Omaha daily bee. (Omaha [Neb.]) 187?-1922, July 03, 1887, Page 11, Image 11

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    JHE OMAHA bAILY BEE * SUNDAY , JULY 3 ; I887. = TWELYE PAGE& . *
PROGRESSIVE NINETEENTH ,
he Wonderful Advance Made by lien and
Things in the Present Oentnry ,
THE SOCIOLOGICAL CHANGES
Xlic Increase in Production Domes
tic Economy The Excellent Trans
portation Facilities Historical
and Geological Change * ,
J
It may bo nn advantage to the present
generation that they should hear , from
those who commenced life early in this
century , what a wonderful advance has
been made in many respects during that
pcrloJ.
riiODCCTIOX.
Beginning first with farming facilities ,
whioh enabled the United States to culti
vate millions of acres of wheat where
formerly only thousands produced that
cereal , and noting that other grain and
frardcu vegetable production has ad
vanced in like proportion , it is safe to
say that good plows.liarrows.rollera , and ,
finally , a revolving hayrako and the grain
cradle constituted about all the available
labor-saving machinery or tools some
forty years since , with the exception in
some districts of the wheat drill.
Now tbo farmer can not only ride while
plowing , have implements to break
clods , to drop different kinds of grain ,
nnd to cultivate between rows , but ho
also possesses many varieties of mower ,
nnd n machine which takes up hay from
the windrow and stacks it. Ho hao the
aid of various reapers , Bomo of which
bind ready for shocking , besides thresh
ers which clean the gram ready lor mar
kct , nnd stack the straw for cattle feed ,
other machines cutting it for admixture
with other grain , thus saving in feed nnd
promoting in fattening facilities.
In mining , the use of the diamond
drill , of compressed air , of dynamite for
blasting , of improved steam engines for
pumping , etc. . added to the progress
made in chemistry , mineralogy , metal
lurgy , and mining engineering , have
wonderfully increased the output of ores ,
coal , etc.
The arts nnd manufactures have been
also wonderfully developed. The distaff
and wheel used for spinning flax , cotton ,
and wool , as well as the hand-loom , have
Driven place to the maehinerv specially
adapted for those three textile fabrics ,
which , guided by one woman , will per
form work that formerly would have re
quired a hundred women or more to com
plete the same amount of 'work in the
same time , thereby reducing , for instance ,
icalico from thirty and fifty euts per yard
ilfty years ago to from five to ten cents
now ,
The prioe of wheat , on the contrary , is
at least double what it was fifty years
mco in tbo western states , namely ,
Whereas it sold then often for fifty cents
for bushel it .now usually commands n
collar.
DOMESTIC ECONOMY.
Under this .head may be mentioned the
Changes in the mode ol lighting our
fcousos. From candles ( tallow , sperm ,
and wax ) , with .snuffers and tray , wo
passed to Jard-oil lamps , to phosgene ,
Burning iluid , coal gas , and finally petro
leum and electric lights. There is Htill
xoom for improvement as recards perfect
safety , from explosions , shocks , nnd
-flickering ns injurious to the y s.
fcTho improved changoin dietary is very
marked in the west. Instead of pork ,
corn meal , homiuy , and a few garden
vegetables , such s.3 cabbages , and of
iruit , badly dried apples wo mow have in
.summer every variety of fruit and vege
table in its season , and in winter van
nnvo nearly all the same preserved in
cans , or Drought from the south at corn-
.paratlvoly small expense.
The facilities for obtaining articles of
juxury und'Of .adornment , snchas'equip '
ages , louses , furniture , -pioturesjowelry ,
* tc. , are very ercot as compared to for- !
jnor years , and , I may add , -are n great ,
temptation to the uxtruvatrant oxpoudit- ,
Tire , regarding which I offered some re
marks in a former number of the Cur- ,
jcnt
Perhaps , as I have mow -commented !
Tipon thocurrontovoutH.'on the current
amprovemBUts and on 'Current expendi
tures , I may hereafter otter somnthing-on
, the current of lifo -bearing on 'hygiene ,
-and.lator , on the soicalled electrical ur-
Tents which .some . think , .in their effect
'npon tlro.meterological conditions of our
jjlobe , often.afl'cDt the prices of grain , by
.greater or less rainfall .making a bettor
or inferior harvest. But I must notomit
to mention the jjreatadvance.and advan
tages in
TltANSrOKTATION.
-At the bcginniugof tthis'oentuTT wo had
A few river steamboats , no ocean steam-
4xra ; a fow.tram ways , no railways ; a few
military and .marine telegraph signals , j
JionJcctric'tolcgrnplu ' , telephones or eleo-1
trio cables. Hi ver .trips , which , fifty ;
years since , .required ten days lor asoont ,
fare now accomplished in five ; traversing |
3ho ocean has reduced the several > weeks ;
voyage to about ns many-days , the four- ,
aul month of overland journey , instead of i
daily and nightly jolting with little or no ,
'Bleep ' , is now performed in palace cars ,
luxuriant sleepers and restaurant atUch-
.mout , in seven days : and the joyous or
frievous news to friends in Australia or
ew Zealand'which ' formerly demanded :
months of tardy postal forwarding-can
now bo cabled Jn-as many minutes.
lUSTOlilOAL CHANGES.
, In the period we are contemplating
anon 'have penetrated far > into the Arctic
regions , and throughtho ; Kara sea. baok
lliowe by Bohring's straits. Our civiHvur
Jios como .nnd gone , slavery has boon
abolished hero nnd . .inBrazil and other
places ; the Russian serfs have .been
emancipated , the interioriof < Afrioa meas
urably explored , the Free Congo region
established , the Mediterranean con-
mectod byltio Rod sea with the Indian
ooemij.tho Atlantic is being connected
iwith the Paoilie , the German ocean with
tbo Baltic by canal ; the earth bos been
tunneled under towering Alps , nnd-won-
olrous bridges have been built. The
tunnel under the Straits of Dover is con-
lomplnted as entirely feasible , balloon
ing has been successful , -and it seems
Ihurd to name anv engineering project
.too bold ordlfliculUor modern akill and
appliances.
SOCIOLO01C.VL CHANGES.
Improvements in the manufacture of
iron and steel , the invention of much
.labor-saving machinery inthe mechanical
arts ( such .as making clothing , shoes ,
watches.and clocks , nails , pins , needles ,
. horseshoes , nuts ana taps , aud-.tiiousands
of smalt articles in wood , iron , and tin )
have rendered the apprentice almost
obsolete. Of vhat use lor a young man
to bo nn apprentice or a journeyman m
any trade , when , with ail his acquired
skill , he nan never compete in excellence
or speed with the automatic , and 1 may
say autocratic machines , working as if
Inspired by u living and indwelling soul ?
Of what use to bo a printer and send out
nxcollcnt'thoughts from a haudpress , by
the hundred sheets , -while the steam
press lias anticipated by scattering Its
millions of latest cabled news ? All this
lessens the demand for labor and leaves a
surplus , for which the sociologist and
political economist are now endeavoring
to provide a remedy. In n former com
munication I ventured Io suggest what
meantime we might do with our surplus
tabor. Meeting , however , the problems
f nihilism , anarchy , overproduction ,
etnkcs , labor organizations , etc. , will do-
tunnd our most earnest thought , rfud
uiut be promptly done. With vigor ?
Yes ; but with a dcon nnd abiding 'sense
of justice , and a recognition of tbo fun
damental truth that hi all social com
pact ? the greatest good of the greatest
number , nnd thccqtial protocu6fl 6 ! 1:16 :
nnd property for every Individual ,
should bo paramount nnd undisputed.
( IKOLOniCAIj CHAMJF.3.
\Vhllo man nnd his works have been
participaling to form changes in the
realm of thought and its resultant work ,
material changes have been very jwrcep-
tlble in half n century among the mil
lions of years which geologists claim for
our planet's history , lu nvor where
deepest water flowed fifty years since I
now find vast sand bars and Islands ,
already bearing thrifty willow and cot-
tonwo\d trees , some a foot in diameter.
Where dead level roads allowed n free
gallop , a creek twenty-live feet deep by
forty feet wide moots the view ; wiicro
horses mired down , heavy wagons gather
crops of hay ; where douse forests shaded
the perennial spring , now fervid sun
shine shrinks the cattle brook to a mere
winter rill. Where groves broke the
liowling blast , denuded lands catch the
full desolation of the unchecked cyclone
of destruction. Let us take warning ,
ere it bo too late , and protect our noble
forests. RlJllAHI } O\VEN.
Can a Man Open Ilia Wife's tatters ?
Charles Dudley > Vnrren in Harper's
Magazine for July : That would depend ,
many would savupon what kind of a hus
band he is. But it cannot be put aside in
that flippant manner , for it is a legal
right that is in question , and it has re
cently been decided in a Paris tribunal
'hat the husband has the right to open
he lettois addressed to his wife. Of
sourse in America an appeal would in
stantly bo taken from this decision , and
icrliaps by the husbands themselves ; fern
n this world rights arc becoming so im
partially distributed that this privilege
granted to the husband might nt once bo
extended to the wife , and she would read
all his business correspondence , and his
business is sometimes various and com
plicated. The Paris decision must be
bused upon the familiar formula that
man and wife are ono , and that that ouo
s the husband. If n man has
lie right to read all the
otters written to his wife being
lis property by reason of his ownership
of her , why may ho not have n legal
right to know all that is said to her ? The
question is not whether a wife ought to
receive letters that her husband may not
read , or listen to talk that he may .not
hear , but whether ho has a sort of lord
ship that gives him privileges which she
docs not enjoy. In our modern notion
of marriage , which is getting itself ex
pressed in statute law , marriace is sup
posed to rest upon mutual trust and mu
tual rights. In theory the husband and
wife are still one , and there can nothing
como into the life of ono that is not
shared by the other ; in fact , if the mar
riage is perfect and the trust absolute ,
the personality of each Is respected by
the other , and each is freely the judge of
what shall bo contributed to the common
confidence ; and if there are any conceal-
xncntB. it iswell believed that they arc
for the mutual : good. If every one
were as perfect in the marriage
relation as those who are Dreading these
lines , the question of the wife's letters
would never arit > o. The man trusting 'his '
wife , would not care to pry into any little
secret his wife might have , or bother
himself about her correspondence ; ho
would -knorw , indeed , that if ho had
lost her real affection , a eurvoillanoo of
her letters could not restore it.
Perhaps it is a modern notion that
marriage is a union of trust and not of
suspicion , of expectation of faithfulness
the more there is freedom. At atrv rate ,
the tendency , not withstanding the French
decision , is awav from the common law
suspicion and tyranny toward a higher
trust in an enlarged freedom. And it is
certain that the rights cannot all bo on
side and thn duties on the other. If the
husband legally may compel his-wife to
show him her letters-the courts will be
fore long grant the same privilege to the
wife. JJut , without pressing this
point. " the Drawer holds strongly
to the sacred ness of correspondence. The
letters ono receives are in ono sense not
his own. 'They contain the confessions
of another soul , the confidences of an
other mind , that would be rudely treated
if given uny sort ol publicity. [ That is
one reason why some communications to
ihe Drawomever sees .the light. ] And
while husband and wife are ono to each
othur , they are two in the eyes of other
people , andtit may well happen that a
-friend will desire to impart something tea
a discreet woman which she would not
intrust to ' .ho babbling husband of that
woman. 32very life -must 'have its own
privacyand its own place of retirement.
Tbo'letter ' IB of all things the -most per
son nl and'inthnato tiling. Its bloom is
gone whon'another eye BOCB it before the
ono for which it was intended. Its aroma
all escapes when it 'is ' 'first opened by
another person. One might as woll'wear
secondhandclothing ns cot a secondhand -
hand Jotter. Here , then , is a sacred
; right thnt ought to boTospocted , and-cau
bo respected without any injury to do
mestic lifo. The habit in some families
for the members of it'to show each other's
letters is n most disenchanting ono. It is
Justin tbo family , between persons most
-ntimate-that those delicacies of consid
eration for the privacy of each ought to
bo most respected. 'No ono can estimate
probably how much of tbo refinement , of
the delicacy of'feeling ' , has been lost to
the world by the introduction of the
postal card. Anything written on a
postal card has no personality ; it is banal ,
and has as little" power of charming any
one < who receives it as an advertisement
in the newspaper. It is 'not simply 'the
cheapness of the communication that is
vulgar , but the publicity of it. One may
have perhaps only-a cent's worth of af
fection to send , but it Booms-worth much
more when enclosed in nn'onvolopc. ' Wo
have no doubt , then , thnt on general
principles the French decision is a 'mis
take , and that 'it tends rather to vulgar
ize than to retain the purity and delicacy
of the marriage relation. As the judges ,
so long even as men only occupy the :
bench , will no doubt reverse It when the
logical march of .events . forces upon them
the question whether the wife may open
her husband's ' letters.
The .Diver's Fight "With a Shark.
Paris Morning News : A diver 'named
Quintrco had anromarkable fight with a
fish -called boultuus , a 'kind of shark
which infests the Breton cost of Douar-
nonez , the othur day. While 'ho was at
the bottom of 'the sea the men who wore
working the air-pump in the pontoon
boat above wore suddenly frigntondcd by
hearing the alarm signal. They instantly
pulled up and brought a large 'boultous ' ,
nearly eight fcot 'long , to the surface.
The marine monster's head formed three-
quarters of its'length ' nnd its under jaws
were of immense size. Shortly after
wards Qulntroe came , up his -hand on the
air pipe of his helmet nnd his diving
apparatus somewhat damaged.
It appears tlmt'whon he went down to
his work he had -scarcely got to his last
rung of the ladder when Tie saw the sea
monster lying between two hugo lumps of
rock. Ho had in his hands only his stone-
chisel and a hammer , and ho intended to
go up for u crowbar nt ouco , but the fish
was too fast for him. It came towards him
through th 3 green water with its enor
mous jaws wide open. Without losing a
moment Qulntreo managed to wound the
animal in the throat with his chisel , and
then held it and with his kuifo made a
hole in its hodytlrrough which ho passed
a rope , and thus sent the fish to the sur
face. Had il not been for his quickness
and dovtentvtho diver , owing to rents
which the HKI ! would make in nis appar
atus , Tvotdd have been drowned and then
devoured. As it happened , it was the
boultous that was not only defeated but
eaten , for its body was divided umong
tint victor and his comrades , who made a
capital boiwllabttlsse of its prime parts.
TDE FQOIPRJp OF TIME.
*
The Original Draft f the Declaration of In
dependence Fading.
JOHN HANCOCK'S FAMOUS HAND
The Signature of J offer * on Visible
Only to tbo Eye of Faith The
Treasure of the State Depart
ment An Historic Table.
Washington Letter : I don't believe
that ten out of every 10.000 people in this
country know where the declaration of
independence is. Most tnoti , even in
Washington , think it is in Iiidciicndenco
hall , Philadelphia. Inasmuch as very in
telligent men and women huvo asked
me during the past two or tlirou years in
ninny instances where the original of the
"great charter of our iiulopondance" is ,
and where Jcll'crson's first draft is kept ,
and what has become of the desk on
which the declaration was written nnd
the table on which it was signed ,
thought the other day that I would tell
ull that 1 know about thuir whereabouts
before another independence day passed
over our head.
The declaration of independence , Jef
ferson's original drnlt ami the desk on
which ho wrote it arc all in the library
of the department of state. The table on
which the declaration was signed by the
ancestors of some of us will bo gathered
in there with the rest some day , but just
'
now it is m Independence Imll.'in 1'hila-
dolnhia. I wont up to the depart
ment of state yesterday exuressly to
look at the declaration , the
drrft and the desk. The library of
the department of state is on the third
Hour , the entrance being just in front of
the elevator shaft. It is a well-conceived
room , small , but so well arranged and so
tastefully finished that it impresses you
as larger than it is. It is two stories
high , witli alcoves on both lloors. The
renter rectangular room , upon which the
alcoves open , is well proportioned , and
from its tiled fjoor to its well-modeled
coiling is pleasing to the eye. As you
enter through the north door you look
directly through the south idoor and
over a portico down the Potomac beyond
Alexandria , the Washington monument
loomine up in tlm middle distance. On
the eastern wall of the main room , be
tween two alcoves , hangs a cabinet of
sonic well-polished dark wood neatly but
plainly constructed , with but very little
ornamentation. It is live feet high and
three broad. From the key resting in
the key-hole depends a card witli the
printed Jegond : "Tho original of the
declaration of independence. " You
open the doors of the cabinet by pulling
on this Key , for there is no knob of any
sort The doors are carefully joined , so
that they open very slowly. Within at the
back of the shallow cabinet , framed sep
arately under glass , are the original dec-
Inrntion of independence with the original
signatures and the original draft in Jef
ferson's handwriting. The declaration
is on ono large sheet of parchment , and
hangs above the draft , which is on'two
sheets of the small legal cap paper of that
day , torn at the original creases. On the
inside or the northern door of the cabinet
you see a small engraving of Jefferson's
head in profile , which shows what an
ugly nose he had. IJut you turn from
that at once to the declaration and the
draft. The parchment on which the
declaration is written is discolored in
many places , and on the edges and in oive
or two spots of the surface slightly
abraded. You can reaa every word of it
with.ease . , although the ink has plainly
faded : but when you come to the signa
tures you find that nil have fadedgrcatly ;
that only a few are at all distinct : that
many are either indecipherable or invisi
ble , and that the rest can only bo recog
nized by straining at once your eyesight
and your memory. The first man to sign
the declaration when , as Jefferson after
ward said jokingly , the attacks of the
horse-flies from the neigh boring stables
upon iho silk-stockinged legs of the mem
bers had become so intolerable that they
were obliged to stop debating about
it was John Hancock. Everybody
.knows Ids bold authograph , which
ho said , as ho wroto'it. ' John Hull could
road without spectacles. 1 am sorry to
say that itno longer stands out more
plainly than the others. In fact , it is not
.so distinct as some of them. The "John"
is plain npugh , though faded , but the
' 'Hancock" looks ragged , booking at
the other signatures , generally , yon sec
that those of the 'Now Hampshire , Massa
chusetts , Ilhodo Island nna Connecticut
'members on the extreme right , and those
on tho'extreme loft , are the only ones
that can bo termed , distinct. The signa
tures of Josiali Bartlett and William
Whipplo.'cf ' NowHampshiro.mro at the
head of'this column. Thon'comos ' these
of Samuel Adams , Robert Treat .Paino
anrtJMbndge 'Gerry ' , of Massachusetts.
Then comes those of Stephen Hopkins
( whoso hand shook , but with palsy and
riot with fear , and whoso autograph is
legible when firmer signatures have
iadod away ) , 'and William Ellcry. of
ithode Island. Tlionthose of Koger
Sherman , Samuel Huntington , William
Williams and Oliver Wolcott , of Con
necticut the latter not BO distinct , as the
rest. In the next column to thO'lef t the
autographs of William Floyd , Philip Liv
ingston , 'Francis Lewis and Lewis Alorris ,
of Now lork , can bo made wit with
little difficulty , although the autograph
of .Morris seems to bo lading very rap
idly. Of the New Jersey members I
could make out the autographs oMlich-
* rd Stockton , John Witherspoon nnd
irancis Hopkinson. ! tried to trace UK
signatures of the other two , John Hart
and.Abrnhim 'Clark , but.I had to fall
back on my imagination. 'The ' only two
in the next column , which comprises the
Pennsylvania and Delaware delegations
decipherable with the naked eye seem to
bo Robert Morris and Benjamin Rush , of
Pennsylvania. I looked in vain for the
names of Benjamin Franklin , John Mor
ton , George Clymcr , James Smith
George Taylor , James Wilson nnc
George .Ross , of Pennsylvania , -and
O.-usar 'Rodnoy.'Gcorgo 'Road and Thomas
MoKoan , of Delaware. The name o
baniuel Chase , of Maryland , can bo soon
atithe head of'tho next column. There is
just a suggestion of William Paca anc
the gallant Charles Carroll ( who added
"of Carrollton" in order that there might
'be no'mistake ) in two lines of waving
.pale . ink below Chase's autograph , but .
could not discover the name of Thomas
Stone , of Maryland. I made ou
under these the names of George
Wythe and Richard Henry 'Lee of Vir
ginm. 1 tried io think that ! saw the sig
nature of Thomas Jefferson , which
know ought to come next , but if I saw i
it was with the eye of faith. .Sfor could 1
see the autographs of ThornaKtfelson , jr ,
Francis Lightfoot Lee and Carter Brax
ton , nor that of big Benjamin Harrison
also of Virginia. It was the heavy Harrison
risen , Jefferson says , who , when John
Hancock said something about the neces
sity of their "all hanging together , " am
benjamin Franklin added : "Yes , in
deed : wo must all hang together , or as
suredly wo shall all hang separately1'
it was Harrison who crowlod at thin
bo all ovur with mo long before you have
done kicking at the air.1 Harrison's fa
signature is now as ghostly as though i
were his on u shade. I couldnot , find tfa
names of the North Carolina signers
William Cooper , Joseph Howes , and Join
Penn , but underneath the place
where they ought to have been I fount
the name of Edward Uutledgo o
South Carolina , nnd some distance
bclo wit that of Arthur Hid Jlcton of the
same stato. But in the hUer-space I saw
neither of the names of the other two
South Carolina signers , Thomas floy-
vard , Jr. , nnd Tltomas Lynch , Jr. Away
ip in the upW left-hand corner the
names of the three Georgians stand out
listlnctly Bnttort Gwtnnctt. Lynian
lall and George Walton , but the name of
Matthew Thorntop , of Now Hampshire ,
s neither with the other Now Hampshire
uaines nor any1 where clso so far as I
otild sec. I wjshtho president or Secro-
nry Bayard woula ask congress to ap-
loint a cominiiisioh to restore the missing
lames on this1 immortal document. A
lonnnission was created by congress a
ew years ago , I think , for the purpose of
restoring the whole parchment to its ori
ginal condition. 'I don't know whut be
came of it , boi ! evidently it did nothing ;
ind evidently , tob , something ought to
> c done. I presume that with proper
enses every letter ou the parchment
could bo traced now , but it may not bo
) osiblo to do so ten years hence.
Closing the doors of the cabinet yon
urn to a largo square glass case atandiug
list before the south door of the room ,
n it arc some relics and curio of more or
ess importance , chiclly less ; but the
word which George Washington wore in
> attlo and the desk on which Thomas
Jcll'craon wrote the Declaration of Inde-
) cndonco make it worth ; of attention.
The desk is a very simple ono of wcll-
oincd walnut , with an ingeniously ar
ranged writing place covered with green
cioth. On the cover of the paper drawer
s a square piece of paper containing the
bllowing in Joflcrson's handwriting :
"Thomas Jeflbrson gives this writing-
desk to Joseph Coohdgo , junior , as a
uiemonto of affection. It was made from
a drawing of his own bv Bon Randall , a
cabinetmaker , of Philadelphia , with
whom he first lodged on his arrival in
Jiat city in May , 1770 , and is the identi
cal ono on which ho wrote the Declara
tion of Independence. Politics as well
is religion has its superstitions , 'i'huso
gaining strength with time may one day
; ivo imaginary value to this relic lor its
issociatious witli the birth of the great
charter of our independence. "
Monticollo , November 18,1823.
There is a fac-sitnilo of this on the
trout of the desk , together with an auto
graph memorandum by it. B. Hayes ,
stilting that the heirs of Joseph CpoliUgc ,
l > y the hands of Robert C. Winthrop ,
presented it through him to the people of
; he United States , and that he forwarded
it to congress. This under date of April
2J , 1880. Congress , you remember , or
dered it to bo kept by the department of
state. When the latter guts the table on
which the declaration was signed it will
bo content , but not before.
TRADES-UNIONS IN FRANCE ,
.Nine Associations That Arc a Great
IJonelU to the AVorkincincn.
While the trades-unions of this country ,
writes a correspondent to the New York
Sun , are just at present passing through
a Btrnggle to preserve an existence
threatened by combinations of employers ,
It will bo nt least instructive to both par
ties in this contest to listen for a few
moments to an account ot the progress
which many of the trades unions of
Tfranco have made toward industrial in
dependence , y 't'
For several , years the municipal
council of fParis has been accus
tomed to contract ] with the trades unions
of that city for tho'pcrformance of vari
ous kinds "of work. As a rule the city
had to congratulate itself upon the ex
cellent manner in which such work was
done , but the .trades unions themselves
chiefly from tub want of ready capital ,
have boon Imifypetod in securing the do-
sirod'inoreuse of flieir business. They
lacked the rpcans of supplying them
selves with the materials and appliances
necessary in qid.\rtaking | . important con
tracts and in many ) cases , though there
was no doubt of the reliability to do the
work , they hajl nxiit the financial credit to
justify contracting for it.
It.was the knowfoge of difficulties of this
kind which led fll. Rampal , a capitalist
to leave his fortune to the city ot Paris ,
with RDOcial injunctions that it should be
loaned to associations of workingmen , to
bo used under the control of the munic
ipal council of Paris. The will of the
testator was so precise in its provisions ,
that , though the council was not in favor
of the scheme , it was obliged to accept it ;
and from the report of M. Roygcal , the
secretary of the special committee ap
pointed by the council to manage the
funds of the legacy , most interesting
facts may bo gathered. To 'the ' nine
trades unions of Paris engaged in the
various departments of the building
trade the following loans wore made :
1. To the association of the working car
penters of'theSeine. 80,000 francs (80,000) ( ) .
U. To the association of the working car-
pontarsof Villette , HO.OOO trancs (3l5.(03) ( ( ) .
I ! . To the association of tlio working pain
ters , of Paris , 17r.OO .francs (53.503. ( )
4. To the union stonecutters of Paris , -4,800
francs ( S9fiO ) .
5. To "L'Unlon" ' co-operative society of
working house painters , 3,900 trail us (57tO ( ) .
0. To the society of walking roofers and
plumbers , of Paris. 3,000 ( mo ) .
7. To "le Travail" association ot working
painters , 3,200 francs (3IHO ( ) .
8. To the fraternal union oC carpenters ,
2,000francs ( SiO ) ) .
0. To the co-operative association of stone
cutters , 750 francs (8150) ( ) ,
The first of'those societies is very pros
poroun. Sinoo the loan its active capital
lias increased over $3,000 , ana now
amounts to $29,001. At this moment it is
the contractor of works amounting to
$38,800. The money loaned to this asso
ciation was used as security in obtaining
contracts and in buying lumber ndvanta
geously.
xne second society is also in a prosperous
condition. Its.capital has increased 3,040
since the loan , and amounts to $31,1)35. )
It has 18r > mombzre. Its loan was of
great service , enabling it m the first in
stance to pay 'cash for a part of its sup
plies , thereby obtaining a discount of 3
per cent for four months , or 0 por-cent
per year. The borrowed fund also ena
bled the society to give security and
command important contracts.
1 ho third society , the association ol
working painters , -making excellent
progress. During the last year it has
done work amounting to $42,800 , on
which it realized a net profit of $3,800.
The commission , however , thought it
best to state that the director of ttio eo-
cloty had retired from his position in
ordor'to commence business for himself.
This was all the more dangerous because
ho could profit by his former relations
witli the society nnd secure patronage at
its expense. And although it does'not
belong to the municipal council to inter
fere in - mattorVofmerely
-merely personal mo
ment , yet the' commission deemed ii
-proper to mention facts of this kind in
order to put 7orKingnlon'ssocieties on
their guard Tisfac as possible against the
dancer-they ninst meet.
The fifth society in the list 'is in cooc
-condition. In ttno first six months of
1874 it made a net profit of over $1,880
Its credit is good nnd il always meets Its
cncagoments. ' Its loans has enabled i
to contract for the work of the city of
Paris , nnd IcHnfcrcaso its business. It
has also partly1 freed itself from the
Banque Populniro. wnich took a rather
largo interest on .the loans It made.
The sixth society , the Working Roofers
nnd Plumbers of Paris , although doing a
modest business , has scon its active capi
tal increase $1,000 since January , 188 }
Their loan has enabled them to extern
their business.
"Lo Travail. " the seventh society o
the list , an association of painters , has
realized during tlm first six months of the
yehr , a net profit of $1,000 on its capital
of $7,200. According to the society the
profit would have been much larger if i
had not been obliged to pay Its workmen
the rate of the city , that la 80 centimes (1C (
cents ) an hour , -while others paid 12,13
or. at most , 15 cents.
The ninth Hociety , the Co-oporatlvo
Society of Stonecutters , has the satisfac
tion of seeing Its prosperity Btcadljy in
creasing , though beginning ia a ver
GREAT REDUCTIONS
--AT THE .
New York & Omaha Clothing Co
We desire Io call Hpcelal ntlcntlon to our great reduction 011 Summer § tilt which we vnn prom *
lie arc , ut their present price * , tlio cheapest good * in the market. Our 90 , S , 8 to nnd glttniilta ,
ire now cll for Qt , R , $0 and $7Al o n uplendld line of all wool ViUNlinere and WorMcd Sulti
that were welling for ( ? ti.5O : , 813 , § 1 § ami $20arc now selling at glO , $ in.3O and 915. Our line
ofimiimicr oulsaud ; Ve 1n liu * been replenished , nnd now we eaii again nhow the lurgent imort-
mcnt of these good * , In Flannel , Serge , Seersucker , nnd all manner of Summer Good * nnd put-
terns. Hare you neon our 75e Uiidcravenr ? IT not , romc and nee the Name quality of good you
have been paying SI.25 and $1.5O lor. In the lilldrenn'aiid Boy * ' department we have had the
knife nt work , and now we nhow our enormous line at extremely low price * , Thliikt A good
unit for $1.5O , Sl 76 und gt. ! Our entire line of $ ( t and S7..1O Mills hare been reduced to 91 nnd ,
$4.SO. Straw IlatM at-IOcCO and 75c. Grey Still Hals at 1.5O , $2 and $ .5O , and for other
styles Just look nt our hat show in the window nnd you will see the cheapest line you have ever
had the good fortune to look upon.
Do not forget that caeh purchaser of goods to the amount of 2,5O will receive n ticket on the
Pony nnd Carl , which l to ue given away on the 4th of July.
July.CLOTHING GO
13OS STREET.
modest way. Ut , membership has in
creased to 170 , and its nutivo capital ,
which at the time of the loan was only
$300. now it amounts to $1.125. Its loan
of $150 was used in finihliiug work in
process lor the city of Paris. It was not
suindent to benoiit thorn except in hast
ening that work.
The fourth and eighth societies of the
list , the Union of the Stonecutters of
Paris and the Fraternal Union of Car
penters , are both in u bad condition ,
neither having paid the interest on its
loan , duo last July , and , as their linan-
cial condition is very uncertain , pro
ceedings have been instituted against
thorn to obtain , not only the intcrcot duo ,
but also the principal. The losses prob
ably represent over six per cent of the
capital loaned , which is more than can
be admitted as the average in ordinary
business transactions. It is unfortunate
that failure should have occurred , since
it may tend in some degree to obstruct
the industrial progress which bids so
fairly to make independent , self-support
ing institutions of the trades unions.
The municipal council made its lows
from the Rampal legacy nt ' . $ per cent in
terest , and from these various transac
tions the fund , which amounts to some
what over $20,000 , bus derived about ftiOO
in interest , and will lese , should the de
linquents not way more than they have
at present , bout ? 1COO a result which
socms.to indicate the gradual but certain
disappearance of the fund. This is the
view of the case taken by these who ob
ject in tote to the trades unions over as
suming a more independent or influen
tial position than that which they have
heretofore held. On the other hand , it is
maintained by these who conceive the
true function of trades unions to be much
more extensive and important than at
present that their failure in two or many
cases in this era of competition should
only cncourazo the efforts of organizing
security in industry , instead of abandon
ing such results us have already been at
tained.
. The report shows that while only two 1
of the nine unions to which loans were
made have Jailed in promutly repaying ,
the other seven have not only mot all
their obligations , but have made sucli
use of their capital as to realize a total
profit of $10.026. Iftherefore , these trades
unions would only make a further appli
cation of the principles of fraternal co-
onoration upon which they are founded ,
and by which they differ essentially from
the competitive industry in the midst of
which they exist , the whole experiment
would be a triumphant success.
Of course , when the use of the public
money is intrusted to individual corpora
tions such as trades unions or others , it
is of the utmost importance that its se
curity should ibo good. But it is hoped !
that , by mutual organization , trades
unions can make the public bettor satis-
lied witli their handling of the public
mouoy or credit than such railroad and
other corporations ay huvo enjoyed this
LAW IN ARIZONA.
How Desperadoes Ruled Tomtoatono
In Early Days.
An old resident of California who has
seen some very queer times , and many
changes.says the San Franciso Chronicle ,
got talking the other night of a trip ho
made to Arizona Homo yenis ago , just
about the time of the Tombstone boom.
"It was quite extraordinary1 ho said.
"The country was full of desperadoes and
bad gamblers , and they-were very dan
gerous , too. They ruled Tombstone nt
that time. A friend of mine was in Tomb
stone , and ono day he saw a man walking
quietly along who was a noted desperado
and murderer n man for whoso Lead a
big reward was offered. Ho knew the
chief of pohco and ho went and told him
about it. Inside of the day ho got n no
tice thnt they gave him ono hour to quit
Tombstone , and ho quitted. Now at
Tucson there was law and order , and
these same desperadoes who went
about shooting in Tombstone would
KO down to Tucson and behave like
the most.guileloss of dtizens. This was
mainly on account of an old judge they
had there , a German , who feared none
ol them and had his own emphatic way
of serving out the law. They knew if
they pot into a scrape in Tucson they
were in for it and they'd get no mercy.
He had , perhaps , rude ways of carrying
out the law , this old judge , but they were
very effective. Ono day n notorious
character was brought up for something.
They had -whipping-post there then.
The old judge looked at him.
"I think 1 see 3-011 before , no ? "
The culprit admitted that ho had been
there on several occasions.
"Wai , I just sentence you to forty
lixshes. You take twenty of them to
morrow nnd then you vas released on
your own recognizances , nnd you comeback
back in n week and take the other
twenty. "
The fellow had his twenty lashes nnd
Jio hasn't been seen in Tucson since.
Another litUo example of the judge's
way of doing things was the case of a
man brought up before him for flnnc oft"
n pistol in the street , or something. They
had taken ? 310 from him when ho was
arrested.
"I joost fine you $200. " said the judge.
"Why ? " said the prisoner. "In San
Francisco they would only line me ? 3 or
$10. "
"You vns in Tucson , my friend : ? 200. "
The man was complaining bitterly
after ho paid the fine.
"Don't kick t" said another. "Yon were
lucky. If lio'U known yon had $310 on
.you , he'd have lined.you all of it. "
Some follow who was being tried
moved for n change of venue.
"You vant a change of venue ? What
for ? " asK"d the judge.
"Uccauso this court is prejudiced
RILEY & McMAHON ,
Real Estate and Loan Brokers ,
310 South Fifteenth Street.
Weflnnt several houses from $2,500 to $6,000. These hav
ing such for sale will dowell by listing -with us-
HILL & YOUNG
1213 Farnam Street.
FURNITURE ,
STO"V"E3S :
House Furnishing Goods.
A. T. KENYON. H. M. JONES. S. M. JONES
A , T , KEHYOB & CO , ,
Wholesale and Kctail
( se ersandSta
1522 Douglas St. ,
OMAHA , - - NEBRASKA.
Telephone 501. Correspondence Solicited.
CREDIT TO EVERYBODY !
Ho security required. Furnish yonr house from collar to garret. Easy weekly or
monthly payments. Your terms is our terms :
PEOPLES' INSTALLMENT HOUSE
613 N. 16th St. , Between California and Webster ,
ROSENTHAL & CO. , Proprietors.
agnlnst mo-and I won't got a fair trial. "
"You say this court is prejudiced
against you and you won't get a fair
trial ? You vant n chnngo of venue ,
-moin friend ? i joost line you $300 tor
contempt of court to begin with. Now
we'll proceed with the trial. "
A LAND RICH IN ROSES.
Blooming Ficldu of Bulgaria "VVIicro
.FlowcrB are Cultivated for
1'crfinnn.
Vicks Floral Magazine : liulgnria , the
little country in Enrnpo "which
wo hear so much about of late. Is a veri
table rose garden iu itself. In no part of
the world 1ms the cullivivtiou of the rose
come so near perfection as In this small
state , and , although the soil nnd atmos
phere of the country have much to do
with the success of the work , the native
iuhavitants have made suuh a long and
careful study of the plant and its nonds
that they luivo created wonders
out of their fields of bloom
ing roses. As Is well known , the llowcrs
are grown there for the purpose of ex
tracting the precious aroma as "attar of
rose. " out this circumstance docs not detract -
tract in the least from the appearance of
the roses. The bushes mjuiro cotu > Ulor-
able care and attention , and they are sel
dom allowed to attain a height of over
six feet.
In the great rose garden where the
flowers are raised for manufacturing the
"attar of lose" the bushes are seldom
grafted or budded. The roots forming
tiio bushes of u young rose garden are
taken from the old bushes and curofully
buried with plenty of manure , where
they send up young shoots. The.ia reach
their full growth in about live years , and
for fifteen years will yield lurge crops of
roses. When an old hod begins to fail
the bushes are cut away ana new shoots
allowed to spring up , or the whole field
plowed up and rootn from another bed sut
out m their place. A successful rose grower
Jceeps several rose gardens at nil times in
different stages of development , so that
when one garden begins to bo unpro
ductive another one is about ready to
como in , The roses blossom in the latter
part of May , when nil the neighborhood
is employed in picking them and getting
them to the distillery.
In addition to the great Industry of ex
tracting the precious aroma from the
roses the inhabitants of Bulgaria make
quite a business of ex-porting rose slips
and roots to dllt'oront countries. Trie
facility with which the roses grow In the
fertile valleys of that country makes it a
profitable business to raise the bushes for
market. The cuttings for buds are seat
hundreds of miles , packed in long frras *
and surrounded with straw Uupotwd
longitudinally.
-1
Kpllop y * nd Hurjffiry.
In the proceedings of the British medi
cal association a : Brighton , EIIK. , is a
very interesting account of the advances
ueing made in science touching the treat
ment of epilnpsy. Dr. Victor Horsier ,
has been making the brain a special study
In order to detect the relations of the
movements of the body to the brain. By
taking advantage of previous discoveries
and accepting the theory that the surface
of the brain Is covered with "motor
areas , " ho was able to identify certain
movements as caused by un affection in
certain purls of the bruin. Thus it becomes - ,
comes Known to him that that portion of
the br.Uu : which the phrenologist claims
Is the Msat of Inipjlsitivcncss is the "ox-
j citing center of the movement of the left
i thumb. " Therefore when ho had a pa
tient whoso epileptic fits began with the
muscles of the lolt thumb ho concluded
that ho would locate the affection in that
part of the brain controlling those mus
cles. The skull was accordingly opond
at that spot and a tumor was found inv < _
bcdeleil there. This was removed , an4 -r.
the presence of the patient ut the nor ? .
meeting , apparently recovered , was tbi
bt'.itevluunco of the success of the open
tiou.