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Page 2 Daily Nebraskan Friday, September 8,2000
Freeze, thaw cycles support warming theories
THE ASSOCIATED PRESS
WASHINGTON - In a study that adds
weight to global-warming theories, an
analysis of freeze and thaw records for
lakes and rivers in the northern hemi
sphere shows the* Earth’s temperature has
risen steeply over the last 150 years.
Researchers reported today in the
journal Science that the annual freeze
dates of 26 bodies of water in North
America, Asia and Europe occurred about
8.7 days later over the last century and a
half, and the ice breakup dates occurred
about 9.8 days earlier.
“The strength of this paper is the
robust nature of direct human observa
tions,” said John J. Magnuson, a
researcher at the University of Wisconsin,
Madison- and first author of the study.
The results, he said, "are not calcula
tions,” which are subjects bias and
instrument error, but are "direct human
observations of a 150-year trend of ice
freeze and thaw” that are difficult to
“It is clearly getting warmer in the
northern hemisphere,” he said. “This is
very strong evidence of a general warming
from 1845 to 1995 in areas where there is
Other researchers said the ice findings
are consistent with recent instrumental
temperature readings and tend to support
the idea that the Earth is getting warmer.
Some scientists have said readings taken
by temperature gauges and by satellites
tire subject to interpretation errors.
"This provides independent evidence
that the warming we have seen over the
20th century is real,” said David R.
Easterling, chief scientist at the National
Climatic Data Center, an archive center of
the National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Temperature trends are a part of the
ongoing research to determine if the
burning of fossil fuels, such as coal and oil,
is causing global warming. The theory is
that carbon dioxide and other gases
added to the atmosphere by industry and
transportation are trapping heat from the
sun and causing the Earth to warm up.
Some scientists have contended the
warming is not real or that it is part of a
natural cycle unaffected by human
Magnuson said his study does not
address the cause of the warming trend
but clearly shows it is occurring.
The change in the ice-on and ice-off
days found in the study corresponds to an
air-temperature warming of about 3.24
degrees Fahrenheit over the 150-year
period, he said.
An average temperature rise of just a
third of a degree is enough to change the
icing and de-icing dates by one day, the
The data was compiled from records
kept at lakes or rivers in Canada, Finland,
Switzerland, Siberia, Japan and 14 sites in
five northern U.S. states.
Some of the records date back far
longer than the 150 years studied.
The oldest records are those kept in
two churches on the shore of Lake
Constance on the Swiss-German border.
Since about the ninth century, there has
been a tradition of carrying a Madonna
figure from one church to the other on the
day the lake froze enough to walk across. A
year later, following freeze-up, the figure
was returned to the alternate church.
In Japan, ice records have been kept
since 1443 at a shrine on Lake Suwa.
Shinto religious leaders believe male
and female deities separated by the lake
are united when it freezes over.
son, Luis Zuniga,
5, before he
the first day of
The threat of a
teacher strike by
looms over the
start of the
school year, as
the school dis
still have not
THE ASSOCIATED PRESS
WASHINGTON — The Senate moved a step
closer Thursday to a final vote on the biggest trade
bill of this yean a measure that would end the
annual battle over U.S.-Chinese economic rela
tions and give China permanent normal trade sta
By a 92-5 vote, the Senate agreed to move
ahead with the bill that could result, in line with
China's accession to the World Trade Organization,
in significantly lower tariffs for Americans selling
goods in the Chinese market.
The House last May approved the permanent
trade status bill, and there was little doubt that the
Senate would follow suit with a final vote next
The question is whether senators who believe
trade with China should be linked to its human
rights and weapons proliferation record will suc
ceed in pushing through amendments that would
force the bill to go back to the House for further
Supporters of permanent trade status say any
amendments, regardless of their worthiness,
could doom the bill because the House and Senate
wouldn’t have time to work out differences before
the session of Congress ends sometime next
Attracting the greatest attention is a proposal
by Sen. Fred Thompson, R-Tenn., and Sen. Robert
Torricelli, D-N.J., that would increase monitoring
and sanctions against countries, particularly
China, and businesses that contribute to the pro
liferation of weapons of mass destruction.
While lawmakers desiring to see a clean bill
may vote against the amendment, Thompson said
Wednesday that it will be a tough vote in an elec
tion year when there is rising concern about
Chinese sales of military technology to Pakistan
and other countries.
Violence in West Timor mars U.N. Summit for leader
THE ASSOCIATED PRESS
KUPANG, Indonesia -
Frightened U.N. relief workers
were evacuated from West
Timor on Thursday, fleeing ram
paging militias, and the caskets
of three slain workers were air
lifted out, draped in blue U.N.
flags and covered *rith tropical
After failing to stop a militia
led mob that destroyed a U.N.
office in the West Timor town of
Atambua on Wednesday,
Indonesia’s military deployed
troop and police reinforcements
and made 15 arrests.
With the suspension of
international aid operations,
some 90,000 refugees were faced
with potentially disastrous
shortages of food and medicines
in their squalid camps on the
western side of the border that
divides Timor island into the
Indonesian west and the U.N.
administered East Timor.
At the United Nations,
President Clinton urged
Indonesia to "bring those
responsible to justice, to disarm
and disband the militias and to
take all necessary steps to insure
the safety of those continuing to
work on humanitarian goals
Abdurrahman Wahid, humiliat
ed before scores of world leaders
at the U.N. Millennium Summit,
promised he would work with
the U.N. administration in East
Timor on removing the hostile
militias from the border region.
“But to remove such a number
of people needs time,” he said.
He insisted his forces had
tried to prevent Wednesday’s
attack, which left three aid
workers, including an
American, and three civilians
dead. Witnesses say soldiers
stood by without stopping the
“We protected them, but it’s
a problem of a cultural nature,”
Wahid told journalists, saying
tribal differences fueled the
demanded Wahid make good on
past promises and take strong
action against the militias,
which human rights groups said
were backed by hard-line ele
ments of Indonesia’s army.
Wahid has often blamed
such rogue military elements of
triggering bloodshed and may
hem in Timor and elsewhere in
Indonesia to derail attempts by
his 11-month-old government
to build a new democracy after
decades of authoritarianism.
Indonesia’s official Antara
news agency quoted Wahid ear
lier as saying Wednesday’s
attack was engineered by his
domestic political foes.
“This was done at a time
when I am in New York, at the
United Nations, in order to
embarrass me,” he was reported
as saying. He did not repeat the
accusations when speaking at
the United Nations.
On Wednesday, about 3,000
militiamen and supporters
stormed the Atambua office of
the U.N. High Commissioner for
Refugees, and beat and stabbed
three workers to death, then
burned their bodies.
Other workers fled and hid
in the homes of sympathetic
townspeople or under
Indonesian police protection.
Alias Bin Ahmal, a Malaysian
who managed the U.N. office,
was sheltered along with five
colleagues by a woman and her
husband. The woman told mili
tiamen who banged on her door
that the U.N. workers had gone
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ALL MATERIAL COPYRIGHT 2000
^ it * ar
Clinton, Saudis discuss oil prices
THE ASSOCIATED PRESS
NEW YORK — President Clinton said
Thursday he feared the high cost of oil
high 81, low 69
high 86, low 66
high 86, low 62
could lead to a recession in the roaring
U.S. economy or elsewhere in the world,
and said he has asked the Saudis to help
lower crude prices.
Clinton met with Saudi Arabia’s
Crown Prince Abdullah on the fringes of
the U.N. Millennium Summit.
“I told him I was very concerned that
the price of oil is too high, not just for
America but for the world,” Clinton said
before beginning another session with a
world leader - this one with South Korean
President Kim Dae-jung.
"There were other reasons why it’s not
in our interest, and he agreed with that,
he’s been very strong about that,” Clinton
said, adding that he hoped the
Organization of Petroleum Exporting
Countries will take “appropriate action,”
to lower prices.
Oil prices have more than tripled
since hitting a 12-year low of less than $ 11
a barrel in December 1998.
World & Nation
Gay cruise passengers barred
from Turkish tourist site
ISTANBUL - Passengers on
a gay-oriented cruise expressed
anger and disappointment, and
Turkish officials scrambled to
apologize Thursday, a day after
police barred the tourists from
visiting the ancient ruins of
The cruise liner Olympic
Voyager was taking 800 passen
gers, many from the United
States, on a seven-day tour with
stops in Egypt, Israel and
On Wednesday, the cruise
stopped at the Turkish Aegean
port of Kusadasi, and passen
gers boarded buses for Ephesus,
which draws thousands of
tourists each year.
After allowing several
groups to leave, police turned
back at least two other buses.
The sudden change appar
ently came after they realized
the passengers were all gay, the
tourists and members of the
tour’s crew said.
■ Washington, D.C.
As Bush, Gore argue, Nader,
Buchanan want debates
As George W. Bush and A1
Gore squabble over debate
arrangements, Ralph Nader
says he'd be glad to step in. Pat
“I would be very happy to
take your place on the debate
roster as a pinch hitter so that
the Democratic nominee does
not feel so lonely before a
national audience,” Nader, the
Green Party candidate, wrote to
Bush on Thursday.
Bush has agreed to partici
pate in only one of the three
debates proposed by the
Commission on Presidential
He instead wants to meet
Gore on NBC’s “Meet the Press”
and CNN’s "Larry King Live.”
Gore says that’s fine but only if
Bush first commits to all three
Not to be outdone by Nader,
Reform Party candidate Pat
Buchanan has offered to take
Gore’s place on NBC.
■ New York City
Castro not on Clinton's
guest list, did stop to chat
Fidel Castro was excluded
from the invitation list for
President Clinton’s diplomatic
reception for world leaders
Thursday, but the Cuban leader
managed to exchange a few
words with the president, any
Castro approached Clinton
on Wednesday at the end of a
luncheon of the United Nations
Millennium Summit, a gather
ing of about 160 world leaders.
“They exchanged a few
words. It was nothing substan
tive,” said White House press
secretary Joe Lockhart.
It was the first time Clinton
and Castro had ever spoken
although they’ve been in the
same room before, Crowley
The United States does not
have diplomatic relations with
Cuba and maintains economic
sanctions against Castro’s gov
suspected American spy
STATE COLLEGE - A college
researcher who was detained in
Russia along with an American
colleague accused of spying
said he knew nothing about the
alleged purchase of secret data.
Daniel H. Kiely, head of
energy and power systems at
Pennsylvania State University’s
Applied Research Laboratory,
was released after being ques
tioned by Russian authorities.
But Edmond Pope, a former
senior researcher at the lab, has
been jailed there since his April
The case has generated ten
sion between the United States
and Russia, and President
Clinton plans to raise the issue
when he meets with Russian
leader Vladimir Putin this week
end, said Rep. John Peterson, D
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