Omaha daily bee. (Omaha [Neb.]) 187?-1922, April 08, 1888, Part II, Page 15, Image 15

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The ; Gains to Labor From Strikes
Fur Outw6Igh the LOSSOB.
\ Comprehensive llcvlow of Ilio Im-
lior 1'roblrm by Commissioner
1'cok of New York StnllH-
tlcH and Deductions.
Tnbor Commissioner Chnrlc * P. Peck lias
Just'inilmiiUcd his /Ulh / nnnual report of the
bureau of statistics of labor to the Now
York legislature. Tha following Is a con
densed RUmmnry.
In the Introductory chapter the com-
inlsfiionor snys :
"A brief retrospect of the acs pnssod dur-
itiR thu one hundred nnd tenth session of the
k'Klalnturo of this state serves not only to sot
before us the amount of attention given to
the labor Interests durliiR the yenr 1 < * S7 , butte
to recall to us how much hnil been dona pre
"These acts Include laws , either original
Jr nmt'H'dvdfor ' , the arbitration of difference
between' ' employers nnd employes ; for co-
'opnrntlv'o Wings and Insurance funds ; for
public Industrial draxving schools , day or
evening ; for n , mechanics' wugollen ; for
Inspection unil supervision of tenements and
led 'inp houses ; for protection of women nnd
children employes ; for fruo libraries ; public
holiday and half-holldnys ; checking- compe
tition by convlct-uiudo needs ; for sccurlni ; to
workmen the ri ht to membership In labor
orKuliinitioiiB ; for extending nnd securing
liens for wages ; for regulating factories ; for
protecting "messenger boy1 morals ; for en
forcing the observance of the Sabbath ; for
limiting hours of labor on surface railroads ,
and for Bother related purposes ; at nil of
" '
which , It" Is unfo' to say , that a generation
npo there would have been an outcry nnd
protest for pernicious activity nnd interference
encexvlth , the sacred righU of cauital ,
niralusi which n man might not lift his hand
nnd IK'c.
"Somo of these nets are original ; others
lire amendments or extensions of laws pre
viously passedbut which on trial were found
not to work Mitlifiictorily. It goes almost , ,
without saying that mueh of this legislation
is tcntutlvn. It is plowing up now ground ,
nnd Is in many respects ngulnst thoti.ull-
tioits. It is to bo expected that blunders will
bo made , and that now and then persons
with 'axca to grind1 may misdirect the legislator
later enthusiastic In the cause of humanity
'J'hoso are , howovcr , trifles , nnd will settle
down with time. It is enough that the
npirit of tlio ago Is in favor of the worker
nnd that the laborer Is held worthy of some
thing in ore than his wages hire , inasmuch as
ho ! H also u vuluablu holpcr In the building
up and maintenance of society and its insti
"Hitherto the Inquiries of this bureau
liavo been detached , dealing with special
callings and their Incidents. This has been
in Homo measure from the necessity of the
case and the limits of our expenditure. In
homely language , 'tho coat hns been cut ac
cording to the cloth.1
"Myilrst report for 1S8.1 ! was necessarily
luief. It included the results of oil inquiry
into the prison contract labor system. The
report for 1881 included 1 An inquiry into
factory and child labor , with an appendix on
the maladies incident to trades. 2 , The gen
eral and trade education of factory law * in
various states of the union nnd in Great
lii-ituin. n. An account of a visit to the city
of Pullman , 111. , by the several state com
missioners of labor statistics.
"In my report for the yo.u1SS5 1 treated
the questions of woman and child labor , long
hours and thu homes of the working people ,
especially/ * , the tenement houses ; foreign
chonp Inbftr. strilfcs , boyeottlifg , labor organ
isations their uses and methods.
"Inmyrepoit for 1SSO 1 dealt wjth the
nubjeci of apprenticeship nnd the expediency
of making provision , social and legislative ,
for the continuation and succession of our
iiiitivo born artisans and skilled mechanics
n question which I regard more earnestly
than over , as of vital importance to our
country , nnd our institutions ; the immigra
tion of adult skilled labor into this country ,
Involving , us 1 believe , great and imminent
peril to our serial and commeicml relations ,
of which we have had nii > plo evidence during
the past year. As im aecompauimunt to the
uppunticeship chapter I presented a view of
manual training.
"I have heard from many quarters on the
subject and the chord struck in Albany vl-
biated iji the education boaid of Now York
city , winch determined to give manual train
ing a trial in some of tlio schools under their
contiol , with u view to extending its utiliza
tion if found satisfactory. Tlio strikes of
18i ( ! received attention , and were special sub
jects of Inquiry , especially the grrat street
< -nr strikes , the famous pigarmakors' strikes ,
the Tioy laundries Htriko and the knit goods
htrlke , affecting eighty-six factories and
Sl ! > ,0 0 bunds. ISesides those strikes , there
was a chapter of boycotts and the law of boy-
colt with tables of tlio strikes , numbers en
gaged and results.
"Tho report for the year 1837 treats of the
strikes , their causes and consequences.
"Thcru 1110 special articles on the coal nnd
longshoremen's strikes , which formed the
BUbjcct of legislative investigation.
' The trade disturbances of 1YJ7 , though
not so important asthose , of itrtil , Imvo been
quito numerous. Their cause and
consequences , huvo been very promi
nent subjects in compelling the at
tention winch labor intciests have iccoivud
In recent years.
' The result of btrikes , " says the commls-
Blonei , "is a most Important subject. Tlio
handicraftsman or laboier lives through his
wages. , No work , no wages. No wages , no
food , no lodging , either for himself or those
dependent on him. It must bo a great and
strong motive Indeed which impels a man to
huspend work and cut himself on * fiom
wages. Hu often makes n mistake , but ho Is
terribly in earnest. lie proves it by self-
BUiTitloo , thu slim-pest of faith and prin
ciple , If not of judgment and prudence. liven
when the striker geta assistance from his or
ganization , It is only a relief , not a wage , not
equal to lis ( iloeds , but only to help him tide
over obstacles and discomforts.
"Strikes hnvu helped to raise wages , to
Bbortin limirs , to improve the condition , not
6nly of the particular workmen who huvo
risen up in protest , but also of the masses.
AvsrJko { in 11 particular shop for roasonutilo
cuuso often wills in general Improvement.
Uakoh * huva reduced their hours fiom eigh.
toon.1 to about twelve. Thu nine-hour day is
cu0 to tha Htrilco system. Wages In whole
trades JmvoKonc up from 10 per cent to ai )
nor coi\t biiijaiiso the men In particular shops
have 'rtascrted themselves mid mndo gooc
their olulm to consideration , liven u 'lost'
ntrlko is not always n dead loss , It may carry
wjth it the promise pand potency of better
ment In some other way. Then tlia employer
docs not feel thu pinch of u strlku in his
own homo , his food , his clothes , as do
his workpeople ; but thu employer has hills
to meet , rout to pay , and other causes
for anxiety , and ho cannot bo indilfaient to n
Btuml still of u great business ; oven If a
Btriko bo unsuccessful , it brings to uilnd
that what has happened may happen uKuln ,
and may bo repeated with worse- effect ;
with the fear of another strike bufoi o his
eyes , thu task-master may fcul compelled to
do tardy Justice- , The majority of employers ,
to their honor bu it said , are m pleasant ro-
Intlons with tliclv workpeople. They arc
willing to [ iay what the trade will afford , as
they understand It , There is strong compe
tition between business men , whllo between
wugo-ouruers there is not much competition
except for the newcomers. A notable 're
sult' attained by strikes and organization is
n tendency to ostablWi llxcd rates from onu
season to another. One of the joints debated
and not yet settled , is whether the uniform
wages is to thu profit of the trained ant !
thoroughly competent .and reliable work
man. U la said that there is no law against
an employer paying u man extra for his ex
tra j-ood work , but it Is moio exact , perhaps ,
to say , that inch a man is always sure of em
ployment and guts his quoiii of the general
advancement. "
Commissioner I'eck says "that in the
Strike Ki'llef Fund , wo llnd a utroug ami in
teresting proof of tlm solidarity that exists
among the workuigmen. Unions not only
assist their own members , but they niaUu
loans and advances to each other Just ys
eruat capitalists in sjrcss of circumstances
Xro laid sometimes to do ; , thoqgh | > os3ibl )
capitalistic beneficence is less from sympa
thy thnn from mutuality In the presence of n
common flnngcr. The unions stand together
to defend n principle nnil mnko hoary sacri
fices for the cnuso.
"Tho vnluo and significance of tradoorpan-
zatlon to which the strike , ns the protest in
action , is the necessary accompaniment , nro
shown positively in the advancement of the
workinginan , negatively In the non-advance-
iientof the worklngwomnn. In the clear
Lrnde , In which the women nro paid the
satno rate of wages for the same class of
work , the women have been sharers In the
general Improvement resulting from com
bined nction. In tlio textile trntlcs , where
men nnd women stand on the same piano ,
they have got tliclr share ot such advance
ment as has resulted from general nction.
Kvcn In the subdivisions of the sewing In
dustries , where men and women work to
gether , tailors for instance , women get some
slmro of tlio general good , which , small as it
may be , is , nt jiny rote , equitable. Hut In
other Industries which nro given over to
women exclusively , and In which there Is no
organization , the wages are nt the lowest
notch und it is a ceaseless struggle against
Whether the strike should l > o an Incident
of our competitive system Is not \ \ orth argil-
Ing. It It with us , ana It has Its value , al
though tlio right of resistance or solf-asscr-
tlon may bd occasionally abused through
excess of zeal or personal ninbltlon.
"Kvory ono Is aw.irc that by the
Increaseor niuchlnu jxjwcr and
the progress of applied science ,
nn immense Increase of production has been
nclnovod In thin century to the great , gain In
the comforts of llfo for mankind at large.
UuL It is not frcuiuMlly known that by im
provements In lunch In ory and manufacturing
processes the increasivof production still
proceeds and , in a ratio , even surpassing that
which has heretofore been accomplished In
equal periods of timo. Thus it is alleged
that In Great Hrltnln alone , which may bo
said to bo wholly dependent on her com
merce , her manufactures'and her minerals ,
the of productions has , through me
chanical improvements , la some cases
amounted to ! 20 per eiMt In the Insist wo years.
I have no means of verifying such a broad
nllegiitlonuut , all who take note of the course
of trade , -uud mci'hanical enterprise must
know that prodigious strides have been
made In mnnufmiMu'od products even
within two years , and that the work still goes
on. Every day wo near or read of something
now In tha way of Invention or combination
by which the protlts of capital may hu In
creased and the use of human labor reduced.
In Much ease It is self-apparent that the
laborer stands -jUHtillcd In agitating for
shorter hours and bolter wages as his share
of the general-increment , nnd of course when
he lias won his better position ho must con
tinue to use all lawful and honorable means
to hold it.
"Conspiracy and combination to attain or
prevent n certain result are almost Inter
changeable terms , their differentiation being
found In the almost intangibly line hair of
'legality. ' Thus the laborers , who combine
to raise wages und to prevent certain persons
from carrying on business operations on
principles injurious to the interests of the
masses , would at first sight seem to bo on an
equal footing with the capitalists who enter
into combination5 ! , lor the purpose of main-
tainingor enhancing prices , or for tlio pur
pose of getting then- goods and commodities
at the least possible risk to themselves , nnd
crushjag out unreasonable demands of thu
"A section of this report has boon given tea
a careful and impartial analytic inquiry into
the history of combinations to maintain or
advance wage rates , and the oil in and con
dition of the law bearing on that subject.
The open or secret protest of the laboier in
support of what ho considers liis right to
fair subsistence out of the product of his
skill and energy is no modern idea , it is as
old ns history. The difference between the
present and the past is that formerly the
peasant and the workman had rccouiso to
violence and brute force , whcicas , in these
days they seek to effect the .betterment of
their condition by combination , or by refusal
to work , thereby keeping capital inert and
unproductive. The laborer's right to sell
his one commodity , skill nnd force , nt the
highest price in the best market , is freely
conceded by the capitalistic economist. Hut
it is not generally admitted that the laborois
have a Bright to unite and . -combine in such
mode as would coinpcl the capitalist to hire
labor at its own price. Labor has simply an
option to refuse to work and so to starve ;
imt it is not clear to what extent discontent
may go or nt what point lawful negation be
comes illegal action. On the other hand , it
would seem that the capitalists , employers or
producers , may not only lie idle , but may
enter into agicements with each other to restrict -
strict production , to raise or depiess prices
nnd to impose their law on the whole com
munity. This was not always the case ; it
was once accounted illegal to artitlcltilly
laiscor depress prices by concerted action ,
just us it "was accounted an offense to aiti-
ilcially raise wages , though they might be ,
niid often were , depressed by law. In these
latter days it would scum thnt labor and
capital should , bo equal before the law.
"Much changB has taken place within the
last two years in the manner of ordering and
rondni'tiag strikes. Many of the labor or-
Kani/ations huvo revised their inlcs govern
ing trade difficulties. This is made very
plain by nn examination of their constitution
and by-laws. Indeed , Homo of them have
gone so fur as to wholly rescind obstructive
rules , und insert provisions in their laws
which prevent the use of what they term
'shop calls,1 Formerly it was the custom to
stop work nnd consider th matter in dispute
during working hours. Now , when found
necessary to discuss a grievance , the subject
is postponed until after the Jay's work has
been performed , and sometimes the whole
matter is discussed outside of their shop al
together This has been a f i cquent cause of
annoyance to employes themselves , since
they hail to losu the time consumed in settling
thu matter in dispute. In shops whcro a
largo number of men are employed it will
readily he seen that oven half an hour taken
on" the individual worlcer's time-forum no in-
eonsidcriiplo tax upon the employer , nnd is
an unnecessary sacrltlco on the part of the
employe. These abuses do no exist in any
of thu old organisations , as provision Is madu
for such contingencies by the creation of
what are termed executive committees.
Whcro the latter do not exist It is the duty
of some paid ofllcial to reconcile ilKTuicnces
and prevent , as far us possible , the suspou-
of work.
"An attempt was made last year to pivo
the possible gains accraed bv strikers. The
figures furnished nt that time only had tofer-
eiico to strikes into which the question of
wages rutiirud , althougnall strikes indirectly
affect wages , but tho-data were very meager ,
unil as stated at the time , there was no at
tempt to cover the whole llnld. The trade
which furnished tlio largest result was that
of the carpeatois The gains accruing do
that trade are not to bo limited to the llguros
presented In last year's report , for it is uvi-
dcnt that the workers in that brunch of the
building Industry have kept on adding to
their account during the year 1H.S7 , no that in
order to give the strikers full cniht the
gams of Ibs7 should bo added to those of
l Stl. This applies also to the bricklayers ,
\ \ ho went on strilco fn 18S1 No strike of any
Importance N reported in that trade for the
iiast year , and yet they have continued work
ing at the advance seeum ! in lhV > . Thus
they alsa should bo credited with two years'
increase In their annual earnings. Tlio con
sideration of the subject In this phase will go
far towards excusing some of the seemingly
foolish strikes which It becomes the province
of the bureau tu nn ort , and would seem to
prove- the truth of the statement made by
members of the labor organisations that the
licnellts of a strike a HI not to bo measured by
the mere gam in wages for the time being
Indeed , many advocates of labor orgam/n
tlons go fuithor tnnn this and assert , ns be-
lore mentioned , that oven an unsuccessful
strilio is not n loss , since it prevents the pos
sibility of u reduction in the near future.
"From the tables of the building depart
ments of Now York und Hrooklyn , It is plain
to bo seen that the Improvement in working
hours nad workinginen's wages , which was
denounced by alarmists as likely to result ia
the Injury of trade , has not realized these
gloomy anticipations.
"A n-ferenco to tlio rciwrt of l&SA shows
that in New York city 8,0'JT buildings were
proposed , with estimated value $ V,0V(14S. ! | (
This numtHT was , for ten months , the leturn
being mndo up to. October ai-tqn months.
"The return for the year. November 1 ,
15 1 to October UI , 1S 7 , n New York city
shows 4,370 , with un estimated cost of ffiv
073,157. This Doing for the full year ( t I *
necessary to deduct two months of time and
ono-sixth of the cost to cnuuluo the period ,
the buildings mid Iho outlay , the result
"New buildings , 4J7ft ! , loss onosisthT0 ? ,
equals balance 3,047 , omitting fraction , esti-
tuatod coat frCsorJl57 les.3 otio-tixth , Icuvmj ?
,727C31 , , us the buildings nnd cost for ten
[ nonths of 1837 , showing over three millions
"In permits were granted from
November 1 , is fl , to October at , 19SJ , for
4.M'2 now buildings , nt n cost of 4M,007ftW.
"Tlio return used In our last rejwrtcovered
only ten months buildings 3.451 , value $10-
143,74' . ' .
"After deducting two months or one-sixth
time and one-sixth cost the \csult is 8,7in
buildings mid cost JlO.SOj.VM , showing nearly
six millions Increase.
"Thoso points may yet form nn interesting
topic for inquiry us illustrating the gains and
losses by strikes. In the two trades that
have been specially mentioned It will bo
found , by reference to the bureau icports
for the past two years , that the disbursed
cost of a strike , and even the grand total ,
Which Includes the loss of wages , bears but
n small propoitiou to the increase made and
nouns or i.Anon.
"Strikes for the regulation of hours of
labor during the past year have not been as
frequent as formerly. The collapse of the
nine hour movement in May , 1ST ) seems to
have had a deterring effect upon the move
ment and the attempts to reduce hours of
labor during the past year were contined to
special industries , nuch ns waiters and
bakers , with n few others. "
"Strikes as nn open cxpicssloa of discon
tent and n serious interruption to business ,
still continue to occupy a largo part of the
bureau's time nnd attention. The frequent
nnd protracted suspension of useful nnd
profitable labor is uscriOUs fact under ordin
ary conditions of trade , but the addition to
their number by the strike , as n measure for
redress of grievances o'r Increase- gain , Is
n very Important feature in modern labor
history. A strike implies strong sohsoot
trouble which cannot bo adjusted bycnlm
discussion and appeal to equity.
"If a strike succeeds it is quite certain
that war might have been avoided by timely
concession. It is not by any moans olcar
that the non-succcsa of a strllty proves U to
have been bused on Insulllelctit or unreason
able cause. It only cstnblfshes the
conclusion that it was hasty or ill-ad
vised. Young organizations are Anxious
to try their wings , and are apt to disregard
prudence ; old organizations , who have been
through the mill , adopt the strike only its an
extreme measure , after iiegotlotion and re
conciliation have been tried and have failed.
Any potty disagreement may seem , good
cuuso for making display of newly-acqulicd
power by the young organization , but tlio ex
perienced bodi is satisfied to threaten mid
take measures to make success certain. They
know the strike should not bo resorted to
except as a heroic remedy in nn extreme
case , where all palliatives have failed.
"The strikes for ISS7 Include 144 trades
and callings , against 197 in lfc > 0 ; the number
of shops on strike amounted to 1,001 , ngnlnst
'J.Otil shops in IbSti , Tins , however , does not
give an exact reflex of the work purformed
by the bureau in this direction , ns 2,2ii : labor
troubles were investigated. Many of these ,
upon inquiry and investigation , were found
to coma under the head of threatened strikes.
Others never got beyond n simple demand
for an advance or n mild protest ngalust a
reduction of wages. As n consequence , no
figures could bo obtained regarding them
and the facts are only stated to show the un-
deicurrent of dissatisfaction which is always
running , but owing to the lack of organisa
tion among the woikers in thu unskilled
trades in which most of these troubles occur ,
it lacks direction. These cases , however , re
quire us much work , and often more trouble'
some nnd expensive than real strikes , as
they require the presence of a special agent.
The returns for the past jcar show G'.M
strikes successful , UK ) compromised or partly
successful , throe doubtful , O ! ) . " ; unsuccessful
and twenty-two pending. Thu returns for
J,0i ! l shops reported on strike , during the
year Ibbti , show 751 successful , 1'JO compro
mised or partly successful , 21 i doubtful. 524
unsuccessful and 147 pending. The number
of workers engaged in strikes was 51,731 ;
from this number , however , must bo sub
traeted 1,005 workers , who were engaged in
what are termed "threatened strikes , "
where there is very slight , if any , suspension
of work. This would make the actual num
ber of strikes 50,7.20 , Eight thousand one
hundred nnd seventy-six strikers were re
fused work after strike. The loss of wages
incident to strikes was $3,013 , ' " ' . ) 4r . The
amount expended by labor organisations in
relief and conduct of strikes was ? )17,000 78.
Estimated gain in wages for one year to
11,472 persons , § 9 l4Oy-.53. Loss to employ
ers , $1,102,57070.
"For the year ISbO , the results were as
follows : Number of workcis engaged in
strikes , 127,302 , of whom O.JWlweie refused
work after strikes ; the loss of wages was
? J.rJ,5"vl Amount expended for iclief and
conduct of strikes by lauor oigani/ations was
W.i9,0 U. Estimated gam in wages in 771
shops , $1,420 , per annuam , benclitting
34S3'2 poisons. Loss to employers from all
causes , S1.H4M'2. (
' Of these figures , it may bo observed that
the 'loss to ' Is
employers' probably over
stated , if taken as an absolute , irrcovcrnblu
loss. Oftentimes the employer has set down
a "lost contract" as an item of damage by
reason of a strike. The only loss sustained
in such aeuse being really the loss of hoped-
for gains. Whore the strike for an advance
in wages is successful , it is clear that the
employer's loss could only bo upon contracts
already in progress and In which an increase
of outlay involves a corresponding dtcrcnso
of calculated prollts. Inasmuch , however , as
strikes for wages usually take place at the
beginning of thu business season , the em
ployer has to make Ins contract bids or
selling prices square with the altered condi
tions. When work is already begun ami a
demand for adVance Is sprung ujwn the em
ployer , It is not to bo denied that loss maybe
bo entailed : but this also follows on a rise in
the value of commodities or materials , due to
causes out-sido of the relation of employer
mid employed , and for which a man of prudence -
denco and foresight will have , made Ins cal
culations as one of the chances to which
every business transaction is liable.
"On the other side , under the head , 'Loss
of Wages , " It is well to remark that tills loss
is by no means absolute. It is possible that
the worker may bo entirely thrown out of oc
cupation and may have to subsist on savings
from the past or uu union allowances and
assistance from sympathl/ing fellow-work
ers. It very often happens , however , that
the strikers in one shop may get work In nn-
other shop In the very same city , much more
in other cities. Tins , therefore , may turn
out u change of employers rather than a loss
of wago-i ,
"To what extent a dearth of employment
has attended on a particular strike it lias not
ben passlblo to discover. In some trades
where the minor branches of a handicraft
are easily acnuiroil It has been a diversion of
trade from Hkillod to unskilled hands , the
unskilled soon picking up the wage-earning
aptitude. Again , almost every trade has Its
dull and Its busy season and "lojs of wagos"
may in that ease bu made up by piolongation
of thu season or by extra hours of work.
Sometimes , indeed , it happens the sea
son slips away ami nothing done , nnd then
the loss Is Irreparable
' The extent ami Importance of the strikes
of lbS7 have not bcun sogicatusthoHuof some
previous jears. The building trades nro
bound together by u communion of Interests ,
and are naturally sympathetic ; they are also
made up chiefly of tool-handlers and not of
machinoiy-hundlcrs ; their condition in any
season may bo accepted as an Indication of
the movements in all tuoconstruetivo trades.
The heaviest strikes m the building Interest
during the past year arc thee of the car
penters and franiers. They show lotah of
2.114 and l..Vsil , together fl.OOO men with loss
in wages of illi.lMi ) 31 , $2ft2iV 75 mid iRlHKI ,
to thu organizations , of which the strikers
were members. It will bo noted that the
buieau has introduced u column into tha
tables showing tlio annual gam In wuges re
sulting from the present sacnllco of
leadv mouoy , by which , if individuals lose , it
is for the eventual good of the trade. In
these cases tlio loss In wanes , etc. , has re
sulted in a prospective annual gain of f3 < M-
cu'SEs AND iiEfi/ra OF STHIKKS.
"Tho causes and icsults of Btrikes , " re
marks Commissioner 1'cck , "area vitally im
ixmuut detail of information , setting forth
In brief the matters in difference between
the parties to flu wage contract The causes
are various. They nro either augrcssivo or
defensive , but they go to show the houiogcn-
cousncss of Ideas In thu several trades , and
unity of principal of action. The causes of
strikes are either to trade usagis ,
to increase wages , or to protect against neg
lect and arbitrary infraction of recognized
rules ; sometimes a strike is the overt expres
sion of disapproval against objectionable per
sons or practices in a shop Sometimes a
strike may bo for more than one. cause.
' The most notable causes nro for incroasa
of waeesor against reduction of wages ; for
the reduction , of hours and regulation of
shoi ) usa,5vs uro imiwrtant to the worker ,
while iniiistanco on the employment of union
man und objection to non-unionists concern
the integrity of the associative pnucrplus.
Whllo the nut < ib r of strikes , merely "to as
sist other traf Hf In their troublesnttcsts Iho
solidarity of tnc workers.
"Tlio causes ns returned by answers arc !
Abolition of piece work , 2 ; change of pay
day , : i ; disiWiJgo t > f union men , U ; ills-
chaigoof cninloics 5 ; discharge of foreman ,
2 ; employment of non-union men , 113 ;
equalization of wages , 3 ; Increase of hours ,
! t ; Increase of wages , 400 ; Increase of wages
and alwlltloiPontayment In saloons. 1'2 ; In
crease of wages and reduction of hours , 6V
increase of wages nnd union rules , 41 ; In
crease of wntoJQcte. , 15 ; miscellaneous , Rl ;
noli paymenUi'ifoWages , 12 , number of ap
prentices , lee , objectionable employes , 2 ;
obnoxious flrtMJ'0-obn&xious ' ; foreman , 7 ;
obnoxious rujlu. < H15 ; opposed to contract sys
tem , ' 2 ; opposed to Saturday night work , 3 ;
opposed to use of wheel-barrows. 2 ; reduc-
ductlon of hours , 15S ; reduction of wages , 20 ;
refusal to handle boycotted coal. 59 ; refusal
to handle boycotted coal nnd freight. 81 ; re
fusal to handle boycotted freight , 2o ; refusal
to handle boycotted pnttcrns , 18 , refusal to
handle non-union material , 3 ; refusal to
recognize Knights of Labor , 12 ; refusal to
recognize Knights of Labor rules , 0 ; refusal
to rcco sn/o ! union rules. b9 ; refusal to recog
nize union rules relative to hours of labor ,
21) ) : rival labor organizations , b ; Saturday
half-holiday , 23 ; to assist other trades , 143 ;
use of machinery , 4.
MOPE or stviTMntr.KT.
"Tho bitterest quarrel must have its end ,
nnd It Is well to know for future guidance
what the end has been. Of the number of
strikes reported 'ind Investigated it Is found
thnt WO were "abandoned. " U'hls nlmdst im
plies that they were hastily entered upon ,
without dire consideration as to the final
chances of success. The lack of satisfactory *
results docs not however , conclusively estab
lish tlio improvidence or precipitancy o.f the
strike It may have been undertaken when
employers are strong and united , us in the
silversmiths , nnd where the public customers
nro willing to wait , and so competition is uot
feared. The onuso may seem stronger and
better founded than it really Is. In short.
strikes , like other enterprises of fniMi und
moment , nro not to bo gauged only by their ,
successful issues. The moles of sottlcmeut ,
nre the familiar ones of arbitration , porsbnal
conciliation between parties engaged , or con
ciliation through lubororganizations. The full
figures are ns follows :
"Arbitration , 0 ; 1 by the state board of
mediation nnd arbitration , mid 5 by the mayor
of Rochester ; conciliation , 21 , conciliation
with employes , 121 ; conciliation with labor
organ i/atioiifl , ( Hi ? ; no foimal settlement , 62 ;
abandoned , ( KM , blank 41. The figures for
10 were : Aibitratlon , U 9 establishments
engaged In general strike , nnd I shop strike
by stnto board of arbitration , nnd 1 by state
railroad commissioners ; conciliation , 219 ;
conciliation with employes , 81 ; conciliation
with labor organizations , 83'2 ; no format set
tlements , 20 ; abandoned , 430 ; blank , HSU.
wvnns nnronn AND AI-TRU SIIHKIH.
"Tho wnge-rato is by far the most frequent
cause of strikes , although , as wo know , not
HID only ono. In needless to dwell hero on
tlio importance of thu wage-rato to the work-
ingman. The proposition is a common place
truism. When the employer gives into nn
increase of wages , under the pressure of n
sli ike , It is self-evident that ho might hnvo
done so on the llrst request , as If only n matter -
tor of policy. One fact not recorded in this
table is worthy of comment , viz : That the
advanced rate continues for an indefinite
period , say until a monetary crisis or some
other derangement of business relations.
Some economists are of the opinion that
there is a general' ' tendency in the rate of
wages , as with the rate of interest , to de
cline. Whether this bo so or not , It Is cer
tain that on , tha first symptom of falling
trado. the producer cuts wages just as ho cuts
any other IniBfnoss expense , and that wages
put down have atcndency to stay down. It
is proverbial that wages are the llrst element
to fall , mid -the last to rise in hard times.
This has been shown over and ever ucain ,
especially In the production of great staples.
Hy the influence of organization , the rise in
wages may also.ljo looked upon as a pcr-
innncnt , not n , transient gain. Moreover ,
there is a solidarity in the trades , and rates
in one locality affect these In surrounding
districts. The ratio of advnece is naturally
variable In the trades , but one trade
( the bakers ) may be adduced ns an example
of conspicuous gam ; gam , too , that seems
likely to bo rrtaJuod , for with the wuires go
the hours , aud a general improvement of
working conditions.
"In tlio building trades , n slight advance is
recorded in the case of carpenters. An im- advance is that of tlio hod carriers ,
which seems ] ut , for though rude labor , it
requires the skill that comes from practice ,
and is moreover , exposed to the stoppages
incident to opcn-mr constructive work.
"The horseshoois , entirely Hunted to man
ual labor , have secured an important ad
"Tlio longshoremen , whose labor , althouirh
rude , implies a good deal of skill in the hand
ling of hcavv pickages ( indeed all labor ,
even the roughest , implies skill ) , have suc
ceeded in obtaining a partial advance in
night work. This trade , which is almost al
ways irregular , dependent on t lie arrival of
vessels , is ono of those in which the seeming
liberality of pay , bv the hour or the day ,
does not indicate the week's earnings. There
are a great many hours wasted in waiting
for u job.
"During the year ending November 1.
1SS7 , the number of establishments reported
as affected by strikes relating to wages was
1,124. In 394 the employes secured nn in
crease , fifty reported a decrease and ( HX )
stated that there was no change. For the
year ISbO the report was : Number of estab
lishments nfliected , 091 , ot which 590 ob
tained an incrense.lifteen suffered a decrease
and 14(1 ( reported that there was no change
from previous year.
nouns itBroitn AJ.M > AI-TEU BTUIKRS.
"Ono of the salient topics of modern trade
agitation is the length of the working day.
Many workers can recall the time when , m
most trades , twelve hours was n short duj\
U till ( i , while in very many others fifteen
hours was not enough to satisfy the cupidity
of capital , and in some there were no hours
nt nil work begun must be finished. In two
or three trades ( bakers , barbers and waiters ,
for instance , ) there nro still some specimens
extant of this last mid worst position , but
happily they are dying out.
"Short hojrshave been the ground of sharp
contest in hitter years , nnd in most construc
tive trades nine or ten hours are an estab
lished rule , although the agitation has not
quito subsided , mid in trades whcro machin
ery has to bo tended as In the grout industrial
operations , thd shifts are apt to hu uncertain ,
perhaps necessarily. In the bakers' trade
great piogresshas been made. Out of iKKI
inquiries regmdlng strikes , in which the
question of hours of labor was Involved in
that number of establishments , 733 rejwit no
further change this year , whllo 131 report a
decrease and 22 report an incieaso either to
the normal standard or under special condi
tions. One hundred and eighty ono persons
obtained employment through the reduction
of hours. In the year IhMi , out of 25(1 ( strikes
for reduction of hours , 74 weru successful
and IW were lost. Ono thousand mid clxhty-
three additional persons employ
ment through the .successful strikes. The
great diffeienW 'between the figures of ISsil
and lbs.7 m'o ' drfe to the factjthat in the
former yearlti'lkcs for shorter hours were
morrt frequeilfaad of greater proportion than
In the latter iioi | ) | , Tins is especially true of
the building K.IIJC.S ' " Now York mid Hrook , in which , largo numbers of men are em
ployed. \ , -f
"Tho syinpaiMt'tlc. strike is a topic often
mentioned in'lhoVonrso of this inquiry. Its
motives are Mrtftia in their specific charac
ter , but may bo summed up in Hit ) ono gen
eral proposition rif an interest oimnion to all
wage earners ; Juat as all meichants may
have a eomuiou interest in some principle ,
und HO give tud < yil | comfort to a particular
Individual wno'rs engaged in something that
touches the general weal , for cxmnpl ' , a dispute -
puto with thu collector of customs or internal
revenue. i v
'Tho strike tokxssist another trade , ns it is
termed , may bu predicted on any cause , oven
in sympathy with what seems u case ot injus
tice. though that is rare Generally it may
bo presumed that there is soiuo community
of Interest between the parties What hurts
A may thus react on / . Thu modus operand !
IB frequently that If various trades are en
gaged In u common business , say in building
thu men in ono trade strike on a specific
gnoyauoo confined at first to their own call
ing , and then the others Join in to sustain a
general principle. This , of course , puts u
pressure on the employer , who might other
wise have been ublo to get rid of the inUivid
uul strikers' demand.
"Theso sympathetic strikes form a very
ini | > ortmit item in the general account. The
total loss In wages being g)7,5'J.GO ) , while the
losj to employers Is placed nt $30,090. An
other instance of the 'solidarity' of the
worklngmen , Whether the loss to em
ployers vrtis absolute or rtilatlvo , there ore no
means of knowinglhe loss ofa day to a
mechanic. U for lud time buiag absolute. U
is nt best art Investment for possible future
"The following show the results in detail :
Number of persons engaged , r > , 220 ; number
losing positions , < V , " > 0 ; successful , S3 ; compro
mised or partly successful , 0 ; unsuccessful ,
SOjMoubtful , 2 ; pending , ! . Total number
of establishments rtffceUjd. 143.
"For the year 1S $ , the results were ns fol
lows : Number of persons engaged , HV.HVi ;
number who lost positions , 223 ; loss in wages
8,737 ; loss to employers , $12,125 ; success
ful , 22 ; compromised or partly successful , 4 ;
unsuccessful , 39 ; doubtful , 23 , pending , 8.
Total number of establishment * affected , 90. "
"Tho threatened strike , " remarks the
commissioner , "la often ns effective ns the
actual strike. Indeed , whore the employer
refuses to concede reasonable demands and
so avoid n strike , It is mostly becnuso ho dcfos
not believe In the strength or persistence of
the employes to enforce their demands. In
ono trade , the bakers , as elsewhere told , the
workmen did not feel justified In making
open demand for redress of grievances , nnd
so adopted the threatened strike system ,
breaking out In spots nnd earning wages
while they sustained the few men on striko.
The causes of threatened strikes , as will bo
seen , are the same ns these ot actual strikes.
"It need scarcely bo said thnt employers
show a. wlso discretion In avoiding tno consummation -
summation of a threatened strike , where the
employes nro numerous niut have the power
ot acting simultaneously , ns in the case of
the 'ear employes , ' whoso strike is n great
public 'inconvenience.
"Total number of threatened strikes sov-
cnty-one , involving 1,005 employes. In flfty-
llve cases they were successful , fifteen were , mid ono case was compro
mised. The number in ISM ; was fifty-seven ,
resulting as follows : Successful , twenty-
eight' compromised , eight ; unsuccessful ,
ten , und I.U.VCH not reported. "
WAOES 1.03T.
"Th < J 'wages lost' or saonllcod by employes
In their effort to secure a redress of their
grolvmices or n betterment of their position
Fu'hny way , must bo accepted as at least con
clusive of their earnestness. The sacrifice
is enormous. It Is n present nnd renl loss
nnd inconvenience for n future mid doubtful
good. When the sacrifice Is for gain In
money returns it is , in a measure , a mercan
tile transaction ; nn outlay from which a
gainful return is expected , liven in thnt ,
cnso. however , the risk nnd loss are not nil
incurred for the Individual striker's own nd-
vantmo oule , for it onures to the general
good or all concerned in the trade , wherever
located. Tlio men engaged in the strike ,
who make the sacrifice , nro not necessarily
beneficiaries. Moneys In hand , the savings
of labor , mo Voluntary paid out for n possi
ble fiituio good to the whole calling. Pres
ent earnings are refused , present privations
incurred , by comparatively few , iu the hope
of n future good for the many. Forty thou
sand three hundred and forty-six wago-
earners , in 5)9 ) $ establishments , voluntarily
deprive themselves of $2,01822',45. ' ) mi nvor-
ngo of 4' ' ) 00 each , computed from the begin
ning to the close of the strike , besides which
OtM make norepoit , of whom it is perfectly
permissible to bellovo that they also had
their hhuro of present sacrifice , though the
amount' for reasons unexplained , is not
given. In the year 18SO reports were re
ceived from ninety trades or callings , show
ing a loss of wages amounting to ? 2,53Srr .
Forty-seven trades made no report on the
subject. It inustbeborno in mind that this
self-taxation for n principle is quite volun
tary. It Is not the taxation by n govern
ment , imposed by a central power it Is n
personal operation in which every individual
can , mid if he pleases , does have his say. It
may not always be a work of wisdom , but it
is proof of terrible earnestness , and when
the loss is Incurred in what Is called the
'sympathetic' strike , it is a proof of unself
ishness and the sense of special interest in
the general welfare.
' 'The memoirs of the several strike move
ments show the particular causes for which
these sacrifices were incuned. Hero it is
only necessary to call attention to the outlay
mid to say thnt the cnuscs are as often mat
ters of principle as of gain , Regulations as
to apprentices , for instance , nro more a ques
tion of principle affecting the future condi
tion of a trade than the wages or gains of the
present generation of workers. The brass-
workers' great sacrifice hinged mainly on the
Saturday half-holiday , a question of general
good. The longshoremen's strike originated
in sympathy with the grievances of laborers
6utsido of this state , nnd was finally carried
on to enforce what seemed to them the just
claims of local labor.
"It is only to bo rogrctto 1 that the leaders
and advisers in these acts cot solf-sacrillco
huvo not always been the right men in the
right places.
NtMitr.u ur.rcsni ) WORK Arrmi srniurs.
"In almost every strike , some persons , per
haps , on account of pernicious activity , suffer
for the general good. This is especially ob
servable m the case of 'unsuccessful' strikes.
Tliis table give the detail of workers who
have lost employment on account of their par
ticipation in strike movements. Ninety-live
trades or callings report that 8,170 persons
lost positions ; 19 trades do not report on this
subject. For the year 1SSO , 7(5 ( trades or call
ings reported that 0,1)91 ) persons wci o refused
work alter strikes , nnd 01 trades failed to re
port. "
"Self sacrifice is the most critical conjunc
tures accepted ns a proof of sincerity. With
thnt as n test , It cannot bo questioned thnt
the laborer Is in earnest when ho enters on a
strike to enforce his view of right. The re
fusal to work under conditions which ho
thinks unfair to himself or Ills fellows , is a
cogent proof of his sincerity and determina
tion to defend his own rights or to help in
asserting these of others. It is easy for ti
looker-on , or even for the employer , to con
demn the laborer for throwing awny his liv
ing in order to fight u battle in which victory
is not always on the side of the right , nnd by
winch ho must in any case suffer great pre
sent inconvenience for an uncertain future
"Tlio amount of the laborer's direct loss
has been shown in the summary 'loss of
waes , ' but the loss does not end there. The
'labor organizations , ' foimed to maintain and
enforce the laborers' rights , have also then-
losses and sacrifices for the common good.
"T his table shows at n glance the total
loss incurred by fifty-nine organi/atlons ,
which have been on strike during the past
year. The total cost amounted to $217.009 78.
The details are found under the several trade
titles. For the year 18M1 , forty eight trades
reported as to cost of strikes $329OiO.
In this table Commissioner Peck shows
'tho estimated annual gains In wages in the
sevei Ul trades in which Increase of wages
was the main purpose of the striko. The cost
of tlio strikes to attain their object can bo
found in another table. The totals in this
case show from fifty-one trades engaged , the
results : being that 11,112 received tin annual
increase of t944,0l2.55 ! , or fSs'i each.
"During the year lb" > 0 the totals of forty
five trades were that 31,81)2 ) persons received
an increase of $ l4'2UbS5 { , or ? . ! ) each ,
" .Strikes for the snmo canso were reported
In Ihu pivvious year , and It is only reason
able to suppose that the strikes were for the
purpose of following up the advantages
gained , and that these who hud not already
profited by the rite were seeking to equalize
up ,
"Tho 'wages' rate Is the most important of
nil questions to the workingmun , mid it is the
first and greatest cause of organization. Nor
is the benefit resulting from agitation tem
porary in character ; wages nro maintained
for years unless in case of trade or money
crisis , when there Is n general decline in
value by which the wage earner is the speedy
sufferer with not n-iouttly a very slow return
The results hero shown , although fuw in
comparison with the mass of wage-earners ,
may bo accepted us typical , except that the
great city of is'ow York takes the lead as
the class uf work done and thu abundance of
"Hosldes , n few strikes took place In what
are known as 'piece1 trades. They proved
successful , but it was found impossible to
make any estimate of the gaintotho strikers
It must ho borne in mind that strikes'against
the employment of non union men , ' und several
oral of thu other causes enumerated , are uf
tor all only an attempt to preserve what Is
called tho-union soilo , ' us the table giving
the wages before and after the stnUo will
show that the non-strikers scale is lower than
the demand nude by tha labor organuatiomi
If a firm is permitted by tlio organization to
employ nun union nun or violate union rules
or shop regulations , it will only bu a question
of time when all working in thu shop will bu
forced to wurk for thu lower or non-union
rate , and this wdl sp > e.ul to thu entire trado.
ThU may not be true of the now organizations
tions- which otrike for causes that are trivial ,
put H h ubso.utely true of older organize
tions , which regard every inffiiu'eiuent of
rules or customs as Vndms to eventually re
duce the rate of wages. Hence the persist
ence und viuor with Which u strike appar
ently unimportant iu itself , buv really of
grave moment to the trade In general , Is
imshod. "
tiKrtmi , or COXTIUCTS VNH THIS umns.
The questions cover the whole number of
trades , nnd involve all transactions In the
class of 'futures,1 A feature of the replies
would naturally bo the number of negatives ,
Very many trades work from day to day for
Immediate delivery nnd ' '
consumption , 'spot'
transactions , ns it woro. The building trade
must bo In the nnturo of work for a future also with many manufacturing trades
In which goods nro mnde to bo held over and
delivered as called for or according to con
"Tho totals of answers from nil classes of
labor employers amount to 1,211 , out of 1,001.
of which 323 indicated thnt contracts had
been refused by reason of labor troubles ,
whllo 405 having had no strikes had given no
refusals , nt least not on strike grounds.
"The other inquiry , 'loss by refusal of con
tracts1 remarks the commissioner , "in
volves a llttlo moro critical examination. It
is assumed , by the employer making the re
turn , that his undertaking would surely have
returned n profit Thnt is the object of all
business nnd the speclllo "purpose In the par
ticular transaction. Putting aside the obvi
ous contingency , that the contract , i f under
taken , might have turned out n loss , partial
or total , wo will accept the reasonable proba
bility with which eVery man undertakes n
trtido , that will turn out fairly well , In which
cnse it onlj' rOmnlns'to add thnt there Is rea
son to fear the trader may Imvo occasionally
returned the gross sum us n loss in place of
returning the prollts lost by his being prevented -
vented from entering on the transaction. A
small , careless calculator will perhaps say
Unit ho lost f 1.09J , when the whole Intended
transaction only amounted to $1,000 ; whereas
the careful mint will sty ; thnt ho missed a
deal by which out of $1,000 ho might have
netted $200 profit. Subject to this comment ,
it appears that IM firms mndo $217,202 loss
by their abandoned contracts , while 181 pre
ferred to.mako no estimate of their mlsgalns.
In the year 1SSO the Wsa from refusal of con
tracts was rciwrted by 147 firms ntfi OJ,52'2. "
Nt/MltHll / -.ST\llllSIlMr.NT9 | CI.OSHI ) .
"This Is n most important summary , and
presents at a glance the suspension of m-
dustriss which takes place as mi accompani
ment to the strikes. If the policy nnd right
reason of a strike are determined by the cir
cumstances , it is also self evident that the
policy of resistance to n strike Is open to the
logic of facts mid conditions , Thu strike Is
industrial war , nnd like other wnrs , is bettor
avoided by wlso ooncossion than precipitated
by rashness or obstinacy. The closing , or
even the temporary suspension of u business
establishment is u public as well as personal
loss. The fact that 035 establishments closed
mid seventy-three partly closed , out of the
whole number Investigated , should bo it sharp
lesson to both parties in these issues. In
the year ISM ) there weie 572 establishments
reported closed.
"In speaking of discrimination against
members of labor organizations the commis
sioner says , "that when nn employer turns
off mi employe for a cause that affects the
body of employes , und not for a cause per
sonal , such as dishonesty or incompeteucy , It
is looked on us an act of oppression , and the
shop rises in his dofenso. The individual
mtiypcihaps have been active in promoting
union interests , and so hnvo become obnox
ious to nn employer. In thnt case his fellow-
laborers rlso up In his defense. It may so
appear that an employer or his forman as
signs a false cause for his dismissal , the real
cause being that ho is too earnest n unionist.
This is called unjust "discrimination" mid
leads to strikes. The results huvo not been
very conclusive ; 8 U have denied the impeach ;
mont , 831 have made no answer to the in
quiry form , 310 no strike was answered , and
in 171 the factof discrimination was estab
lished. The results In IS'iO wore as follows :
152 firms reported that they did discriminate ,
1,118 reported no discrimination , nnd 7b7 es
tablishments made no report on this sub
nucAcncs OF Titnrr.\ct : AVP AIIIIUST < I ,
"A satisfactory feature in our modern
labor troubles is their avoldnnco of serious
crime a great contrast to the annuls of years
ago , particularly in other countries when
labor disagreements were accompanied by
riot and bloodshed. The arrests reported
this year only amount to forty-eight for tri
vial causes , such ns distributing bo.\ cot cir
culars , disorderly conduct , obstructing the
sidewalk , etc- ; the lines and penalties , whore
Imposed , being equally trivial. Only ono
case of actual violence was reported , which
was followed by conviction mid three years
of state prison. Whether this arose out of
the strike , or whether a case of previous
animosity is not known. The total number
of arrests in ISb'l ' was 371. 2IS for assault , 10
disorderly conduct , 1 for firing off a pistol , 35
for boycotting , $ for conspiracy , 3 for black
mail , and 110 for various causes
Two 7-room houses near corner of Hamilton
and Kurcka Btroiits. I'lnished In class
style , for f 1,100 each. All agents allowed ft com
mission. Small payment down , balance on easy
terms. Will lent for J18 per month. Inqulie
of n. o MIKKIIU :
Continctor , Walnut II111
The best and snreat Remedy for Care of
all diseases caused by any derangement cf
tbo Liver , Kidneys , Stomach and Uowelfl.
Dynpcpsla , Sick Ileadachu , Constipation ,
Bilious Complaints and Htlnrianf all kinds
yield readily to the l > eneflcent Influence of
It la pleasant to the taste , tones np the
system , rtxtorea and preserve * health.
It la purely Vegetable , end cannot fall to
prove bcncQclttl , both to old and young.
A a Dlood Purifier It U imperlor tu nil
others. Sold everywhere at $1,00 a bottle.
Proprietor Omaha Butlnett College ,
Book-Keeping , Penmansliip
Commercial Law , Shorthand , Telegraphing
nnd Typewriting.
Cend for wi'ilccc 6ur/i r.
S E. Cor lOtb nud-Capitol Avenue
How cm
wo nccouilt
foe the pc.r-
v orally ol
huintln na
tnroV Why
Will ft U1\U (
sit In tor
ture rather
than stand
straight nnd
nt oasor1 The
ninn , snvo the
Uitjnmrk , will sit down
on n tack or a crooked
.Jpln , and leap as If
jdyntimllo hnd cxplod-
L d under his chair. ThU Vlsitnifon
would bo only a prick like a lloiv-blto ,
uiil yet ho slta for days lii tHe tofntdnt
of chronic piling. The person so attacked
resolves to put oil , nnd postpones vary
often until too Into. Then ho llndi big
disease developed Into an Inllnnnrmtory
stage , or into a dangerous typo 6f n
worse malady. There is } a rouiedy ho
should Icnow , that does not temporize
with nny thing In the nature of palui butte
ijooH to work on a straight job , ueiivchea
out the pain-spot , and gets there yrlth-
out faltering and without ( niluro. vior
instance : % "J1ou yoilvs n"d , " PM'9 ? ! '
Joachim Will , Mvunutcm , Ills. ,
11,1887 , " ! snlTorod with rheumatism ,
which nhtcod mo in hod ; used St. Jheoba
Oil mm was cured ; no return of pain. "
Mr. II. Carl , 1W ! Fourth street. Tr6y ,
N. Y. , writes March 12 , 1B87 : "A\ \ > out
nine years ago my pen wan aflllctcd with
rheumatism. Ho u od St. Jacobs. Oil ,
about four bottles and was cured ; him had
no pains since. " Mr. ft. Jl. Mooro.
Pali-Hold , Ohio , writes Kobnmry 22 , 18S7 , I
[ Ills original statement was dated 1880) ) :
"Iltid , as stated , a very severe attack of
rheumatism ; used St. .Incoba Oil and it
oil red mo completely ; no return of pain
since. " Mr. Joseph Kapfoi1 , Mohawk
Hill. Lewis county , N. Y. , writes Maroh ,
1887 ( his original statement was In 188 ) :
"I sulTcrcd at times from rheumatic
pains ; ut > od one boltlo of St. Jacobs Oil
and was permanently cured. " Mrs.
.lulia Kennedy , Miauus , Cpnn. , February
20. 1887 ( origi'nal statement 18813) ) , writes :
"Ifor a long period I sulToroU with rheumatism -
matism ; tried many remedies , no roUof ;
tried St. Jacobs Oil ; ollccts wore magical ,
and was cured ; no i-otu'rn of pain. " "Mr.
.John V. Schult'IJloomlngton , Ills. ,
April 8 , 1887 , writes that ho suffered
three years with rheumatism in hia
limbs , stitches in his side and paralysis.
Found no relief till ho used St. Jacobs
Oil. Ono bottle cured all pain , and ho
had no return. Mr. Ira Brown , Private
Banker , 'Chicago , Ills. , April 8 , 1887 ,
writes : "Lay Hat on my back three
months ; used St. Jacobs Oil and was
cured ; nevtr been troubled since. "
These examples show how to got the
right thing , 10 do the right thing at
the right time and in the right way.
boa TRIFLED awny hit VIOOH of HODT ,
KIND and MANHOOD.causingeihnUBlIng
dralni upon the FOUNTAIN ! * of 1,1 FK ,
HEA A < niIC , I1ACKAOHE , Dreadful
Dreami. WKAKNENH of Memorr , HASH *
the FACE , and all tha KFFECTH leading ; to
EARLY DECAY and p rhapi CONHUltlP.
TIO1 * or INMANITY , ihould coniullatonce
the CF.I.EnilATEn Dr. Clarke , Eolabllthed
IBM. Er Clarke hai mndo NERVOUS BE-
miITY. CHRONIC nnd all Dlscaica of
the UKNITO URINARY Orjrnni a Ufo
mndjr. U mnkea NO dltlUrence WHAT you
' .juve taken nr WHO has Tutted to cure you.
-FEHA LEH sutTurlnK from dleoaio ipocu-
liar to their sax can consult with the nssuranco
of speedy relief and cure. Send 2 cent * postage
for works on your diseases.
* -Hcnd 4 cents postage for Celebrated
XVorUn on Clironlc. Worvons and Doll-
rntc lilseoacs. Consultation , personally or by
latter , frci- . Consult the old Doctor.
TlioiiminflH cured. O ( Her * nnd pnrlnrfl
private. * 3-Ti060 ! contemplating Morrtogo
tend forM > r. Clnrku'H celebrated guldo
Mule and Fcmnltt , each 15o. , both 26c.
( stnutpn ) . llefnio confiding your CAEC , consult
IVr. CLARKE. A friendly letter or call may
lava futiiru suOerlngmid shame , and add golden
years to llfo. aa-Ylook "I.lfe'n ( SecroF ) Er-
iorn , " Me. ( stamps ) . Medicine and writing !
out ctcrj where , uocuro from x | > osnro.
Hours , 8 to 8. Siinilftjs , 9 In 12. Addrras ,
F. D. CLARKE , M. D.
obtained a reputation wherever In
troduced for "COKHKt" ! STVM"PKIl-
1TY. " They havono Huporiors in Hand
Turns , Jlaad WeltH , Goodyear Welts ,
and Machine Sowed. Ladies , ask fortho
"Li'tio\v" BIIOK. Try them , and you
will buy no other. '
A La Persephone French Hand-niado
standard uf Corset even Intro
duced in'o ' this market. The/ impart 'that
graceful figure and fine form which 'afty
well dressed lady would be jnitly prpnjl ,
especially uhen obtainable without injur
ious tight Incingi etc. Indorsed as the , ,
lerless Corset
B > lending di comakers of 1'arie , London
aud New York , and for bale in Omaha by
N. B. Falconer
. . .
Thompson , Belden & Co.
Ami other morohanls.
1407-1409 JonesStreet
l 'ommoillous rooniB , new furniture. tn ) > t
board 1'rlcrs rciitoimltlo. Only Hrntclasii hoard
ers tukeu. Hiception rooiui. , pluuo , vtc.
Chas , E. Miller
, tt < - . i <
uliif ( "II i tit kuuw ruin , " v !
* ' " '
CpHOFFJ.'c" FOWLER , Moodui , Cpn V ,