Omaha daily bee. (Omaha [Neb.]) 187?-1922, August 28, 1887, Page 10, Image 10

Below is the OCR text representation for this newspapers page. It is also available as plain text as well as XML.

Kmtnenia Wealth Acquired in a Very Few
Tears ,
Railway Klnga-IIow the "lilg
Four" Worked the Railroad
Field for All There Was
In It.
George IT. Fitch in the Cosmopolitan.
Urtlzac , with his royal imagination ,
borer conceived anything more dra
matic , moro picturesque , or more essen
tially unreal than the rise to fortune of
the score of men who may bo classed
among the great millionaires of the
Pacific coast , the enormously rich mon
who will "cut up" to use an expressive
phrase , for moro than twenty millions.
Valziic reveled in millions as a miser
gloats over his golden hoard , and ho endowed
dewed many of his characters with the
generous hand of the novelist ; but ho
dealt in franc , not dollars , and the
bourse speculators and the great finan
cial schemes that ho loved to describe
pale into insignificance before the for
tunes and business operations of the half
dozen men of the Pacific coast , who , In
mining and railroads , have made for
tunes that would have been called royal
oven in the days of Caesar and Imperial
Nowhere in this country , outside of the
oil regions of Pennsylvania , have vast
fortunes bcon gained in so short a time as
in California tind Nevada. The wealth
of Girard , Stewart , Astor , Vanderbilt ,
was laboriously and slowly gathered ,
when compared with the sudden leap to
fortune of the railroad and bonanza
kings of California. In its rapid dovcU
opruont , its enormous profits , and its
crushing monopoly , the Southern Pacific
company is only to bo compared to the
Standard Oil company. Both have been
built up by men with a genius for mau-
Bging vast enterprises , but the leaders in
botlihavc moro bowels for small com
petitors than the ghost of old Marly that
ecrougo saw on that famous Christmas
Kvc. There is no standard of compari
son for the bonanza mines of the Corn-
Block lode that within five years lifted
four men above the twenty million limit
and added four hundred millions to the
world's wealth.
The Pacific coast millionaires may bo
arranged like the geologic formations of
the earth , in throe ages. The primary
period embraces the famous men who
made the Golden State known round
the world. They were the pioneers , the
Argonauts , the adventurers who built a
great state in the far west and trans
formed in a single decade the wretched ,
Spanish-American cattle raislngtcrrltory
Into one of the richest stales in the
Union , with resources as varied as its
climate and with all the appliances of au
older civilization grafted on the vigorous
lifo of the frontier. The most promi
nent of these pioneers were Harry Mciga ,
who sailed out of the golden gate ono
night with all his belongings , leaving be
hind an army of deluded creditors , and
who amassed an enormous fortune as a
railroad builder in Peru ; Sam. Brannan ,
who founded his wealth on Mormon tithe
money , was the foremost citizen of San
Francisco in its stormy youth , and then
suddenly dropped out of sight to vcgo-
tate in Sonora and dream of another
great fortune to bo made out of the
leagues of land granted him by the Mexi
can government , but now in possession
of the fierce Yaqui Indians ; William (5.
Kalston , the Napoleon of the far west ,
who did moro to develop California than
any score of his associates , aud who died
by his own hand when ruin stared him
in the face ; and William T. Coleman , the
leader of the old vigilance committee
that saved San Francisco from the rule
of gamblers and thiovcs and made hon
est government possible. The limits of
this article forbid moro than this allusion
to the men of this period.
" The secondary periods is the era of the
railway kings , which saw the conquest
of the snow crowned Sierra Nevada and
of the alkali dcsort that stretches away
eastward from the base of the mountains
to the prairies of Wyoming. It includes
Leland Stanford , Mark Hopkins , Col Us
1' . Huntington , aud Charles Crocker ,
known in negro minstrel parlance as
"Tho Big Four , " whose combined wealth
is estimated at ono hundred and eighty
million dollars.
The tertiary period is the ago of the
bonanza kings , whlcli saw the develop
ment of the Comstock lode in Nevada ,
the richest silver mines in history , the
addition of over four hundred million
Collars to the world's supply of the
precious metals in ten years. It includes
the names ot Flood , O'Brien , Fair , Mac-
Jtay , Sharon , and Jones.
Another and later era must embrace
the land aud speculative millionaires like
Saggin , Tovis , Miller , Lux , Mills ,
curst , Bal.lwin , Liming , and others ,
Who , are above the ten minion level.
Thn tiggregato wealth of all these Paci
fic coast millionaires would make cheap
and poor the riches of Monte Cristo or
the treasures of "King Solomon's Minos. "
Even if it could bo stated in exact figures ,
the average reader would have as poor a
conception of it as he has of the weight
or bulk of fifty thousand dollars in gold.
What will bo attempted in this article is
to give pen pictures of the moro promin
ent of the Pacific coast millionaires , with
brief sketches of the way they made their
fortunes. It may bo added that all wore
poor men thirty years ago , ami that all
would furnish good examples to add to
Bmlles' collection in "Self Help. " For
tune first came to thorn because they
Worn shrewd , energetic , far-sighted ,
economical , abitemlous. Their histories
all show crushing losses and disappoint
ments .it the outset of their careers , but
Iheso disasters servo only to bring out
Iho mottle of which they are mado. and
to stump them as types ot the American ,
the best roprosoututUo to-day of the
Hurling qualities of the Anglo-Saxon ,
the world conqueror.
The story of ono of the four founders
and builders of Iho Central Pacific rail
road is the story of all. Of radically un
like character , they have still worked to-
rothcr so closely that their fortunes have
peon identical : but to two of the four be
long the credit nf leadership. Of these
two Lcland Stanford and Collls P.
liuutington Stanford Is the broader-
iBindod and moro liberal man , llmmng-
ton the moro subtle , far-seeing , and
diplomatic. Hence , in furthering the
great railroad enterprise that has made
them among the wealthiest men in the
country , Stanford was given the practi
cal management of the building and
operation of the road on the Paoilio coast ,
while Huntington controlled the equally
difficult and important department of
securing government aid nt Washington
ml the negotiation of the company's
bonds hero and abroad. Of the other
two partners , Mark Hopkins was a skill
ful bookkeeper and financier , while
Charles Crocker had strong executive
capacity aud was useful to Stanford in
the management of the details of railroad
The first place in my sketch of the
building of the Central Pacitio railroad
belongs to Leland Stanford , who by char
acter , wealth , and position was the
loader in the enterprise. Ho came of
excellent English stock , his father beingS
farmer near Albany. N. Y. Young
S tanford , after- the study of thn law , wen )
to Wisconsin , but there ho suffered tbo
toss of his law library by fire. Ho came
aouie uadlsmayed , and wbilo casting
about for a new location , in 1853 , ho
c.iught the California gold fever. Ho
engaged in the general merchandise
business , and ten years saw him the pos
sessor of perhaps $100,000. In 1801 he
was elected governor of California by the
republicans , and It was in this same year
that the project of spanning the contin
ent with a railroad was discussed and
that the California legislature granted a
charter to n company of which Stanford
was president and Huntington was vlco
Never was a great work begun under
moro untoward conditions. The road
had to bo built to Ogden in Utah , a dis
tance of 878 miles. The rugged foot
hills , the almost inaccessible hoighU of
the snow-capped Sierra Nevada , the des-
olnto alkali plains of Novuda , the terror
of the overland wagon trains , Ihe canons
of Utah all these had to bo overcome.
By making use of natural passes over
the mountains the engineers finally de
cided that the road was feasible. Then
Stanford sot lo work to try to gain help.
The position was this : Ho had as as
sociates Huntington , who was a dealer
in hardware nt .Sacramento , the capital
city , and Mark Hopkins. Huntlngton's
partner. Their combined capital would
not have made over two hundred and
fifty thousand dollars. Many of the Cal-
iforn'ians had crossed the plains and
climbed the Sierra In the overland emi
grant trains. These pioneers scouted the
idea of building a railroad , and their
opinion had great weight with others.
The result was that the projectors could
get very little at the outset In their own
state. From the general government
they secured the uoblo land grant that
wa3 worth many millions ; but before
they could use this land grant on the
government bond of thirty-live thous
and dollars per mile , they were required
to construct the lirst fifty miles of road.
It was in overcoming this difficulty. In
inspiring the confidence of capitalists ,
that the gunius of Stanford was shown.
Even when government aid came it was
badly handicapped , for the bonds wcro
worth only about one-third of their face
value. All through the dark days of the
war the company wont phickily on with
their work. Any ono who lived in Cali
fornia at that time can recall how the
bonds and stock of the struggling cor
poration wcro hawked about without
finding purchasers. They wore like the
bonds of the government. Few men in
California were willing to buy the seven
per cont.s , as the workers declared that
they would bo repudiated like the old
Continental bonds. It was the common
opinion , both in Sacramento and San
Francisco , that Stanford , Huntington ,
and Hopkins had sunk all their own for
tunes in the railroad , and that failure
would DO sure to overtake them when
they tried to cross the Sierra.
It took Iho courage of great connec
tions to overcome tins public sentiment ;
but Stanford in California and Huntington -
ton at Washington and New York ac
complished it. Early in 1607 the tunnel
under thn summit of the Sierra Nevada
was finished , and on May 20 , 18G9 , the
last spike was driven that joined the east
and west.
It is interesting now to road the bril
liant loiters of A. D. Richardson to the
Now YorkTribuno , in which ho described
the scones of this ride across the contin
ent , now grown almost as familiar to
the thousands of tourists as the trip
across Now York state or the tour of the
great lakes and the St. Liwrenco. The
journey from sea to sea , which then con ?
simcd twelve days , has been cut down to
six. while the hardships of the old time
railroad travel has been so eliminated
that a Sybarite might now enjoy the jour
The completion of the railroad wit
nessed tbo sudden advance of all its pro
jectors to great wealth. Immigrants
Mowed into the state by thousands ; the
company's lands became valuable ; the
facilities of the road for transporting
freight and passengers wore taxed to the
utmost ; new territories wcro opened and
clamored for railroad connection , so that
little more than ten years after the
building ot the original road saw the
building of a new line through Arizona
and New Mexico. The rapidity with
which the Southern Pacific road was con
structed is ono of the marvels of Ameri
can railroad building. Slnco then no
less than three other transcontinental
lines of railroad have been built , others
are still in process of construction , while
the development of the Pacific coast as
well as of the vast interior territory ,
which the old school geographies used
to call the "Great American Desert , "
has outstripped the dreams of the most
sanguine western speculator.
These years have naturally witnessed
great changes in the fortunes of the men
that built the first Pacific railroad. All
except Hopkins are still alive , and all
bid fair to enjoy many more years of life.
Stanford's health is broken , as much by
the loss of his only non as by the weight
of years and heavy earns , Personally ,
Stanfotd impresses ) one as the most sin
cere of Iho three mon. Ho has a face
wnich once seen is not soon forgotten.
It is a massive face with overhanging
eye trows and great ox eyes , still keen
when lie looks up to note the effect of
what ho says. Ho talks with extreme
deliberation , selecting his words and ap
parently weighing ovor.y statement. His
legal training , his long familiarity with
great enterprises as well as his associa
tion with prominent mon at homo and
abroad have given him n breadth of
mind in which his Californlan associates
are lacking.
Stanford's only passion is for fine
horses and this taste ho has gratified on
his estate at Palo Alto in the heart of the
Santa Clara valley. There ho has a largo
number of line thoroughbred horses ,
and when ho goes down to his country
homo it is his pleasure to sit in a largo
chair in the center of a ring and see his
favorKo young llyors brought out for
It was while watching ono of these fast
trotters an animal which had the enor
mous stride of twenty-thrco feet that
the millionaire conceived the Idea that in
some part of his course the horse must
entirely clear the ground and have all
four feel In the air. So ho decided to
have his horses photographed while in
motion. Ho secured the service * of a
skillful photographer named Muybridge ,
and he arranged nn ingenious system of
cameras worked by electricity by which an
instantantancous view ot the animal was
given as he passed the homo lino. About
forty thousand dollars were spent on
these experiments ; but they overthrow
all previous notions on the subject , and
the work which Stanford had written
and published , entitled "The horse in
motion , " is n valuable contribut'.on to
science. Senator Stanford has also done
moro than anyone else to improve the
breed of horses in California , and to
demonstrate that the climate of that state
is superior to Kentucky for the breeding
of swift trotting and running stock.
It was the hope of Senator Stanford to
perpetuate his narao and to hand down
his wealth to hid only son. Leland Stan
ford , jr. , a lad who showed marked abil
ity in mechanics. But the boy had a
weak physique , and three years ago ,
while in Florence , ho contracted the
Roman fever and died suddenly. His
death aged the father moro than twenty
years of work and responsibility had
dono. It led him to devise means for
leaving a memorial to his dear son
in the form of a great industrial univer
sity to be established on his estate at Palo
Alto. Ho sought distraction from grief
in outlining the plans of an Institution
more generous in scope and endowment
than any in thi.i country. Ho called to
his aid the best educators , and with char
acteristic energy ho completed last year
the plans for the "Leland Stanford , Jr. ,
University , " wiih an endowment of moro
than twenty millions , in lamls and other
propertywnioh is sure to increase greatly
in value in the next decade. The endow
ment includes the Vina ranch of fifty-life
thousand acres in Tehatna county , on
which is the largest vineyard In the
world ; the Girdly wheat ranch in Butte
county , comprising twenty-one thousand
ncrcs ; and the Palo Alto ranch and stock
farm of seven thousand two hundred
ncrcs. The total value of these three
ranches is five million thrco hundred
thousand dollars.
When in California the senator spends
nearly all his leisure at his country estate.
Ills town house.on the crown of what has
boon irreverently dubbed Neb Hill , cost ,
with Its furnishings , not loss than $1,000-
000. It is occupied perhaps two mouths
in the year by the owner. It is rich in
wood-carving and frescoes , snd the art
gallery contains the largest collection of
old masters outside of a public gallery in
this country.
Mr. Stanford was elected United States
senator from California two years ago by
a largo voto. Ho mot practically no
opposition in his own party , for even his
enemies recognized his honesty and
his fitness for the position. When
ho announced himself as a candi
date the contest was settled. The
senator divides his time between Wash
ington , New York , and San Francisco ,
in all of whichplaces he has houses. Ho
is generally accompanied by his wife ,
who was Miss Lathrop , of an old and
and well-known Albany family. She is
known for her many charities , the kin
dergarten schools of San Francisco being
specially indebted to her bounty. She
has probably a larger and finer collection
of diamonds than any ono in this coun
try , but she seldom wears them.
The fortune of Stanford ii estimated at
fifty million dollars.
Adjoining the Stanford mansion in San
Francisco is the striking Norman castle
of Mrs. Mark Hopkins. Her husband
was thn financier of the railroad
company , but he wore himself out
by constant application , and for
several months before his death ho
had forgotten his own identity. Just be
fore this loss of his memory , ho had
begun the construction o ! this superb
residence. Ono day his medical attend
ant took him to the top of the lull , where
ho saw the work of building going on ,
when the millionaire turned to him and
in a querulous tone asked : "What infer
nal fool is wastinp money on such a
house as that ? " Ho died soon after , ills
widow , who. was a poor Now England
girl when Mr. Hopkins married her , In
herited all his wealth. She still retains
her shares in the road , and her adopted
son is ono of the rising young mon in the
railroad olllco. Her country homo Is at
Great Harrington , Mass. , where she has
built a costly summer residence. She is
regarded as the richest woman in Ameri
ca , as she has a fortune of nt least forty
million dollars , of which she doce not
spend one-half the income.
In the next block above the Stanford
and Hopkins palaces is the large and pre
tentious residence of Charles Crocker.
There is no architecture about it , but it is
finely furnished , and has a largo art gal
lery. Crocker was taken into the rail
road company in 1882 , with his brother ,
and his executive abilities were of great
help in the buiUlint : of the railroad. Ho
also had charge of the building of the
Southern Pacific road. In mental ability
and in education , however , ho is fur in
ferior to his associates. He has a heavy ,
palid face , with no signs of mental vigor
or alertness in it. Ho is credited with
great shewdness in business- affairs , and !
intimate knowledge of all thn details ofl
practical railroad work. He recently
purchased a costly house in Now York ,
which ho will make a bridal gift to his
only daughter on her approaching mar
riage , while ho is now building a fine
house on ono corner of his own lot in
San Franoisco for a son who was lately
It is Mr. Crocker's custom to ride homo
from the railroad ollices in San Francisco
in the democratic street oar. Any ono
who sees him leaning his weary face on
his largo gold-headed cane would take
him for a deacon or a philanthropist , so
benevolent is his expression and so iiu-
maculate his clerical looking necK tie ;
but the observer would bo greatly mis
taken. Crocker has the reputation of
being the most merciless of all the mil
lionaires. Some idea of his character
may bo gained from this incident. When
he bought the block on which his present
residence is built , the owner of ono lot ,
a stubborn Gorman , at first refused to
sell. When his avarice became excited
by the millionaire's intent eagerness to
buy , ho gradually increased his price af
ter each successive offer. Finally
Crqckor became enraged and swore
a mighty -oath that never while he
lived would ho buy that property. So ho
built u huge fence , twenty-fivo feet high ,
around tbo house of the Gorman. The
latter soon had to remove his house , and
the fence , somewhat reduced in height ,
still remains to mark the millionaire's
wrath , althousrh the German has been in
his grave for several years. Crocker is
regarded as worth thirty millions , of
which much is real estate.
Of the railroad millionaires C. P. Hun
tington is least known in California. For
moro than twenty years ho has made his
homo In Now York and Washington. In
keenness of intellect and knowledge ! of
men ho ranks above Stanford. Ho is a
great organizer , an accomplished diplo
mat , a manipulator of railroad shares
and of railroad legislation , second only
to Jay Gould. It shows the rare combin
ation of diverse talent among the found
ers of the Central Pacific railroad that
one of those four mon should have pos
sessed in supreme degree a faculty that
was probably the salvation of the whole
enterprise in its darkest days.
Huntington was a natural trader. The
stories of his early shrewdness when he
did business in Otsogo county , N. Y. , re
semble the similar tales of Gould's pre
cocious ability for overreaching his
neighbors. Ho wont to California in
813 , and his increase in wealth was only
the result of the application of extreme
shrewdness and economy. In partner
ship with Mark Hopkins ho built UP the
greatest hardware business in the state ,
and for years the firm do ilt largely in
minors' supplies. When the railroad
building besran , they supplied much of
the material for the roads , and this ,
with his interest in the
railroad , mrtdo liuutington ono
of the great millionaires of this
country. His fortune is estimated nt
forty millions ; but is probably beyond
this , since ho has spent very little on outward
ward display. His only ox'uonslvo taste
is for pictures. Ho lives simply and
quietly in Now York , but like Jay Gould
his hand is felt over a wide extent of ter
ritory. As an organizer hois probably
the equal of Gould. His latest exploit
the opening up of the long line of rail
road which ends at Newport News and
the establisomont at that port of a great
wheat-shipping depot-has occupied him
for the last ton years and , if successful ,
will add materially jo his vast fortune.
A Word ro Girls and Isoya.
Shamokin Times : Girls and boys , I
want to say to you that there is nothing
so valuable as character ; nothing more
essential to your happiness und success
in after lifo than reputation. An indis
creet act in your early years may , aurt
probably , will follow you through all
your lifo and often crimson your cheeks
with shame. This Is particularly so with
girls. There are always those with evil
tonguos.who will bo ready to recall your
discredit , any evil reports that may have
stained your fair name. Be on your
guard then , to give no foundation for the
talk of the slanderer. You may , in pure
thoughtlessness , do things which an in
terpretation of may bo disastrous to you.
Bo careful , then , of your conduct so this
ovll may not fall upon yout
DR. J. H. MOLEAN'S 'Strengthening
Cordial and Biped Purifier , by its vitalizing -
izing propertlos.will brighten pale cheeks ,
and transform hnggared , .dispirited
woman into one of sparkllpi heaUh and
Achievements of the Powerful and My te-
tiona Fluid.
Electricity in the Nayy Lightning
Photograph * Mine's Lighted by
Electricity Alarm Bells Elec
tric Hallway * Freaks.
The Telegraph In England.
The London Times thus summarizes
some of the statement : ) made by Mr.
Kaikos , the postmaster general , in his
speech delivered at the telegraph jubilee
recently : At first a machine required
five wires before it could dispatch n mes
sage. Now on ono single wire seven or
eight messages can bo sent simultane
ously. At first the rate of sending did
not amount ( o more than four or five
words a minute. Now on tha latest
machine no less than 403 words a minute
can bo dispatched. The number of mes
sages has increased by steady stops until
now , under the new tariff and with the
facilities that have been BO widely ex-
tcndud slnco the telegraphs came into
the hands of the government the number
is truly portentous. Those sent during
the past year amounted to close upon a
million a week 51,000,000 , in all. lo
put the matter concisely the relative
proportion between letters and telegrams
have altered in the most astonishing way
during tlio past thirty years , lu 1885 ,
when the public had become well used
to the telegraph and when every railroad
line was provided with telegraph com
munication , for every telegram scut there
were 439 letters. In ten years
Iho proportion had risen to ono
telegram for every 151 letters. In
1875 , the telegraphs having meanwhile
been purchased bv the government , the
proportion had nseu again it stood at
one telegram for every fifty-six letters ,
and in 1880 it stood at onn telegram for
every forty letters. Of course , too , this
increase has been moro than a merely
proportional increase. Letters have
grown from 80,000,000 in the year of the
queen's accession to more than
1,400,000.000 , and the absolute increase in
the number of telegrams can bo judged
by that single fact. Moreover , if this is
the testimony that can bo brought to show
the popular success of the telegraphs ,
more strikine still is the story of inven
tions , energy , disappointment , and final
triumph , which is presented by the sub
marine cables. From the time when Mr.
Crampton , in 1851 , first overcame the dif
ficulties of this branch of the work.down
to the present time" , when , according to
Mr. Pendor , there aru some 110,000 miles
of cables lying at the bottom of the sea ,
the progress in this ; department has been
constant. As the romantic history of the
first and second ! Atlantic cables
showed , immcnsediffityihios ; hart to bo
encountered and .grijivous disappoint
ments to bo expected ; but now , so great
is the improvement in the method of
making the cables.tho.chunco of success
is very large. The latest scheme , as the
now Colonial bluq books show , is for lay
ing a cable under jtho Pacific ocean , from
Vancouver to Now Zealand. Surely
there is no task from which modern sci
ence will recoil. ; t n
Electric Apparatus In the rVavy.
Lieutenant J. B. Murdook of the
United States navy ; toad , a pauer enti
tled the "Electric. Light Outlit on the
New Crmsors , " at the convention of the
National Llcctrio Light association re
cently. He said in part :
Our conditions , so far as the dynamo is
concerned , may bo summarized by wish
ing the great electrical output for a
given weight and bulk , and although at
tirst this may scorn to bo essentially the
same thing as elllcioncv of conversion ,
it is widely different. The next consid
eration is that of the connection of the
dynamo to its engine. A starting point
is afforded in thn rule that bolting should
never bo uso'i on a sea-going vessel.
Nothing so radically violates our condi
tion of economy of space as the use of
belting. The adoption of fixture
gearing between engine and dynamo
has been suggested and is probably
practicable , l > ut its durability on ship
board when the motion of the vessel inu.-it
cause working of the two shafts may not
be groat. In the navies of Europe the
practice of direct connection is universal ,
the dynamo shaft being coupled to that
of the engine. This culls , of course , for
either a great reduction of the spcod of
the dynamo or a corresponding increase
of that of the engine , it is probable that
many line now vessels will require elec
tric motors. Gun carriages may bo
worked in this way on account of the ad
vantages that an electric motor oilers in
Email weight and bulk and in the im
portant fact that it is so much easier to
splice a broken main than to patch a
leaky uipo when steMii or compressed air
is used for power. Electric motors will
be useful for shell hoists and ammuni
tion whips , reducing the number of men
employed for those purposes. Hero ,
also , light weight and compactness are
absoluteiy essential , and nino-tcnths of
the motors in commercial use would bo
barred out as too heavy. A tor-horse
power motor , the largest we would
probably use , should not weigh over 500
pouuas. "
Photographs of Lightning Wanted.
Electrical Review : The Royal
Mutcorogical society is desirous of ob
taining photographs of flashes of light
ning , as it is believed that a great deal
of research on this subject can only bo
pursued by means of the camera. The
council of the society intimate that they
would esteem it a great favor if assist
ance were afforded in this matter , cither
by sending copies of any photographs by
lightning that may already have bcon
taken , or by endeavoring to procure
them , or to Interestothers ! in the work.
It may , perhaps , bo well to mention that
the photography of lightning docs not
present any particular'dllllciilties. If a
rapid dry plato and an ordinary rapid
doublet with full aperatnrobo left uncov
ered at night during a thunder storm for
a short tiroo flashes of h'ghtning willafter
development , be found in some cases to
have impressed themselves upon the
plato. The only difficulty is the uncer
tainty whether any. particular flash will
happen to have been in the field of view.
Mines Lighted t > r El ectrloitjr.
Mr.Sottlo.tho patented of the water cart
ridge , by moans of which dynamite is ex
ploded Harmlessly In' ' fiery gas or in the
heart of a barrel of gunpowder , is manag
ing director of the Madeloy Canal and Iron
company in Stafford. His inventive skill
has boon applied successfully to the illu
mination by olectricty of the mines un
der his control , so that the miners do not
eren require hand lamps in their opera
tions. One of the seams of coal , three
feet in thickness , is worked at a depth of
400 yards from the surface , and the wires
are supplied with a current from an
upper level 825 yards deep. Permanent
lamps of sixteen candle power are fixed
throughout the workings and sixty feet
distant apart. The small globe of glass
which incloses the incandescent film is
surrounded by a larger globe filled with
water. The illuminant glass floats in
this , and it is only when the globe la full
of water , that contact is established and
light produced. As a matter , of courao ,
when the glass is broken contact ceases ,
and' the water preveu.te any possibility of
an explosion , complete extinction bolng
instantaneous. Those lamps are not af
fected by air currents.
Electric Lighting of Berlin Theater * .
Electrical Review : The ooera of Her-
lln is just closed , and the necessary works
hfivo been begun for extending electric
lighting. The performers' boxes and the
concert hall are already lighted elec
trically , and now the installation is
to bo cxtedned to the stnire , the auditor
ium and the corridors , The Edison coin-
panv has undertaken the complete sup
pression of gas in the establishment. The
proprietors of the "Rosidenz Theater , "
nt licrlin , aru in treaty with the same
company for the installation of the elec
tric light in the entire theater before the
commencement of the next season.
New Automatic Alarm Bell.
Boston Advertiser : Wh'ilo American
electricians are almost hourly enlarging
the scope of their inventions , the entre
preneurs of other countries have not been
kilo. A couple of Germans lay claim to
n complicated arrangement which is in
tended to roduoo danger in railway
travel to a minimum. The device is an
automatic alarm boll , whose ringing will
prevent collisions botwccn trains on the
same track. The invention includes
something of the Phelps-Edison device ,
by enabling a train in motion to remain
in telegraphic communication with the
station at the other end. This of course
provides an additional safeguard by in
creasing the facilities of the division su
perintendent for watching oror his net
work of tracks.
An Electric Doorplatc.
Chicago News : During the thunder
storm on Tuesday evening nn iron plato
forming the threshold of Truax'a confec
tionery store nt WaukcshaVis. . , became
so charged with electricity that u dog
bounded from it with n torrilio howl ,
while sparks scintillated from every hair
of his skin. Then a young man essaying
to enter with damp boot soles was im
pelled to jump into the air by the thrill
ing of every nerve of his body with
electric exhilaration.
Lio4 Angeles Eloctrln Hallway.
San Francisco Call : The electric rail-
wny now running at hos Angolcs is pro
nounced a great success. They claim it
can bo built for one-third of the oost of a
cable roud , and bo run at much greater
speed and at loss expense. They have
run as high as twenty miles per hour ,
but the usual speed is from ten to twelve.
The field where electricity is being
employed is evidently enlarging daily ,
and its possibilities are something mar
Man and Here Killed by Lightning.
Denver Republican : The accident oc
curred on the prairie during a storm
about ! ! o'clock in the morning. The de
ceased having tied his horse to the horn
of his saddle with : i lariat , and during
the rain placed his blankets under the
saddle for protection , and with them his
43-Colt's revolver and bolt , both full of
cartridges , and was undoubtedly sitting
sideways on the saddle with a thin
rubber slicker about htm.
The stroke killed both man and horse ,
broke the iron horn of the saddle , ex
ploded all the cartridges and set lire to
leather of the tmddlo , picket rope , blank
ets , tearing his hat boots and shirt to
pieces , while the fire consumed the ilesh
of the log from the knco to the ankle.
Ho was in a crumped , contorted position ,
as though fallen backwards from a sitting
position. The unfortunate man never
knew what killed him.
N t vr Eleotrlo'Storage Battery.
The first public test and exhibition of
the Woodward electrical storage battery
was made in Detroit , Mich. , last week
and proved to be a complete success. A
number of Detroit capitalists are inter
ested and immediate stops will be taken
for tha manufacture of the now batteries.
Lightning not only burned the house of
Joseph Wiloox , of Lake Clear , Fla. , but
struck his barn and killed all his stock.
John Lamport and his dog were killed
by lightning while tending sheep on the
ranch of Dr. Welch , at Greoley , Col.
Lightning struck the powder mill at
Stroator , 111. , and It blew up promptly ,
smashing things for halt a mile around.
A pitchfork carried over the shoulder
of William Casselman at Glover.-ivillo. N.
Y. , during a thunder storm , drew the
lightning and cost him his life.
William Howen and his sister-in-law ,
Miss I1 tini co McKcnzic , were instantly
killed by lightning lit Palestine , Tox. ,
while taking refuge under a largo pine
Heavy rain put out the lire caused by
lightning that struck Thomas Powell's
barn at llockv Mount. N. C. , but the
lightning had already killed two horses
and an ox.
The entire family of Meredith Monsoll
of Pickens county , S. C. , was killed by
lightning while dining. Tha family con
sisted of Mr. Meusoll , his wife and four
Lightning stunned the stallion Rod
Jacket , belonging to James Price of
Farmington , Ga. , and he has been as
donilo as a lamb over since. No one was
known to tide him before.
Lightning tore out the casing and
blinds of sv window of a house in Little
Rock , Ark , , and throw two bird cages
upon the floor , but neither of the birds in
the cages was injured.
An oak standing in a cemetery at
Mount Pleasant , Tonn. , afforded shelter
in a storm to nine negroes who had just
buried n friend. Lightning struck the
trco and killed them all.
While Charley Spencer of Milwaukee
was fishing lightning struck him , and
tore thn clothes completely from ono side
of his body , cutting them us neatly in
two as it the job had been done with a
Lightning tore out the whole side of
the Widow Jones' house at South Solon ,
( ) . , and revealed the widow and her
three children huddled together In theme
mo t abject terror. None of thorn was
injured , however.
When lightning struck the New Eng
land House at Now Millford it passed
completely around the collar of H. O.
Warner , who was seated on the piazza ,
giving him for a time a handsome neck
lace of blue flame.
When lightning struck the barn of
James Smith of Marion , Itid. , hu was
standing between his two horses with
three pigs nosing around their feet. At
the flash all the animals dropped dead ,
while Smith was entirely unharmed.
Lightning tore a largo oak tree on the
premises of John Mathis , at Cutbbert ,
Ga. , into kindling wood , and sent a mule
tied to it on to its knees , but the r.mlo
soon recovered , kicked a wagon into
bits , and was otherwise very lively.
Home Blade Mummlcn.
There were recently lying In San Fran
cisco , awaiting shipment to Europe , the
remains of four Arizona Indians , which
are , perhaps , the most perfect specimens
of the natural embalming process of a
dry climate ever found in this country.
Those remains are simply dried up by
the action of an atmosphere in which
there is no humidity. Even the viscera ,
which all embalmers in Egypt found it
necessary to remove in order to guard
against decomposition , have been desic
cated like the other parts of the body , so
that ono has hero the practical result of
the embalrncr's art with not a single or
gan of the Dody removed.
The discovery was made by a party of
American prospectors in the Sierro Madre
mountains of Arizona , not far from the
border line .of Mexico , says Harper's
Weekly. . Thoao- miners ware searching
for ' 'Indication * of gold , and also ,
for a cave in : whlcn It was 'repor
ted' a- large amount of ' . .treasure'
and1 ? previous stones had baoii
burled. Theywero following an Indian
trail along the steep banks of the Glla
rlrcr. when ono nf the number noticed
peculiar formation in the hillside which
seemed artificial. He stuck his pick into
it and fetched away a bit of very hard
cement. The curiosity of the party was
nt once excited , and full of the IIOPO that
they had at last discovered the treasure
cave , they quickly removed the couiont ,
only to llnu it covered with a wall of
solid masonry , evidently the opening
into some chamber in the ollfl. The
stones wcro laid without mortar , and
several of the largest being re
moved an entrance was afforded
into a rude ctxvo , perhaps twenty-fivo by
fifteen foot. By the dim light they saw
at ono end the skeleton of a human being
propped up in a sitting posture. It
flashed across their minds at once that
they were In n burial-chamber of some of
the prehistoric dwellers of the country ,
and that the mythical , treasure was still
as great a myth as over.
An examination of the figure showed
that it was that of an unusually powerful
man of medium height. JNoar by wore
three heaps of stones , which the minors
quickly cleared away , exposing to view
the remains of four other human beings
a man , n young woman , and a mother
and her child. All wcro in perfect pres
ervation , the features being clearly rec
ognizable. They wcro all covered with
coarse-woven cloth , which fell to pieces
when touched , and all wcro crowded into
positions with the knees reaching nearly
to the chin. The bodies were extremely
light , all weighing together only a few
pounds. The prospectors determined to
remove them to the nearest station , so
they were packed in a sack and thrown
over the back of a burro. After much
trouble with some Indians of the neigh
borhood , who resented this desecration
of the grates of their ancestors , the party
reached the railroad and the bodies were
shipped to San Francisco.
The Sea of Galllleo.
Correspondence Cleveland Lsader : The
lake is about twice as long as broad. It
is not for n moment to bo compared to
Como or Lucerne , neither has it the
beauty of Katrine or Killnrney , or our
own exquisite Lake George. If ono must
compare it to something , the lower part
of Windermcro might do. Over on the
other shore , near Gcrasa and Gamala ,
are some steep slopes , quito suitable for
any swine to run very quickly and surely
down into the sea. There is n strange
absence of boats ; somi'or.o says there are
but three on the whole lake , but this
must bo a mistake. Still the fishing is
largely done from the shoro. Wo had
some of it , and some successful duck
shooting. This morning ono of the boats
was captured , and looking out equally
for towns and duck , we spread sail for
up the lake. First of the towns comes
Magdalti , from the name of ono of its
sinning denizens known the world over.
Wo pass Dalmanutha , and now approach
a bank rosy with wild olcaders in blos
som , some of the trees standing quite out
from the shore in the water. Our craft
runs up into the midst of this grove of
color and scent , and disembarking , wo
walk tor some distance through n field ,
suddenly finding ourselves stumb
ling , not onlv through the brambles ,
but over the fragments of Corinthian
capitals and columns. All about are
ruined blocks and bases of basalt , indi
cating volcanic formation , but in the
middle of all the basaltic remains are
those of this building , built of beautiful
blush marblo. Wo are at Toll Hum ,
which has by far the greater evidence in
its favor as against Khan Minyeh , of be
ing the ancient Kcfrnahuin or Caper
naum , the home of Christ , where , pro
tected by Rome , ho could dwell in safety
amongst the Syrsans. and Greeks , and
Jews after the Nazarenes had thrust him
forth. These white fragments amidst all
the black very probably belong to the
synagogue which the Roman centurion
was good and great enough to erect for
the Jews. We don't find many Christian
rulers erecting Jewish synagogues , now
adays , and wo are glau that it was that
same centurion whom our Lord admired
and whoso servant is healed. If this bo
tiuly the synagogue what stories could
those stones toll of the discourses which
Ono preached in their hearing , of the
glance from that ono which may have
fallen upon their pagan beautv ,
and yet as wo turn to leave there greets
us the view of the lake and its distant
shores which cannot have greatly
changed , that view from those sands at
our feet , where the divine bard of Patmoi
was wont , as a little boy , to haul in his
fathom < net.
Now we see Chorazin and now Both-
saida Julias , , standing partly in Naph-
thai ! and partly in Manasseh. the country
east of the Upper Jorday. Not to be out
done by Herod's honoring Augustus at
Samaria , or by Antipas naming'his now
and pot city Tibonas , Philip added
the name of Ciusar's daughter
to this Bothsaida. All the lake
scenery is full of the words and deeds of
that lifo about which history itself turns.
A storm coming up in the south peaks of
of the walking on the sou ; the men fish-
injr , the parable of the not , the ruined
synagogue , of the healing of the demon
iac. Was it not on and'about this lake
that the multitudes were fed , the dn-
seascd made whole , the dead made alive ?
Was it not hero that the aptest illustra
tions of the sewer , the tares , the tribute
money , the treasure , above all , the sermon -
mon on the Mount , wore voiced by lips
which spake as never man spake.
Thn Style lu Visiting Cnriln.
Now York Mail and Express : "Fashions
change as much in visiting cards asm
dress"said the salesman in charge of
the stationery department of an up
town establishment. "Tlio style of cards
for mon is very small , two sizoa being
used , according to the length of the
name ; the smaller of the two being JH
inches lonir by 1J wide. The next
smaller size is used for single ladies , and
is 3 } inches long by 2 wide. Then comes
the size for married women's cards.
Those are consistent with matronly dig
nity. They measure 4 inches by 2 } . There
is still a larger size on which are engraved -
graved the names of both the head of the
Iiouso and his wife. Those are the stand
ard sizes , and any variation from them
must bo made to order. The style of
engraving used is now mtioh plainer than
formerly , when the old English , Roman
and block letters wore In voguo. The
prevailing form is plain script. With
men the Mr. is invariably used and the
first name given in full. The middle
nanio is often given , also.
"This rule applies equally to young
women's cards. Honorary titles for
mon are always given , and for women's
cards the address should not bo omitted.
The address should always bo placed in
the lower right-hand corner , and during
the season tno reception day is cnjjravoil
in the lower left-hand corner. The
mother's and daughters' names arc
sometimes placed on the same card , the
young women merely appearing us "Tho
Misses"with the family name appended.
Crests are only used on the cards of
foreigners. Americans have not yet
reached that stage of meaningless fool
ishness. There is u style of card which
is nearly square , but which from its
awkward .shape is rarely used. Black-
edged cards are still fashionable for
ladles In mourning , There is no partic
ular style for business cards , except the
rule is observed of making them its plain
as possible. The mini of a diplomat of
the first class boars the full title of Envoy
Extraordinary and Minister Plenipoten
tiary of the United States.
CFAULTS of digestion cause disorders of
the liver..and the whole system becomes
deranged. Dr. J. H. McLean's Strength- ,
enlng Cordial and Blood Purifier perfects
the process of digistlpn and lusini
and thus makes pure blood1'- ; " ' . .
' . . . ' . "
> \ '
Reliable !
Buy Your Shoes Where You Imve thi
Largest Stock to Select From.
We sell FINE SHOES cheap and cheap
Shoes CHEAPER than any bankrupt
Store in Omaha. No Shoddy goods
sold here
1306 Farnam St.
Cor. 13th St. and Capitol Aug. , OH AHA , NEB. , )
IV t facllltlft. ai ] > Ar lu4 ftml remmllrt for lUcrfmAil trmtmcnt of
cirry fjnil uf liv9M Q requiring SlMlonl or Hurgli-al IrcAlnirut.
WmlTK ro CIRCIII ! H on Ifcfi'riiiltlfi muA llrr > , tlnlj I'M * ,
rurrMura ofthu jilnf , 1'ite. , 1 inimr * . t'micrr , Catirrh. Itronrliltli.
Inlmlnllo I , KWIrlrlly , I'amh.l. , l.pll < > | > < ) . KMur ) , Ul.dJcr. Kn.
l. r , SUn , mul llluo.1 , mil all liuiglcitl OKTatoi , ! .
Book on Diseases of IVomcn FREE. '
AtlltloM I iwn MiiMWMftjll7lrfitM. BypMHtlc I'nlwm n moYft
from thti jklrin wllhmit nirrcurjr. Nw UutoraUrr Irratrni.uirnr
lot * of Vital Tower. lVr ui im bl | i > * Ui | ut itmr Im treated ftt
honv * . hy tWnwpomJi n < * . AUramtuunirAttoni ( 'nnfMpntUl. Utdf *
rlnMor InstnimeqlBlflnt I'j nuilcrrtnrrM , towumnrke ) | < l , ti i
triirkilalnrllrftto cotitrtiUcr Hondrr. Ono | * rh3ii l liitcrvlfvr jw * .
foral. Call ! w1 eontult Ui. or Mml liUtory of your CM , trllti itamp.
mlv r iU cuiid lu ) > Uiiuiui > i > t.r , our
L'pon rrtvatf , RircUl | nml NVrrnun Piwimn. Sojiiluil wo kunu ,
BptrniAturrhorn , ImH | > tenryr Hrplilll * . Uunorrnat , Gtfet , anil Varl *
corul * . ) iita. Addiroi ,
Dr. Mciminy. Cor. 13lh st. & Capliol Ar maba , m.
Cor. 18th and Dodge Sts. , Omaha , Neb.
A Uoguliir Graduate In Blcillvlno
nml Special lrucllttoncr.
Authorized to treat all Ohronlo , Nervous mid
"Bpociul Discuses. "
( Whether caused by Imprudence , Exccas or
ContiiKlfin ) Bumlnnl Weakness , ( nlwlit IOMSOS )
Soxuul Debility , ( loss of ( eziiul pnwur ) , Nurv-
ous Debility , nlooil Disorder * , etc. Curnlilnciisos
Ktiaramoed or money refunded. UlmrRoi low.
Thousands of oases cured. AKO and experiunoa
ure Important. All mudluinus especially prepared -
pared lor caoli Individual CHSU ,
No InJiirloiiR or PoUonoiii Com
pound * lined.
No time lost from business. Patients at a
distance troatoilby letter and express. Medicine
sent everywhere free from iruzo or brealuiKO.
No Delay in fr'Uling Order * .
For 4 cents in slump * ) , will mull free , all our
printed literature , embracingn"SyraptomI/Ut"
on which to got n lull history of Disease , oto.
U to 13 a. m. , " to A anil T to 8p. in. Sundays In
cluded. Consulting room No. 4.
Offing to the DI1H011I , rUSIIUTr oT the clolli ( l.k-h .
our paUntB roTor eicliulrrlir ) will nt perfpctlr flt > (
tlnmwnrn. R.q.lrei no LieakliiK In. HO T lURitll
by nHler fter bulnir worn tn rtftya If not found DIM monl
and Comfortable Corxt erur worn. Vulil br all
Olst-ca ! n deulnr * .
UHOTTY BIIOS. . Chicago , 111.
aulJ-wod-Bnt.viiin ( !
Attnoli II to the utulur nl < ] of tlio toiinuu back
ot nvenor , anil hook ( J U over driiw boll , A be-
Inir under uile. The licht soiling Invention of
theatre. 1'ut Fob. 1' ' ! , IBHfl. Fur Information
TcifttrdloB springs und tvrr.tory , call on 01 nil-
droaa , J. J. HKINNEH.Oinuhu , Nob.
Offlcs , 1310 Harney Street.
Illinois Conservatory of Music
Uiiitirpui'od AilTuntngo In all Ilfnartinon , oC
Muilc.l.lUratur , MudoiiLanguagoi , ( elocution.
t 12. r. lll/LLAUD , aupt. , Jackiaurllla , Ui