Omaha daily bee. (Omaha [Neb.]) 187?-1922, February 19, 1888, Page 4, Image 4

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IHIly ( Mornlna Kdttlon ) Including Sunday
HKR. Onu Vi-ar 10 CO
Kor Hlx Month * 6 on
KorThrm Months S W
The Umnhn Hnndny UKK , mailed to any ad
dress , Ono Yenr 200
NKW YditK OrriCK , UM > MM 14 ANI > iriTitinuNK
All communications relating to news and edi
torial matter should bo addressed to the UIUTOK
" " " " " '
0"'l.DBlNIMSM7rritlW. .
All business letters and remittances should bo
addressed to TUB HKK 1'itiiusillMi CnMi'ANr ,
OMAHAi Urartu , checks and p < wlomoo orders to
be made payable to the order of tha company.
The Bee PnlsliingCiiiany , Proprietors
Sworn Statement of Circulation.
State of Nebraska , I. _
County of Douglass. ( " "
Oeo. II. T7Rcliuck , secretary of The Ileo Pub
lishing company , docs solemnly swear that the
actual circulation of the Dally llco for the Meek
ending Fob. 17. 1PS8 , was as folliros ;
Saturday. Feb. 11 111,150
Bandar. Feb. 12 IS.TfiO
Monday , Fob. 13 IB.or.
TtieHday , Feb. 14 lu.GW )
Wednesday , Vcb. 16 lft.770
Thursday , Feb. Id. . . . . " . 15,7fiO
Ittday , Jfeb. 17 15,825
Average 15.860
Sworn to and subscribed In my presence this
18th day of February , A. U. , 18HH. N. 1' . FEIL.
Notary Public.
Btate of Nebraska , I
County of Douglass , f "
Oeo. II. Tzschnck , being first duly sworn , deposes -
poses and says that he is secretary of Tlio Ileo
rulillslilng company , that the actual average
dally circulation of tno Dally Ileo for the month
of February. 1HH7,14,178 copies ; for March. 1887.
14,400 copies ; for April , ifel. 14,310 copies ; for
Way , IW-fl. 14.2T7 copies ; for June , liW , 14.147
copies ; for .Inly , Ipb7,14.110 copies ; for August.
1887 , 14,151 coplos ; for September. IK87 , 14.S49
copies ; for October. 1887 , M.IECi ; for November ,
1P87. ll > ,2a : copies ; for December , 1887 , 15,041
copies ; for Jnnuary , 188H , lRan ) copies ;
dm n. aWnucK.
Sworn and subscribed to In my presence this
Zddayof January , A. D.lBSfl. N. P. FHIU
Notary Public.
Now that Put Ford IMS become vice
president of a bank , his parti Mnnvlllo
will soon bo in position to take the
presidency of n trust company.
A CITIKKX of St. Louis hns challenged
the world to n sleeping match of ono
hundred and forty-two hours , that is , to
BCO who can sleep the most in a week.
This is just the challenge to como from
St. Louis nnd Philadelphia is the city to
take it up.
A KKTUHN tide of Chinese has sot in
toward the celestial kingdom n
wretched tide of worn out , blind , halt
and lame Mongolians who are going
homo to die. They nro leaving San
Francisco in considerable numbers at
half rates and the city is thus spared the
expense of taking care ol them.
. republican conventions will
* probably bo the rule this year. By the
terms of the national call twenty days'
notice must bo given of Btato conven
tions , and these must meet thirty days
before the data of the national conven
tion. The early part of May will very
likely witness a ilood of Btato conven
DISPATCHES regarding the condition
of the royal patient at San Rome con
tinue to bo very contradictory , but
doubtless no enc has any faith in his ul
timate recovery ! It is simply another
case of a vigorous constitution making
a bravo fight against an insidious and
relentless fee to its lifo. The aged em
peror is said to fool most keenly the im
pending bereavement , nd when it shall
como it will bo very likely to snap the
well-worn thread of his own lifo.
THE San Francisco papers report the
existence in that city of an opium ring
organized to smuggle the drug into the
country. A great deal of this smug
gling has boon done in the past , and it
would seem to bo the duty of congress
either to reduce the duty so as to remove
the incentive for smuggling or to pro
hibit the importation of opium , provid-
> ng also that the drug when seized
phould bo destroyed. AH ono of the San
Francisco papers says , opium being an
object of luxury in the strictest sense of
the word no tariff can keep it out , and
\l \ it is necessary to bo admitted for the
Bake of revenue , the duty should bo re
duced to such a figure as to render
pmuggling unprofitable.
THE United States consul of San Salvador
vader speaks very highly to- that coun
try. The temperature in the interior
Is remarkably oven as the thermometer
feovor falls below sovonty-fivo degrees
or rises above eighty. Coffee is raised
in largo quantities and tropical fruits in
Abundance. Labor costs from twenty to
twenty-five cents per day and food for
the game time does not average moro
than ten cents. The government is
trying to attract foreign capital , espec
ially American , by grants of valuable
franchises. If the consul's report is
\voll founded San Salvador would seem
to bo just the Hold for profitable invest-
knonts. American labor , however , is
hot likely to rush in that direction.
IlAiiVAUU college a few years ago
abolished compulbory attendance at
morning prayers. The result shows
that this infatitution of learning is not a
stronghold of piety. Under the com
pulsory system eight or nine hundred
students attended the services. Now
the nttondnnco has fallen oil to ono hun
dred or less. Still the now system is
undoubtedly the correct ono. Attend
ance at devotional exorcises should bo
voluntary. Otherwise they can do no
good. Wo can imagine the frame of mind
of n young man compelled to hurry to
chapel half a sleep on n cold morning.
His mental observations and rcsorva
tions nro likely to bo anything but de
votional. The tendency in colleges is
more and more to treat students as citi
zens of the community and the otTcct
has generally been good. Many of tllo
collouo rules and regulations are relics
of the darker scholastic ages which it is
absurd to keep up now. If the attcnd-
Bnco at college prayers hns fallen oil
\ . decidedly since attendance borainc
optional , the fact may bo deplored as
indicating u luck of reverence , but it
docs not prove the voluntary system
wrong. It is not likely a young man can
bo forced to become pious any more than
a horse can be compelled to drink after
ho hns boon led to water. Probably ,
lie , if college prayers wore just what
tboy should bo , more students would bo
Changed Vlcwn of the Constitution.
Ono df the most interesting political
developments during the last ten years
bus been the growing tendency on the
part of public men to construe moro rigIdly -
Idly the constitution of the United
.Stnlcs. The feeling that paternalism in
government had been dangerously bul
warked by the necessities of thu civil
war , and that the constitution had boon
ncccBcnrlly strained during that great
struggle in order to perpetuate national
unity , hns caused a silent reaction
whoso effects are yearly growing more
apparent. Tim democratic party and
the south , which for years before the
war considered themselves the conserv
ators of strict construction , have in n
measure changed sides with prominent
republicans. The impoverished condi
tion ol the south , as the result of the
war , and its continued calls upon the
national government for appropriations
to benefit that section , has made many
converts among southern statesman as to
thopoworsofthonationalgovernment in
its relations to the states , especially
whore a money consideration is in
volved. On the other hand , the increas
ing expenditures of the government for
objects which , prior to the war , would
have been considered quite out nf its
province , have awakened conservative
republicans to a feeling that the "gen-
oral welfare clause" could possibly bo
too broadly interpreted. Added to this ,
the interference of the federal courts
in state matters , and the enormous bulk
of litigation resulting from the transfer
of local cases to the federal courts , seems
to have drawn the attention of the supreme
premo bench to a closer study of the
national constitution in its application
to the citizens of the states , and to the
states in their relation to the national
The tendency , as noted , is an interest
ing ono principally because it evidences
the largo part which bclf-interest plays
in all questions of statesmanship or of
practical politics. Theories which wcro
formerly bolstered throughout the south
by local conditions and the industrial
dependence of the section have since
boon rudely shaken by the upbuilding
of manufactures and the breaking down
of the barrier which slavery interposed
between two parts of ono country. As
a result , the south , through its public
men , and in congress , is growing moro
and moro ready to accept a liberal con
struction of the constitution , so far as
the power of the general government to
legislate for the general interest , inde
pendent of state lines , is concerned.
The debate on the Blair educational
bill hns brought this fact out as nothing
else hns during the past twenty years.
The measure , which proposes to appro
priate $77,000,000 from the national
treasury for the support of state
schools , would thirty years ago have
been bitterly opposed on constitutional
grounds by every nTomber south of Ma
son and Dixon's lino. It would have
been announced as an unwarranted in
vasion of the rights of the states by the
general government and an unconstitu
tional interference with fctho preroga
tives of the citizens in the line of the
promotion of local education. It is sin
gular to-day to find republican senators
like Plumb , of Kansas , and Hawlov , of
Connecticut , denouncing the educa
tional bill as an assault upon the rights
of the states , while other senators on the
democratic side endorse it as a proper
application of the constitutional clause
which empowers" congress "to provide
for the general welfare. " Fifteen years
ago the country would have been star
tled if a lending republican senator from
ono of the strongest of republican states
hod announced that in his opinion
"there ought to bo somewhere a division
between the powers of the states and
the powers of the general government ,
and that if there wore no final resting
place , no immutable and never to' bo
broken down barrier , the time would
como , and that very soon , when the
states would practically disappear. "
What ono of the old war horses of the
sonata during the civil war would have
remained in his scat if ho had boon
told , as Senator Plumb informed the
senate on Monday , * that "thor fed
eral government was growing like an
octopus. It not only retained all that it
put its hands upon , but that it was con
stantly enlarging its powers and strang
ling everything else in opposition. "
Or with what surprise at the close of
the war , when the men of states rights
raised u question of loyalty , the
republicans would have hoard Sen
ator Ilnwloy remark , as ho
did Wednesday in the semite , that the
theory of decentralization was ono of
the most glorious heritages handed
down to us from the old tithes and
hundreds of English feudalism.
The constitutional questions pre
sented constantly through legislation
arising from the great treasury surplus
are loading our-publio men to n closer
study of the instrument itself and to an
invcstig-ation of the successive stops in
its construction by the supreme court.
From this the country is likely to gain.
The whole doctrine of secession as a
corollary to the rights of the states as
distinct from those ot the national gov
ernment is admitted to huvo been set
tled forovor. But the settlement of
that question has not disposed
of the problem of the true
interpretation of the constitution on
questions arising from the extravagance
of government duo to the immense bums
of money which are annually drawn
from the people by taxation.
The tendency to centralize nil the
legislative , executive and judicial pow
ers of the country at the national capl-
tel and to override local government
and local legislation by a simple vote of
congress is causing a not unnatural
alarm in the minds of thinkers and
students of republican government. Thu
press is beginning to volco its views
and public men , quite irrespective of
party , are calling a halt. The Ameri
can constitution , which is the oldest
and thu best written constitution in existence -
istenco , has stood many strains and
is able to withstand many moro.
But its strength has always boon in the
dual authority which it has given to
the people directly in their capacity as
citizens of the states , und collectively
in their capacity of stntoa united in a
national legislature for the common
welfare. Originally constructed to
prevent , the absorption of < ull govern
mental functions at the national capital ,
the puonlo of this country , without re
spect to parly lines , are not likely to
allow it to bo diverted from its
beneficent purpose.
PntrlotUtu In the Hcliools.
The duty of making the public schools
of America the fountain , of patriotic in
struction to the youth of America is re
ceiving attention in connection with
the general discussion of the needs and
requirements of the public school sys
tem. It must bo regarded as u timely
subject that merits the most serious con
sideration. The president of the Now
York board of education said recently
in the course of an address : "An essen
tial and specific part of the training and
instruction given in our public schools
should bo a love of country , a knowledge
of Us institutions , n proper estimate of
its unrivalled advantages , and the bless
ings of n free citizenship. " An
other advocate of this policy says :
"Tho purpose of the common 'school
ic to make the children of this
country good American citizens , and to
bo good American citizens it is not only
necessary for them to read , to write and
to figure , but to thoroughly undor&tnnd
the meaning of American liberty , its
privileges and its obligations. It is un
questionably the duty of free schools to
teach those who attend them the funda
mental principles which underlie our
government , to teach them to love and
honor those principles. " With this end
in view Bishop Coxo says of the Amer
ican system of public education : "It
should include historical instruction
widely different from that which is now-
prevalent in all our schools. The de
tails of our warfare from the days
of our curliest conflicts with
the Indians until' the close of out-
late civil strife , nro indeed
important , and , if confined to fact and
judicious comment , might bo in the
highest degree useful. Then , if our
young Americans are to become at
tached to the principles of the constitu
tion , ought they not to bo instructed in
the laws of the land and its history if
wo would make them intelligent and
morally fitted to fulfill the manifold
duties of citizenship' ; " ' There has been
much moro recently said and written to
the same ciTect , all exhibiting a strong
popular interest in the subject which if
for the present bomcwhnt localized is
very certain to grow as the discussion
Every American citizen willacquiosco
in the general proposition that the
schools being maintained by the state
for the good of the state , and
the chief if not the solo reason for their
existence being the education of the
children of the land to become good
citizens , prepared to intelligently and
patriotically perform the obligations of
citizenship that will devolve on them ,
their first and most important function
should bo to impart to American youth
some knowledge of the institutions of
their country , give them at least an in
sight into what is comprehended in n
republican system of government , make
them as familiar as shall be found prac
ticable with tho'fundamental principles
of popular liberty and equality , and im
plant in their minds a thorough love of
American principles and .ideas. This
docs not imply that they should
receive any instruclion of a
partisan nature. Political theories
or policies represented by ono party or
another could of course have no proper
place in public school instruction , and
would not bo tolerated. There is per
haps a danger that the teaching of
American , principles in the schools
might bo thus perverted from its true
purpose , but it is a danger not difficult
to guard against. Another possible
danger is the creation of a national
feeling that would. array children of
native birth and parentage against
those of foreign birth and parentage ,
but this is not a danger to bo seriously
thought of in view of the much greater
ono of permitting all children to obtain
the educational advantages of
the schools without any knowl
edge of the nature of the in
stitutions and the character
of the government under which they
live. 'And the fact that so largo a pro
portion of the children in the public
schools are of foreign birth or parent
age is really a forcible argument in
favor of imparting &uch knowledge.
The child of American parentage is
very likely to cot at home , by precept
and example , a proper idea of his
country , and whenever opportunity
offers an inspiration to patriotism.
The general defect in our educational
system is shown to bo a lack of proper
and adequate instruction in American
history , and the demand that is making
for "reform in this particular must bo
mot. The almost worthless text books
which simply chronicle events ,
now universally used in the
public schools , must sooner or later give
place to the histories that will give the
pupil fuller information than moro
names and dates. There is in this re
quirement a splendid invitation to anyone
ono qualified for the task to win both
Inmo and fortune. The bert of history
chat is required would not lack de
mand , and ho who would write it would
have all the honor so useful a 'labor
could derive. Meantime this subject
may bo expected to grow in interest and
attention , and it is certainly worthy of
nil that can bo given it.
Prollt Sharing.
Several instances of the successful
operation in this country ot the profit-
sharing principle have recently been
noted , and the uniform testimony they
bear is so favorable to this system that
it can hardly fail to make an impression
that will lead to the extension of the
principle. The last reported is from
Pittsburg , whcro on last Friday n divi
sion was made among the moro than
four hundred workmen in the locomo
tive works of Mrs. II. K. Porter. This
was the bccond annual profit-sharing in
the establishment , and according to
the dispatch the result was a grati
fying surprise to all the em
ployes. Every man an I boy
got something , nccordit g to the
amount of salary or wages re coivod dur
ing the year , and entire fa'rnoss being
obbcrvod all wore satisfied. That the
amount shared was greater than uas
expected is evidence not only of a larger
business , but of hotter workless loss of
time on the part of workmen , and loss
wusto. These nre hp conditions which
profit-sharing piffriwd , They uro not
always attained invjlio first year ot
trial , because all wjl-lcmcti do not at
once enter Into RCtilo sympathy with
the plan , but us ( noaftis intelligent and
steady workmen iref satisfied of the
merits of the prltlApIe there is there
after no difficulty in securing
their entire interest and their
best ofTorts in their work. The
men who got their fair shnro of
the profits of Mrs. ' J'oJtcr's business un
doubtedly roturndiltolvork on Saturday
with a hotter liklng for their work ,
greater confidence' in themselves , and
an Increased respect and loyalty for
their employer. They could not but
feel that they had a material interest in
the business which it would bo both
their duty and their advantage to sub-
servo during .tho ensuing year. Tiioy
would instinctively regard themselves
tis some thing more than ordinary em
ployes , and therefore called upon to
render something moro and bolter than
.ordinary sen-ice , and they will do it.
That establishment is not only safe
against strikes or lockouts , but its pro
prietor can depend ujxm every
man and boy in It doing his duty faith
fully and to the very best of his ability.
He has tin incentive to do this which is
unfailing with those who have nn am
bition to succeed.
Profit-sharing is not wholly nn ex
periment. Wo some time ago cited
facts to show that during the nearly half
a century it has been widely adopted in
Franco it has been productive of the
most gratifying results. It has not
made very great progress in the United
States , but wo are not aware ot a single
case of failure where it has boon given
nn honest trial. The general success ot
the principle shows it to possess merits
which must ultimately cause it to bo
widely adopted.
WilAT the average congressman
might not do , if ho had free way , in ex
tending the federal authority to all
&orts of concerns with which It can
properly have nothing to do , it is hard
to say , but there have been some nota
ble evidences in the present congress of
the disposition to widen the scope of the
national power. It was shown the other
day In an attempt to prohibit news
papers from advertising lottery tickets ,
but after the newspaper member from
Now York , Amos J. Cummlngs , had
shown the absurdity as well as the un
warranted eharaote of the proposition ,
there was commotf" iqnse enough in the
committee to whic.1 ; the > bill was referred
to lead them to roi > rt ikgainst it. The
latest manifeBUtioh of the
unfortunate conCTCssionnl tendency
is a bill to suppress BtOck brokers and
bucket shops. Tlic , ntSck broker may
not bo a particulatt pueful citizen , and
the bucket shop i n' nstitution that
ought not to bo permitted to exist , but
congress has no business with them , anymore
moro than it has with any other class of
gamblers or gambllng"practicos. Evi
dently the "gonerjil waufaro" provision
of the constitutipl .needs to bo moro
clearly defined anfl\ts limitations moro
definitely established.
MANY people have wondered how it
came about that Elaine's letter was first
published in a Pittsburg paper. The
cause was a blunder on the part of
Chairman Jdncs , it seems. A private
note from the Maine statesman in
structed him to give the letter to "my
friend Ried , " of the New York jfVi&toic.
Purposely or otherwise Mr. Jones de
livered it to his friend Reed , of the
Pittsburg Commercial Gazette. A smell
of sulphur still lingers about the Tribune
Senator Cullom is having a modest presi
dential boom In central Illinois.
Boston has a woolly horse and has named
it Cleveland. He Is a mugwump.
It looks as though Senator Riddlebergcr
wns about ready to go to Detroit.
Ex-Senator Warner Miller is spoken of as
republican candidate for governor of New
Colonel A. K. McClure Is of opinion that
all sessions in which Kiddlcbcrgcr figures
should bo secret.
Senator Brown of Georgia , Is reported as
saying that his public career will close with
his present terra.
Senator Voorhces is quoted as saying that
if the democrats can't elect Cleveland they
can't elect anybody.
John Sherman is now preparing to capture
the Chicago convention. His campaign is
familiarly spoken of as Sherman's March
Ex-Congressman Strait ( rep. ) of Minnesota
seta thinks that his state can bo depended
upon for a good republican majority "with
a proper presidential nomination. "
General Swift thinks the republicans will
this year rarry California by 15,000 majority ,
mid the independent San Francisco Bulletin
admits that his estimate is not exaggerated.
John AVannamnkcr has been proposed as a
delegate to the republican national conven
tion by his Philadelphia friends , and it is
said ho will como to Chicago to nominate
George W. Cbllds for president.
General Butler has , a contempt for the
callow brood of Massachusetts politicians
who have been trying to elbow him out of the
way on account of his tigo , and ho thinks the
ago of political consent ought to bo raised.
In view of the growth of tlio prohibition
vote in Now Jersey from 3,004 in 1833
to 10,803 in 1880 , the Philadelphia Pressrcp. ( )
appeals to the republican legislature to pass
cither a local option law or .high license law
or both. i i
Henry U. Ball of Now fork , is the only re
publican remaining in jtho. Consular service
of the government. Ho is minister to the
Central American states , but will doubtless
soon lose his head , as ajNuw Jersey democrat
is after the place.
Hoswcll P. Flower declares that ho is not
a candidate for the picsidenoy , governorship ,
or any ofllca under the sun. This is sad uqws
for the boys who again expected to have the
pleasure of tapping Mr. Flower's bulging
General Sheridan is said to bo growing
very tired of the constant iteration of his
name in connection with the presidency , and
when an acquaintance approaches the sub
ject the soldier becomes positively rude and
turns on his heel and walks away.
Northern democratic papers have again
been pointing out the advantages , from the
partisan point of view , of cutting up Texas
into several states , but tha Galveston News
( dein. ) curtly says tnat "tho people of Texas
will not consent to It , and there U no use to
discuss it"
Colonel George W. Hooker.rcp. ( ) of Ver-
inept , ex-sergeant at-nrms of the nation * !
house of representative * M urc repub
licans that "great cnthtulasm prevails"
among the republicans of his state , and ap-
ixjars to regard Vermont as safe for the re
publican candidate next full.
A Mttlo Mixed.
A Paris paper says "thijQGoploof St. Louis ,
D. T , , are dying of a disease called the bliz
zards. "
Too Tlro oinc.
Philadelphia Inquirer.
Washington wants to get up n spectacle for
the nations in 1839. Well , what's the matter
with congress !
A Myatery to the Young Only.
C/ / | ( J/O ( PftU'l.
What mainly puzzles the small boy when
ho begins to study politics is this : How docs
it ImpiKjn that n drum major has uovor boon
elected president i
Nothing New.
liottnn Pout.
It is said that the now vestibule cars run
so smoothly that a man can bo shaved on
them. So ho can on tno ordinary palace cars ;
the porter has always done that for all the
A Much Needed Tic.
/ncolii ( Dtmoerat.
Omnhn complains that her hands arc tied
by her charter. If she could pet a very
strong charter that could tie the hands of her
councilmcn she would feel that she was
greatly blessed.
Plcnso Explain This.
Hard coal in Sioux Falls costs 50 cents a
ton less than in Sioux City , and $1 less than
in Omaha , notwithstanding the fact that both
cities enjoy a freight rate from Chicago of 75
cents less per ton than Sioux Falls.
Itcslstcil His Name.
C/ifcni/o Jfcrcild.
Mr. Do Camp , the Cincinnati banker , ap
pears to be entitled to considerable admira
tion and sympathy. It Is not every banker
situated as ho was who could have resisted
the suggestions of his pretentious name.-
Cheap Way ol'HentliiB Cars.
Cincinnati Commercial Gazette.
Rullroad companies are slow to adopt the
improved method of heating passenger cars
with steam from the locomotive , preferring ,
it seems , to wait for hot weather and warm
up passengers with flro and smoke from the
iron horso.
Garden Spots in Kcllp o.
There nro no less than twenty-three locali
ties calling themselves "tho garden spot of
America , " and thirteen'of them have been
buried under the snow drifts for the past six
weeks. Gardening won't begin with them
much before .Tune. '
BO Tlio Best All-Hound Newspaper.
SouHi Sfou.e Cttn Sun.
Thc Omaha BEU is the best all-round news
paper that reaches this region. Its news is
the latest and best arranged , and its editorial
opinions and comment are nearly always
sensible and sound. It is nn every day paper
well worth taking and reading by business
men in northesatcrn Nebraska and north
western Iowa , .
A Close Resemblance.
St. Louts Globe-Democrat.
The prince of Wales has distinguished him
self again by appearing in a theater in an in
toxicated condition , ana disturbing the
performance with loud and coarse horse talk.
There are times when the coming king of
England very closely resembles our man
Practical Temperance Sermon.
A Jersey City man who deals in second
hand furniture found $520 in nn old lounge
which ho was repairing. Ho was honest ; so
he sent word to the man from whom ho had
purchased the loungo. It turned out that the
man who sold the lounge had hidden the
money in it when ho was drunk and forgot
ten all about it. Then ho had accused his
wife of taking it , and the row that ensued
broke up the family and caused the sale of
the furniture.
Gentle Humanities.
Thomas McKeller. <
Shoo the horse and shoo the mare ,
Never let the hoof go bare ;
Trotting over flinty stones
Wears away the hardest bones.
Lifo has many a stony street
Even to the toughest feet ;
Men , the sturdiest , find it so ,
Ere through lifo half they go.
Streaks of blood are in the way ,
Trod Dy humans every day ,
Seen by Love's anointed eye ,
While the blinded world goes by.
Yes , if all the sighs wore caught ,
Wherewithal the air is fraught ,
What a gale would sweep the skies
Laden with man's miseries.
Gently then , Oh , brother man !
Do the utmost good you can.
God approvoth o'cn the least
Deeds of truth to man or beast.
In the paper on Stcpniak , the head of the
great secret Russian political organization-
nihilism printed in the Sunday BEE two
weeks ago , I ventured the opinion that th
theory of nihilism is but indifferently under
stood by the American people. From cir
cumstances this Is natural , for the Russians
as a race have not been a potent , or even sig
nificant , factor in the social or political life
of the American autonomy. There is no
Russlam vote to cater to and necessitate
the American ofllco seeker's acquiring a
knowledge of Russian lifo and literature. In
deed , it may bo said that it is within twenty
years that the American mind has become
aware through translations that there is a
Russian literature.
But Russia has literature , and its motif is'
political almost exclusively. The conditions
arising from the long years of misrule
of 100,000,000 people by autocrats
have naturally made paramount the better
ment of the political welfare of the masses ,
and hcnco it is that animating and inspiring
every Russian pen worthy of the name is the
spirit of politics. Liberty , or the desire for
it , is the basic idea , and whether the Rus
sian literati write of the miserable condition
of the peasantry or the social intriguory of
the nobility they write politics and , permo-
atincr all their productions , is nihilism in
cither positive or negative toao.
And what is nihilism )
Perhaps I can enlarge the education of the
BEE'S readers upon this subject mark the
perhaps but nt any rate I shall endeavor to
eradicate n misconception which I know by
my own cxpoilonco prevails in some minds.
Nihilism Is generally supposed to bo a doc
trine of destruction ; but it Is not. It Is
rather ono of terrorism as a weapon in ac
complishing social reform. An overwhelming
majority of Russian people are protestors
against the Injustices attendant upon the au
tocratic rule of the czars and their abuse of
power , but only a small proportion of the protestors
testers are nihilists. The latter are the ex
tremists. They stand In the same radical nt-
tltudo towards the rest of the great body of
protestors , or liberal party , that the abolition
ists did towards the republican party In the
curly days of that organization , though the
methods used to accomplish ends uro widely
dissimilar , , ,
The word nihilist was first'introduced In
the Russian language by Tourgenlcjf , in hts
novel"Fathors and Children , " and applied tea
a character Hiuaroff , a materialistic Icono
clast who was In reality an anaruhlst. The
conservative party , the superior * of the
throne and It can easily bo understood that
in a country having an established church ,
the terrestrial bead of which Is the czar , that
the throne's adherents nro not few ,
as so many allow their relig
ious loyalty , to formulate or over
ride their political convictions
selziil uxm | the term as an epithet to bo ap
plied to nil their opponents , and the * sequence
is that lit outside acceptance all members of
the Russian liberal party nro nihilists. Tins
Is far from being true. Taking : the literal
meaning of the torni , or oven ns used by
Tourgouloff , nihilism does not exist to any
appreciable extent in Russia. There Is no
party In the cmplro whoso doctrlno Is that of
destruction or whoso policy is that-of nega
tion. Nor is there a party which deliberately
chooses violence and bloodshed as the most
destrablo means of accomplishing social re
form. The most radical of the Russian lib
eral party have espoused , terrorism as a nec
essary agency in helping"thotr'causo to frui
tion , just ns some devotees of liberty in Ire
land , yclept dynamiters , have sought
to terrorize the English mind.
Ryssakoff , the regicide , was n nihilist , i. o.
ho was a member of the secret organization
designated by that term , but ho did not
assassinate the czar to overturn social order
in his country. Ho only sought to demon
strate to the Russian dynasty that the policy
of oppression aud repression would not bo
It was about In 1803 that Alexander II. ,
following his emancipation of over 15,000,000
serfs in 1801 , undertook some sweeping
reforms In the government of Russia. Com
parative liberty of speech and the freedom of
the press wcro granted , a system of local
solf-govornment by provincial assemblies
corresponding in a measure with our state
legislatures was inaugurated , and the courts
were partially reorganized with greater
fairness to the people. It was not long though
before a reactionary policy ensued. The gov
ernment avowedly became nlnrmcd at the
Indcpciulcnco which cropped out in some of
the zemstovs , ns the legislatures were
termed , In the addresses to the throne and
began to curtail and abrogate the privileges
which had been granted. A moro rigid cen
sorship was exercised over the press , Juris
diction of cases involving class rights was
taken from the reorganized conrts and pri
vate or public meetings of citizens to discuss
stnto questions were prohibited. This repres
sive policy exasperated the liberals and popu
lar indignation became great. In the cities
secret societies bcan ( to bo formed which
were termed "Circles for Self Instruction. "
They wcro composed mnlnly of young and
enthusiastic liberals. Originally they were
designed to discuss political economy
and in the strength of union sccura redress
for grievances , but under the rcj re .sioii pol
icy of the government they soon becumo rev
olutionary organizations. Thus originated
the nihilists as a factor in Russian politics.
Terrorism was not nt lirst believed In , at
least not adopted. .Indeed , the remarkable
movement which sprung from the "Circles of
Self-Instruction , " and was termed "going to
the people" indicates that a policy of peace
at first prevailed. This "going to the pee
plo" was nn impulsive and generous crusade
for the intellectual betterment of the lowly
classes. Thousands of educated young men
and women , many of them of noble birth ,
went among the peasants , especially those
who were formerly serfs , and in the work
shops , on the farms and everywhere
the lowly toiled , sought by sympathy , co
operation and education to help and elevate
them. The crusaders renounced the com
forts of their own refined homes to share the
hard lives and sufferings of the common pee
ple. Of course , the political significance of
this crusade was not lost upon tno autocratic
government and repressive measures were
soon adopted to put a stop to the seditious
movement. Through secret police the
"Circles for Self Instruction" wcro harrassed
by the arrest and exile to Siberia of thousands
engaged in.thcm. In the hope of breaking up
the rovolutonary propaganda educated young
men and women founa among the peasants
wore by "administrative process" compelled
to desist. The prisons were crowded with
political offenders who wcro sub
jected to inhuman treatment. The
government inaugurated the policy of
terror and beforn long was mot with a like
weapon. Mysterious threats from time to
time wcro' received by many government
officials , but not until 1878 wcro reprisals
begun for the wrongs inflicted upon the
people , when Vcra Zassulltch , a talented and
refined young woman.who bad been active in
the crusade , shot the chief of police of St.
Petersburg for ordering punishment with
the knout of a political prisoner named Bo-
gocuboff. About that time General Mczrcnt-
sof , the chief of gendarmeswas also assassin
ated in the streets of the sanio city. For
fully a year there was a succession of similar
occurrences and it was then that the radical
portion of the liberal party became known as
nihilists. Early in 1870 the conservative lib
erals began uiging a cessation of
reprisals and an abandonment of the
terrorist policy. They argued that
moro good could bo accomplished
by peaceful methods , and at a convention of
liberal and terrorist leaders secured A prom
ise of cessation of nets of violence on three
conditions namely , the concession Irom the
throne of freedom of speech and of the press ,
a guaranty of personal rights against capri
cious executive authority and participation by
the people in the affairs of government
short , they wanted u constitution. But when
the zemstovs ventured to discuss addresses to
the throne in behalf of these concessions the
government prohibited all such attempts. Re
pression was again mot with terrorism , and
in April , 1870 , Sollvioft attempted to assassi
nate the czar. Martial law was then declared
und thousands of arbitrary arrests and ban
ishments ensued. The conflict between the
authorities and the nihilists was fierce
until it culminated March IS , 1831 ,
in the czar's nssas'slnatlon , ono day
after ho had signed a ukase calling
for a representative convention to
formulate a constitution. His successor ,
the present czar , did not promul
gate the proclamation , but a period of
"anxious expectancy" on the part of the
nihilists ensued for four years. Alexander
HI has not , however , given any satisfactory
evidence of an intention to grant the conces
sions sought by the pcoplo and there are now
signs of renewal of terrorist activity.
Such is an abbreviated history of nihilism
as it exists in Russia. It Is uot anarchism as
many suppose ; nor Is it ignorant and un
reasoning blood-thlistlness , for let It not bo
forgotten that prerequisites for admission to
the ranks of the nihilists uro intelligence , ed
ucation , prudence , courage and patriotism.
With the right or wrong of thu theory of
nihilism it is possible that one at this distance
is incompetent to deal , especially since nihil
ism is an effect springing from a cause
steeped in atrocities beyond American ken.
F. R. M.
Can Cam For Itn Own Poor.
KANSAS CITV , Mo. , Fob. 13. [ Special
Telegram to the BKK. | Recently informa
tion was sent out from Wichita county , Kan
sas , that hundreds of families were dcstltuto
In that county. Tlio report is officially con
tradicted In a letter received this morning by
Mayor Kumpf from the commissioners of
Wichita county. They deny the existence of
such suffering us to Justify the ap | > cals which
have been made by suveral Wichita county
citizens for uld from eastern -citieH , and say
the county Is amply able to euro for all 1U
citizens who are in need of assistance.
Advocates of the Railroad to YtolC
ton Before the Commissioners ,
In all Probability * n Election Will
Do Ordered More Jnllcr *
Suggested A Trip On
( ho Tapis.
The County Commissioner * .
Messrs. Herman Kountzo , A. Uosowatcr ,
D. O. Patterson und N. Sliolton yesterday
appeared before the county commissioner * ,
mid ro-oponod the Omaha , Yankton & North
western rullroad affairs. Mr , Kountze told
the commissioners what a benefit the road
would bo to Omaha , and said that It was the
IiurlK > 80 of the promoters to In every way
comply with the wishes of the commission ,
era so far as It lay In their power. At tha
conclusion of Mr. Kount/o's remarks Messrs ,
Rosowatcr , Sliolton mid Patterson retired to
draw up a proixisltlon and the commission'
0 ! s settled down to the transaction of regu
lar business.
The citizens of Mtllard recommended the
payment by the county of the doctors and
druggists bills incurred by Henry Kranas
and wlfo during their illness.
.Tatio Lesscntino asking for a reduction of
assessment on the property from $3,000 to
tVi ( was referred.
Councilman Hurnhara , chairman of the city
council committee on ix > llee , reported that
there had been referred to him the conimls *
sloncrs communication to the council regard
ing the keeping and boarding of city prison
ers In the county Jail. Mr. Burnhuui in his
communication says : "As It seems quite Im
practicable at present to provide arrange
ments for keeping such prisoners elsewhere ,
I address your body to ask and request that
you will make and submit to mo la writing u
proposition as to the rate for , and conditions
under which the county authorized will , In
the county Jail , board , keou and maintain
city prisoners with the understanding that
the city by its proper officials , and all at iti
own expense , as to guarding and directing
the same , may remove temporarily said pris
oners , during the term of their confinement ,
for the purpose of working the same If found
practicable so to do , your proposition to bo
submitted to the city council for Its advice
and net ion. " Hoferredto the committee on
court hduso and Jail ,
H. C. Hnrnos' official bond to run the grad
ing machine was accepted.
The following resolutions was referred to
committee on Judiciary :
Hesolved , That on and after March 1,1833 ,
the county Jail bo , us recommended by the
grand Jury , provided with three juilor.s to
work as follows : First man , from 5 u. in. to
4 p. in. ; second man , from ! > a. in. to 8. p. in. j
third man , from $ p. in. to 5 a. in.
Taxes on the Omaha college during the
years ISM , ! ) , 4 , 5 and ( i wore canceled , It hav
ing boon proven that the property had boon
used for scluol purposes.
J. J. Points was allowed $150 for services
during the month of Jnnuury , and his salary
was placed at that amount.
Charles W. King was appointed constable
for Florence precinct.
All bids for building a railing in the new
court room wore rejected , thu committee on
Jail and court house considering it uunocces-
The claims of P. Konnafler , , H. Link.
$74 , Henry Kruso , fcW.70 , for care and
medical treatment of Fred Massan Millard
wouo referred to the committee on charities.
County Agent Mahouey rejwrted S3 inmates
at the i > oor farm.
Messrs. Rosouatcr , Sliolton and Patterson
returned and read the following as the prop
osition of the Omaha , Yankton & North
western railroad to be voted on by the legal
voters of the county :
Kcsolvcd , That the following propositloivto
vote bonds to the Omaha , Yankton & North
western railroad company to aid in the con
struction of a line of railroad bo submitted to
the electors of Douglas county , to-wit :
Hesolved , That by virtue of the authority
in us vested by the laws of the state of Ne
braska in that behalf provided , a special
.election bo held In the county of Douglas ,
state of Nebraska , on the "Oth day of March ,
A. D. 1SSS , for the purpose of submitting to
the legal voters of said county the following
proposition :
Shall the bonds of the county of Doug
las , state of Nebraska , to the amount
of $300,000 bo issued to aid In the construc
tion of the Omaha , Yankton & Northwestern
railway on the following terms and condi
tions , that is to say said bonds to bo inado
payable twenty years after the date thereof ,
but redeemable after ton years at the option
of said county as provided by law to draw in
terest at the rate of 5 per cout per annum
with interest coupons attached payable soml-
nnnunlly , the said bonds to bo executed ,
issued and delivered to the said railway com
pany immediately upon the completion of the
work as hereinafter sot forth.
If at said election said electors of said
county shall vote in favor of said bonds and
authorize the issue thereof , then the said
railway company shall within a rcasonabla
time after said election commence the con
struction of said road and within two years
after the date of said election shall have con
structed , Completed , equipped and have In
actual operation 150 miles of single track ,
standard guago railway , the line ol said rail
way shall commence within the corporate
limits of the city of Omaha , the general
course of said railway to be in a northwest
erly direction from the port of begin
ning and the track thereof
shall bo laid upona now road bed ; the head
quarters of said railway company , its pas
senger , freight depots and shops shall bq
located and maintained within the corporate )
limits of tha city of Omaha ; the freight and
passenger depots of said company shall bo
at some point within ono inllo and half from
the present limited state's ' court house build
ing , located at the Intersection of Fifteenth
and Dodge streets in said city of Omaha ,
said railway company in reaching such
depots to have the right to use the tracks ol
any other railway company within the city
of Omaha , but such tracks thus used shall
not bo counted as part of the 150 miles , and
further shall a tax bo levied annually not to
exceed two mills on the dollar for the inter ,
cst of said bonds as It becomes duo , and an
additional tax bo levied and collected to pay
the principal of said city bonds when they
shall become duo , piovidcd that no rnoru
than 10 per cent of the principal of said bonds
shall bo collected In any onu year.
Hesolved , further , that the foregoing ques
tions nro propositions , together with the
time when and the place where such ques
tions will bo voted upon , and the form In
which the question shall be taken , shall bo
published In said Douglas county , and a copy
of the question to be submitted to bo iwsted
up at each place of voting during the day ot
said election. In all respects as by law In that
behalf provided.
Hesolved , further , that In counting tha
votes upon said election all votes "yes" shall
bo deemed In favor of and shall be counted
for the proposition upon which said vote is
cast , and all votes "no" will bo deemed op-
poKed to and counted against the pioposltion
upon which said vote is cast.
Hesolved , fuithcr , that the question of the
issue of said bonds shall not bo deemed to
have been adonted unless the questions of
the amount of tax to bo levied to pay princi
pal and Interest of said bonds , shall likewise
have bccn'adoptcd.
The proposition was referred to the com
mittee on Judiciary , to uo reported upon at 3
p. in. to-morrow.
The following resolution by Commissioner
Mount was adopted.
Resolved , That the chairman of this board
appoint at the next moating a committed con
sisting of himself and two other members of
the board to visit the city of St. Louis , Mo. ,
or such other cities us tlmy may deem expudl-
diont ; the duty of such coimnltteo will bo to
examine Into the management of the county
Jails located in said city or cities , and to us-
certain the most feasible plan of enlarging
the county Jail of Douglas county , Nobiuska.
Army Orders.
WAsnrxTox , Feb. 15. [ Special Telegram
to the HtB. ] Private Domlnlcus Hlclilol ,
Company D , Ninth infantry , now at Port
Nu brara , is transferred to the band of thu
Eighth infantry , stationed at that jwst.
The superintendent of the recruiting ser
vice will cause sixteen colored infantry re
cruits to bo prepared and forwarded under
proper charge to such point or points in tha
Department of Dakota as the commanding
general of the Department shall designate ,
for assignment to the Twenty-fifth