy the government. Thd plat
form duclarod that land should not bo mono
polized for speculative purposes nnd alien
ownership of lands should be prohibited ; nil
lands now hold by railroads und other cor
porations in uxcnss of tholr actual needs , und
all kinds now owned by nitons should be re
claimed by the government nnd held for no-
tuul settlers only. It declared that the gov
ernment should oivn nnd operate railroads ,
telegraph und telephonesnml demanded that
the government i'.siio lognl tcndor nutos nnd
pay union soldiers the difference between the
prlco of depreciated inonoy In which they
were paid ami gold.
It is on this platform that the 1,770 dele
gates of the first national convention of the
people's parly of the United Stntos of
America uro now assembling in"Om ilia.
Marion Cannon , president of the Callfor-
foania Fanners Alllancn nnd Industrial
Union , was born in West Virginlallfty-sovon
years ago. His ancestors for three genera
tions were West Virginians. Ho wus edu
cated In u loc school house in that stuto , and
In the early 50's , when still n boy , ho crossed
the plains overland to California , driving un
ox team all the way. Ho hat resided In Cali
fornia slnco that time llrst in Nevada
county and afterwards In Ventura county ,
his present homo. Ho owns , occupies and
cultivates ono of the finest nnd most pro
ductive nineties in California. A natural
loader of men , ho has always boon prominent
In public affairs , but has always refused
oulco , except two years in Nevada county ,
when bo was induced by his neigh
bors to accept the position of county recorder.
Ho was elected president of the Aruntura
county farmers ullianco In July , 189J , und
wus unanimously chosen state president at
San Jose , and was unanimously rc-olcctod nt
Los Angeles In IS'.ll. Un possesses the con
fidence of the people of Colorado to n ro-
marltablo dogrco. He was. the first state
president of the furmors alliance to cotno out
boldly for independent political action , tak
ing the position that it is the only logical re
sult of the "Campaign of Education , " that
has been carried out by the ullianco from the
boglnning o ! the organization.
The general Interest in California is in the
construction of the canal , and President Can
non and the members of the nllianco arc in
favor of it ; but they opuoso the granting of
special priviiogos which would moku u few
Individuals millionaires , at the opunso of the
rest of the people.
Mr. Cannon cuino Into national notice ns
tpmporarv chulrman of the historic conven
tion of Fobiuury 22 , nt St. Louis. His
powerful , resonant voice , his prompt action ,
and bis familiarity with parliamentary usage
hold that iiroat body firmly to bublness.
lion. I , . I . l.UliiKKton.
If , ns Dr. Holmes says , "Llvo people nro
dnad people warmed over , " then Iloii. L. F.
Livingston is nn animate second edition of
Uicheliuu. A member from Georgia of tlio
lower house of the present congress , ho is
ono of its most conspicuous fiyuros.
It is n foregone conclusion , nt n convention ,
that Colonel Livingston will carry a point or
pass a measure which ho champions. After
the several orators have effervesced und hud
tholr way. Just nt the criticalclinching time ,
"Colonel Livingston of Georgia" will have
the lloor , nnd the outcome will generally bo
as ho desires.
But ho mot n Wutorloo nt St. Louis. Ho
was opposed to independent political action ,
and made n determined though unavailing
fight , but although defeated this modern
Klchoiiou was great to the last.
Colonel Livingston is of Scotch-Irish pa-
rontngo. Ho was born 1832 , in Nowtoncoun-
ty , Georgia , nnd received his education in
tbo common schools of his native countv. Ho
has always boon n farmer. For many'yoaps
ho was president of the Georgia Agricultural
society , nnd bubiequontly president of the
Georgia State alliance , which position ho
still holds. After his election to the presi
dency of the state furmors alliance , ho can-
vassoJ the state of Georgia for two years ,
addressing the people on the economic ques
tions affecting industrial classes. Ills dis
cussions were mainly devoted to the consid
eration or llnanco and taxation. This can
vass resulted in his present seat in the na
Colonel Livingston has served several
terms , both in the house nnd sonata of the
Georgia legislature , nnd was chairman of
thu commlttoo on agriculture in the house ,
und u moinbor of that committee in the sou-
KiniHtror Nlnliolui of ItlUHlil.
A writer in Longinivn'a Magn/.ino gives
graphic description of the Kmporor
Nicholas of Russia as ho appeared Borne
joura before the Crimean war , and of
his curious fancy for mashed bulls , at
which ho alone were no mask. In tlio
b.illroom of the palace at St. Peters
burg ho was wont to stand motionless ,
"towering above all , " as if waiting to
bo attiickod. This is quite correct , but
only to a certain oxtunt. At the
masquerades at the winter palace , the
czar , among all tlio guests , were no
musk ; but ho was accustomed to dis
guise himself very closely indeed when
ho attended , as ho was very fond of
doing , tlio bals masques at the opera
hotHo , whoro" lie would mingle in con
versation with the other maHkors , espe
cially with the ladies , and hoar very
often rather curious remarks about him
Tips for tln > lli-utiiil Torin.
Now York Herald : Heat your ice
water before drinking it.
Don't over oat. Shut up your liouso
Change your collars evor.v llftoon min
Send your wife and her mother to the
Don't got tight clothes.
If the night is cloao and hot olimb up
to the roof , but don't yield to the temp
tation to hang yourself by the clothesline -
If obliged to ride in a street car ride
Avoid all excitement. If a man tries
to talk politics to you knock him down.
Avoid over exertion , particularly
when the boss isn't looking.
Don't wear needless clothing simply
a-j a mutter of loolca You look llko a
boiled lobster anvhow.
Don't worry over what the poor will
do next winter. Suoscrlbo to the free
Chicago Herald : There are some exceed
ingly Interesting nnd oxcil.lng projpoois bo
fore the country If It should happen tbat the
people's purtv should put up popular and ao-
cuptablo candidates for the piosidonoy nnd
BUIII.IVOTOv'ta , April 1,1331.
Dr. J. II. Moore Dear Sir : Have boon
troubled with catarrh In my head mid faoo
for three yonrs-at times Ausunubloto hoar ,
had a constant ringing In my oari nnd for
two years wis almost duaf. Hnvo trlod ev-
oral so-called remedies and boon treated by
regular physicians and noted specialists , but
failed to got any relief. I trloa ono bottle of
Mooro's Tree of Llfo Catarrh Curo. It gave
immediate relief und uffoutnd a permanent
cure. I heartily recommend it to all sufferers -
ors of this disease and will cheerfully glvo
any further Information on being addressed
nt my homo , No. UZ1 Swoonoy nvo. , Hurllug-
011 , In. For sale by all druggists.
it. L. Uuiu.
GREAT FAJIlES ' OF HISTORY
Histirlo Djvxstatfoai bj Flojl and Dm1.
in B6rop3 and Asia
, f > . _
COMPARED WITH' HUSSIA'S ' AFFLICTION
Trunk ( 'urpc ntcr , T'rolitnry to Ills I'.nnttio
AH It-Ins for Tl'i'n Vine fro til tliol.iml of
the C/'ir , Ti'rtdVif ' tlio World' * ( Irim
Sliirvatlhrfc _ > r Wlior I ) iy .
Uy the time this letter Is published I will
bo in the heart of the famlno districts of Uus-
sia. 1 mall It as I start for the steamer which
Is to tnko mo to Hamburg. From th.-nco I
go direct to St. Petersburg , and by rail , stage
nnd droltzschkn will make mv way through
the country where It la said from : )0.0l)0,000 ) )
to 4UUOiOOJ ) of people nro starving , 'a ho
lamina will bo at Us highest from now on
until the harvest In August , and the crops
must bo very largo In order to prevent Its ex
tension on into the winter.Vithln the past
week I have spent some time In looklrg up
the great famines of the world , and I find
that this Russian famine Is ono of the most
torrlblo mankind has ever known.
There have boon slnco the world began ,150
mighty famines , each of which has killed
thousands nnd most of which hnvo carried off
people by the millions. The ncrlpturos sneak
of famines in the time of Abraham , and the
story of the "aovon yours * famine" which
prevailed when Joseph was secretary of
Pharaoh's treasury is a matter of biblical
history. Homo had tu famines hundreds of
years before Christ , nnd nbout ! ! 00 years
uftor Christ wheat was worth 400 nieces of
silver n bushel In Aiitioch , nnd nbout 100
years later parents were oatlng tholr children
lu Italy to koat ) themselves from starving.
Great Britain has had famines back to the
earliest of her records , anil about the time
that the Normans came over It is suid that
tli ere was such n famine over the northern
country that many of tlio inhabitants
sold themselves for slaves , and that
the flesh of horses , dogs , cats and rats bud
llxcd prices in tlio markets and some , it is
alleged , even ntn human llcsh. Twenty
thousand people starved in Uiondon during
the twelfth century , nnd in the times of
Queen Ellzuboth wheat was worth $3 n
bushel In London. Ireland has bud many
famlnns , nnd ovciy tlmu the potato crop fail's
there nro numbers of deaths I rom starvation.
Lo s tbun llftv years ago tbo great potato
funlino of 1815 took plnco , In which more
than n quarter of n million Irishmen came
over to America. This famine lusted moro
than six years nnd it reduced the population
of Irolund 2.50JOOJ.
.Soiiut ( JiiMit lailliiti und ClilnoHo 1'iiiiiliies.
India has ahvays been a land of famines.
Tlio people llvo from hand to mouth , and
they do not get fat even when tlio crops uro
pood. Tuoro nro more than 2. > 0UOOOlK ) i.eo-
l lo in India nnd nearly every your therb is
some part of Hindoostan which is moro or
loss uftected byvynntof food. Ono of the
biggest famines 'fit India was Just six yean
before our declaration of independence. At
that time mme than I ) , 1)00,000 ) people died for
want of food , und thu air wns so infected by
the smell of the dead bodies that it brought
disease ns well ns death. Whole villages
were depopulated.mil when the now cron
came on it had , in many cases no owi.or.
This famine was caused by drouth. Ton
years later India bad another grout famine
nnd when George Washington first took his
scut in the presidential chair people -
plo were killing und eating their
children in sonn ! parts of India , and
thousands were dying of famine. This tcr-
riblo famine was caused by an army of black
ants which swar.iu.od over the country and
destroyed the vogotatipn , und n few years
latsr un army u'of locusts came along , nnd
hojo were followed by a plague of rats
which altfup the' crops and nlmOstr attuckod
the people themselves. In IbiM n million and
u-half of people perished from famlno In
Bengal and nbout ton years later a famine In
Madras cost the English government some
thing llko ST > 0,000OOt ) .
It is much the same in China. The people
are so many that at the time of a great Hood
or a great drouth they die by millions. It is
estimated that batwcen 10,000,000 and 20.000-
000 people were wiped out oy tno ovorllow-
ina of the Yellow river homo years ago , nnd
in 1877 70.00J.OOO were suffering from famlno
und an appeal xvas made to England and
America for assistance. At this time women
nnd children were offered by their parents
for sale on tlio streets , and the price for a
married woman wns JJ ( nnd you could buy
n Uttlo girl for ? , ' . Many parents killed
their children rather than witness their pro
longed suffering , nnd the scenes of destitu
tion and starvation were terrible. It is the
same as the story of Ku.ssian famines , which
seem to have occurred at intervals baclt to
the beginning of history , nnd which promise ,
it is said , to continue In the future.
On-lit I'looiU and Drouths oT thu World ,
Ono of the great causes of famine In the
past has boeu Hoods.Vliether the deluge
covered the whole world or only n part of it ,
It certainly killed millions and It remained
upon the earth 150 days. England and Ire-
laud have had many Hoods which have
killed thousands , and the Inundations of Hol
land have several times nearly destroyed the
entire population. In 1874 the Hoods of tlio
Mississippi covered 250,000 acres of cotton ,
100,000 ncros of corn nnd . " 00,000 ncros of
sugar , and the rising of ono river In Franco
nbout tills sumo time caused n loss of $75,000-
000. Some of the Hoods of India hnvo carried
off men by the tuns of thousands , and in ono
inundation in Holland seventy- two towns
were destroyed , and 100,000 people perished.
Hundteds of famines liuvo been caused by
heat , and drouth has carrlod away millions' .
All of the eastern countries have been
affected by drouth , and nearly every year
sees nfiimino In some part of India. 'India
hns had thirty-four big famines in u century ,
but none of these famines has covered the
whole country , nnd had the moans of trans
portation been bolter there would have been
no need for loss of life. Such of the soil ns
is under Irrigation ahvays produces a crop ,
und the English government is now doing
what it can to increase the irrigated area.
and it has covered the country with u network -
work of rnlltouus. Otiu of the great troubles
nbout the fumlno in Russia Is thu dufculivo
transport. Thu railroads , whllo they run
between the large cities , nrc nevertheless
comparatively few , nnd It is not possible to
got the food ijuiculy tu the peoplo.
Australia is another country which has
boon troubled with drouth , and nearly
8 0,000,000 worth of shbop were lost through
luck of water in 1877 , In Now
South Wales. .J ififc about tbo same year
10,000,000 sheep \xvna Jrnt in the Australian
colonies and in South Africa , and about this
same time tucriMvnan period of distressing
drouth in the uWcd States.
The Kusslan firfmno of today was caused
by drouth. For lWlj months thosu Russlun
provinces had not'a drop of rain , nnd this
great hum had./bMii preceded bv terrible
frosty winds In the xpriug. All sorts of
grasses were bu i d ui > und withered by the
bout , nnd prairie rirrt , by the tons of thous
ands swept ovorthg. country und ute what
was loft. In addition to this there were
clouds of insects which cuino oy the millions ,
consuming otrurfthlug with which thuy came
In contact. Tlio devastation cannot bo con-
colvud , and li wllbo some years botoro
Uusslu can rccovor-from it ,
TiilliN M'i i hininniu . Ministers.
I doubt whollicr.aho people of the United
States buvo any udo < | uulo luea of thu itussm
of today. I huve' ' ' > khowii n number of the
ministers which wb have sent to that coun
try nnd I II nd that tholr Iduus of Russia and
the czar tire fur different from thosu of other
pooplo. I mut the other dny at Ddtroit ox-
Mlnlstur Lothrnp , who represented this
country ut St. Potorsburtr some years ago.
Mr. Loturop is ono of the most famous luw-
yor * ot thu north wait , und ho wus verv pop
ular In Husslu , Ho ix a man of pxtiuurd-
luary ubiliiy nnd grout culture , and during
hU stay ut St. Petersburg his daughter
married ono of the most noted of thu
Kusiiun barons. Wo have the Ideu Unit the
Russian puoplo r.ro oppressed by the czar
and that thuy look upon him ni a dosput und
u tyrant. Suld ox-Mlnistor Loturop to mt :
"T.Uo Rusolan people uro us loyal to tholr
ruler us are uny people of the world. They
ruvoronco tbo czar and look up to him , uud
thn masses consider him of a higher order of
creation than ibumiolvos. The czar has
boon much misrepresented. Ho U a con
scientious , Godfearing man and Is doing nil
bo can for his people , The Uunlau govern
ment , however , has to control moro than
100,000,000 of soul * . It U made up of many
diverse elements , nnd It has to hnvo n vnst
machinery und numerous officials to control
thoso. The emperor hns to Intrust his work
largely to subordlnatos. nnd though tbaso
nro on the nvcrngo ofllclont nnd honest there
are in Uussin , ns In the United States , some
who may not bo. Uussin Is to n Inrgo ox-
extent governed by the people , nnd It will bo
surprising to ninny to know that the Rus
sians hnvo civil rights to n larger extent
than most of the countries of the world. Ac
cording to the village system of Russia , the
villagers govern themselves. 'Ihoy elect
tholr own ofllcors with the exception of n
f w who nro appointed by the czur. They
make their own laws anil Ihoy nro nllowul to
do ns they plenso , where they do not como
Into contact , with the czar. They have tholr
own courts nnd they pass tholr own sentences -
toncos , now nnd then even to sending pris
oners to Siberia. The Russians nro doing n
great deal In relieving the distress of the
fimlno , nnu Russia is spending millions upon
millions of dollnM for this purposo. I don't
bollovo there is n moro courteous , kinder
nnd bettor people In the woild than the Rus
sians , and 1 consider tli urn ouo of the great
est nations in the world. "
r Smith on th Ititvslnu Timilno.
Hon. Charles Emory Smith , who has Just
returned from Russia , tinys thnt the Inmlnn
there will lust UD until Into In August nud
without the crops nro good it will probably
extend on Into the coming year. "Tho des
titution of the people is , " says ho , "Incon-
culvublo nnd n great part of tholr toss comes
from their stock. The famlno wns so ter
rible that the cutllo were carrlod oft by It
nnd tbo people hnvo nothing with which to
work their Holds. In snmo provinces moro
than half tno horses were killed , and these
thnt lived uro baggnrd nnd loan. A grunt
number of the cuttlo were either killed or
stnrvod to dcnth , nnd Inasmuch ns these are
lurgoly used fordrnuehtunlmals In Russia the
loss Is incalculable. " Minister Smith says
thnt the Russians hnvo given between
$7 : > ,000.000 und $100,000,000 to rcliovo the
famine und that they uro continuously send
ing food into the fnnnno districts. Mnnyof
the richest nnd noblest Indlos of Russia are
working among the starving , und they have
established soup kitchens und lood supply
points throughout the most severely
uilllctod districts. Mr. Smith says that the
Russians fool vorv kindly toward the
Amoi leans for the aid they hnvo sent thorn ,
nnd ho thinks the action lias brought the two
countries closer together A few days ngo I
callnd at the llusslau legation in Wnihinglcn
on Hon. Clmilos do Struvo , who has for
years represented Russln in the United
State , and ho told mo that Americans could
not npproeinto how kindly Russia felt townrd
them for their sympathy nnd aid in their
time of trouble , und It is .said tills feeling Is
current throughout the Russian empire nnd
hat its moral Iniluonco will bo very groa t.
A Talk with Cl.ini llarton.
It is well known thnt all the gifts of the
United Status hnvo boon through the Red
Cross society , with Miss Clara Uarton nt its
bond. How much these gifts amount to will
be surprising to the people. Already four
shiploads have boon sent , nnd thusu will
nvoragu nbout $100,000 ench in vuluo. Thn
lowu corn which loft on thoTynchcad loaded
that great ship down to the water and it will
bo of grout usu m the keeping nllvo of the
cattle. This Included 200 carloads of corn ,
and it came from lown alone. The mlllor.i ot
the northwest furnished u shipload of Hour
and the citizens of Philadelphia bought
fi.OOO barrels of Minneapolis flour and sent it
off. A great deal of inonoy hns boon con
tributed and much of this bus como from
liltlu children. Miss Barton tolls mo that
she received the other day SO'J , every cent ot
which was contributed by children'who had
worked for thu pennies or who hud denied
themselves some luxury in order to got them
for the Russians. Many children through
out the country have been allowed by their
parents n cent a meal for doing without
bultor or sugar , and some llttlo ones have
been paid by their parents n cent n dny for
doing curtnfn chorus , and it Is from such pen
nies that nnmlrous upon hundreds of dollars
have boon gathered together und huvo been
sent , to tno litllo children of Russia. The
other day a llttlo girl wns brought into thu
Rod Cross society rooms heto by her father.
Sbu had tightly cluspedm her hands 110 cents
which she said she wished to give to the
hungry little ones in Russia. SKo had
saved this und the giving of it was bur
own idea. Her father told her while she
was in thu roam that she need not glvo the
money unless she wished to. Ho said to her
that the Russian children would novcrknoiv
that the money came from her and explained -
plained tbat It would go into a general fund
nnd nu ono would know that she had any
thing to do with it. "But , " said the llttlo
girl , "the people will hnvo that much moro
to oat , won't they I" And when she wns
told yes , she gave the mouoy. Many in
stances huvo occurred hero nnd nil over the
country nnd the gifts in somu cases amount
to thousands of dollars. A few days ago a
lady bunded Miss Barton a slip of nnpor say
ing she wanted to give this to the Rod Cross
society but she did not wnnt her name con
nected with it. It was a check for 51,000.
How tin ; HIM ! Cross U'oika.
There Is no moro modest woman In the
United States than Miss Clara Barton. She
works very quietly , and to talk with horyou
would never imagine that she bad managed
some of the largest charitable efforts in Ihe
history of this generation. Sao is of nbout
medium height und weighs , I Judge , not over
125 pounds. She dresses In black nnd her
only jewelry is her round pin of wuitoonnuicl
with u red cross in the center at the neck ,
nnd below this n ureat pansy made of un
amethyst nnd presented to Miss Barton by
the grand duchess of BHtlon. Shu does not
court newspaper notoriety and her manners
in conversation uro ns quiet and simple us
thosu of uny mother in the country.
She makes you think more of n good mother
than of uny ono else and her uyes fill with
sympathetic tears us she discuss'es the woes
of tbo famlno or the sorrows of suffering hu
mnnity. She is a woman who loves her fellowman
lowman and who U endowed with a largo
amount of the practical ability of knowing
how to help them. She wns the first woman
nurse durlne thu latu war and she did gteat
good In the Fninco-Prus lun wnr among tlio
wounded , Sbo believes In doing good on n
largo scull * and she tells mo thnt the Red
Cross society devotes itself to a study of the
condition of the world , nnd wherever It llnds
that there Is wnnt , destitution and suffering
it considers it its duty to point out to the rest
of the people the fact. It does not stand before
fore the world as n beggar but us a great in
formation bureau which announces to the
people who have means whuio they
may have the privilege of giving
to help their fullnwmun. It also under
takes to forward Mich gifts to these who nro
in want , uud It devotes Itself to national ca-
lamltos ruthur than to individual onus.
"It is now moro than n year , " said Miss
Barton , "slnco wo saw the coining dungor In
Russia. Wo know that the famine was Immi
nent , but before wo went to work wo called
upon the Russian legation nnd asked as to-
thu situation and whether Russia would ace
cuut our holp. Wo were told there that the
reports had not been oxaggoruuid , nnd wo
found thnt 20,000,000 Russian peasants were
nfloctod by the fail uro of crops nnd that the
people wore living on roots und other rofusu
nnd that millloiiH were on the verge of star
vation. Wo organized our xvork ut onoo and
the result Is well known. Wo will bo send
ing over money und food from time to time ,
though wo may not send It in shiploads. Wo
nio receiving contributions daily nud wo nro
glud to forward all that is sent. "
Now York Sum Do ( lurry An long ns yon
ivu inunoy thu buiiimor Kill sticks to yon
llkn a hnithur.
Murrlltr-That'i so : and when the season Is
ovur Him Is no mom than a nKtcr to you.
Baby's ohouk It llko n poach ,
Is it Mndnmo Iluppert's bleach ?
' mama's choolt
No ! but baby's
Volumes to its pralso doth Hpealc !
Cull for Mmo. llupport's Look , "How to 1)0 Uonutl-
Is n whiskey smooth as cream , particularly
pleasant to the taste and guaranteed to bo
absolutely pure. IJy reason of its ago and
rich quality it is recommended by physi
cians to sufferers from lung diseases , heart
failure and weaknesssucceeding La Grippe.
It has no rival for sideboard use. You
may know it by its delicious flavor and the
proprietary bottle in which it is served.
Call for Cream J'ure Kyt and take no other.
For sale at all first-class drinking places
and drug stores.
ii DALLIJMAND & CO. , Chicago.
JHEYJYA5H THEIR CLOTHES
MADE ONLY BY
ABSOLUTELY PORE -
. . . . . .
F.F.JAQ.UEi R. CO. KANSAS CITY. MO.
Owing to the short space of
time given us by the Insurance - >
ance Companies to close out \
the stock of Clothing , Fur
nishing Goods. Hats , Caps ,
Boots and Shoes , slightly
damaged by SMOKE AND
WATER , we are obliged to
sell this entire stock at ri
In order to get these bar
gains you must call early
and get your choice.
1317 and 1319 Douglas Street.
Open Evenings until 9 o'clock.
COLLEGE OF THE SACRED HE
CONDUCTED UY TilE KAT1I Ha Oi'1 THE SOCIhTV OF JESUS
This iiitftltullon iillimU uvory fiu-ility fur ubt unliiK a thorough ,
Classical , Scientific and English Education.
KHnatetl on u bountiful knoll about llftemi i ilnutrs rldi ) by ulnutrlo llnti from Dunvor , It ro-
cohns the full nomi'llt of the huilihrul and llfii jrlvln IJICUZUK iliut . have madii Colorado , thu
Hiinllurlnin of the Unltuil btaloi Tim Kroumln . uivur un upland Ir.iut of llfiy auiim unit the
DiObliuut M onii uf I alien iind jnmmtiilm . and nuj.idowx Kijiediil attention . Hal von tu thu lihyul-
ual duvulonuinv nl uf thu Htnduuld. Uutaluunus hunt free un upjilluullou.
oupjr Entirely t'rtv , In I'Ulu ' oraled uirur. "A ri'fuyo from llJoqusckB. "
THE ERIE MEDICAL CO. , UUFFALO , N. V.