The daily Nebraskan. ([Lincoln, Neb.) 1901-current, June 24, 1969, Page PAGE 2, Image 2

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    Tuesday, June 24, 1969
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Gamins an education . . .
Impressions of cafe, old man , the Indians
gathered at reservations
Editor's aote: Robert Ross, who accom
panied the Duprees for a part of their stay at
the two South Dakota reservations, records
his impressions here. Ross is an unclassified
graduate student at the University.
by Robert Ross
About two weeks ago, I spent three days
with Mark Dupree and his wife at the Rosebud
Indian Reservation in South Dakota. The trip
was something of an awakening. Since my own
confused and ambiguous impressions would seem
meaningless to anyone else, I will try to describe
ome of the incidents in such a way that the
reader may form his own impressions.
First, there is the only cafe in or near St.
Francis, S.D. We enter through a low door past
the curious stare of a tiny girl. She is not
yet three and does not talk to us. More small
children are inside; they are not as timid.
We are greeted by a man of about 30 who
tells us that the menu consists of a choice
between hamburgers, cheeseburgers or cold
sandwiches. The three of us walk past 11 pinball
machines and sit in a booth. I brush dirt and
crumbs from the table with my forearm. Two
or three teenagers with nothing better to do
are playing 'pinball, but we are the only real
The decor is early barracks with dirt. The
building itself looks like a World War II tem
porary military-type construction. The timbers
supporting the low roof sag dangerously and
the rough floor looks like a sub-flooring.
Mark keeps saying, "This is like Mexico.
But we didn't see anything as bad as this in
Then, a small girl comes running with two
glasses of water. She actually has to reach up
to get them on the table. As she runs back
for the third glass, we begin to laugh a
strange, cad, soft kind of laughter.
Cold pictures
A dead cold breathes out from the
photographs hanging on the wall of a Mission
museum. The pictures were taken during the
winter and the white snow and the white sky
merge creating a blank surreal background.
In one, Forsythe's troops, bundled in great
coats against the cold, are stacking frozen bodies
onto a wagon. The wagon is nearly full. The
team stands humped against the barren
landscape. One thuiks of Robert Frost
". . . from what I know of hate, I'd say that
for destruction, ice is also great and would suf
fice." One thinks also of the pictures taken in
winter during World War II of scenes along
the road to Moscow.
' In another photograph, old Chief Big Foot
himself stares at us. He lies on his back, one
side of his body buried under drifted snow. His
right hand is raised toward the camera in a
frozen grotesque of a lecturer's appeal to an
audience. His clothing is in rags and snow lies
in the wrinkles of his old face despair lies
there also. His eyes are open and, at first,
it is unclear whether or not he is alive or dead.
An old man
An old man in a wheel chair clears his
throat apologetically as we enter another
museum, this one is at Wounded Knee trading
post on the Pine Ridge reservation.
He mentions a small admittance charge. We
give him the change and begin to wander around
the log building. Many things are displayed
pipes, costumes and paintings line the walls
in crowded neatness. There is a reproduction
of the famous Sun Dance painting and another
shows men smoking In front of a ceremonial
We begin to ask the man about some of
the things which we see. Soon he is telling
us much of what he knows about the Sioux.
He tells me a story about a spider. I do not
believe that the story is genuine, but I forgive
him quickly when three tourists come in.
One of the three is deaf. They talk loudly
for about five minutes, looking at nothing. One
of them makes a few derogatory remarks about
an old calvary saddle. After they leave, the
spell of communication between the old man
and us has been broken. So we leave too, pro
mising to return some day.
In talking to that man, we found a frank
anger toward the white man, though he remained
friendly with us. Before the interruption, he
seemed most eager to talk to someone.
When Mark mentioned that his last name
was Dupree, the man told about an old Dupree
family in the area, where they had lived and
where they might be found now.
He is proud
He seemed to be proud of his museum and
the things shown there. Though he is not Sioux,
as are most of the Indians on the two reserva
tions, he is an Indian. And he is proud of that,
What more can I say? It is my hope that
what few muddled conclusions I have formed
at this time are part of a human common
denominator of fellowship and compassion, and
that similar ideas have already begun to form
in the mind of you, the reader.
I cannot really change anything by suddenly
at this point telling you what; to think, and
I prefer not to try. If I am wrong in my estimate
of human nature, it will make little difference
what is said here, anyway.
For, if I am wrong, our race does not have
much time left. Death ends all discrimination.
and a request for action
Editor's note: Mark Dupree, a grad
uate' student in English, spent the
week of June 2-9 at the Pine Ridge
and Rosebud Indian Reservations in
South Dakota. His primary reason for
making the trip was to find out what
conditions at the reservations were
by Mark Dupree
We talk of ceasing wars
And propose and propose a re
vision Of the draft or the tax.
We glory in reforms of an ir
relevant university.
We curse injustice and sicken
At corruption's stay.
But to act, oh to do
There's always the fifty-year de
lay! My wife, Bob Ross and I just
returned from a week at Rosebud and
Pine Ridge Indian Reservations in
South Dakota. The venture was
prompted by a desire to educate our
selves. Fortunately, we met Robert
Burnette, former chief of the Rosebud
Tribal Council for eight years and
responsible, in part, for passage of
the American Civil Rights Act last
He is spearheading a campaign
asking tourists throughout the nation
to boycott South' Dakota until the
Honorable Governor Farrar retracts
his statement that "there is no
discrimination against the American
Indian in South Dakota."
A person has to be more than blind
not to notice the degradation heaped
on the Indian by the white com
munities located near both the Pine
Ridge and Rosebud Reservations.
Until less than three years ago there
were such signs as "No Indians
Allowed" or "No Dogs or Indians
Here" in two western Nebraska towns
near the reservations.
There are a few persons in Gordon
and Valentine, towns important to the
Rosebud community, that will attest,
to the Nebraskan's role in Indian ex
ploitation. Such financial greed as a gutted
trailer house renting for $80 is
deplorable enough. Or the fact that
the entire eastern section of Pine
Ridge, which consists of prime
farmland, has been deeded to private
hands is sufficient for mild anger,
particularly when the government was
responsible for the shifty trade which
provided the Indian with the un
tamable western section of the coun
ty. It is unnecessary to go back 100
years to drudge up the slaughter of
the American Indian. Indian murders
still occur. For example, six murders
can't quite get solved at the isolated
reservation of Lower Brule.
Burnette is planning a Warpath
Dance for July 4 at Spring Creek
on the Rosebud Reservation. The
dance will draw attention to the In
dian's plight. At the same time the
tourist boycott will be kicked off by
commemorating the murder of a 28-year-old
Indian last April. The alleged
white murderer is said to be without
motive. Inquiry into the death has
produced many conflicting details,
according to the Indians with whom
I spoke at the Rosebud Reservation.
I plan to make the 4C0-mile trip
to attend the Warpath Dance on the
Fourth of July.
Burnette has asked the Episcopal
Church for $17,000 to fund his project.
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Recreation on the Pine Ridge Reservation
by Mike Hayman)
basketball amid the rubbish and car shells, (photo
and chances are that he'll get It. He
intends to take his stories to the cities
of the nation to arouse support and
concern. The Warpath Dance and
tourist boycott should call attention
to the real Indian dilemma and to
the Indian's discontent. It will be one
of the first organized Indian pro
tests. The action-oriented Burnette has
written a book, "The Tormented
American," which is being published
by Prentice-Hall and should be
released this fall. Together with an
upcoming article in Life magazine,
it looks as if the American public
is going to have a more difficult time
forgetting the 150-year suppression
of the true Americans.
My respect for Burnette runs deeper
than a sympathy for his philosophy
and approach. His Indian-ness and his
desire to help all of the Indian nations
in the country through the boycott,
which is also aimed at raising the
Indian's self-respect, is sufficient
credential for me to follow him.
The reservation conditions which 1
witnessed would fill many more col.
umn inches. But in brief, I found three
problems to be paramount:
lack of self-respect and lack of
interest in a fantastically rich culture,
a culture that most shy away from.
lack of employment ard conse
quently no income to operate in the
white man's monetarily steeped
encroachment of the middle class
and imposition of a foreign set of
The Office of Economic Opportunity
and the Bureau of Indian Affairs are
a direct cause of this cultural conflict.
Some of their 10 thousand-dollar-a-year
jobs include no contact with In
dian people. Shoddy housing projects
split up the tightly knit family struc
ture by relocating Indians throughout
the reservation.
My solution to this much talked
about cultural clash is simple. There
must be an opportunity for each In
dian to choose his own set of values,
that is to be Indian Indian or
American Indian.
The tvpical official view was ex
pressed bv one BIA agent with whom
I talked, lie said that the "Red Man's
ways just don't work in a western
culture." But a concern for, let alone
an understanding of the "Red Man's
ways" never seems to enter the mind
of a white supremacist.
In asking friends to attend the July
4th Warpath Dance with me, the
following responses have been
much "pseudo-concern."
little or no response at all as
from my own famed and esteemed
English department.
a rash of apologies with Infinite
other commitments on the fourth of
But I remain optimistic. When 1
told Burnette of my desire to return
on the Fourth, he said, "Bring a few
of your buddies." If you have gotten
this far in the article, YOU ARE MY
BUDDY. Call Mark Dupree at 423
2849, or at.end the organizational meet
ing at 3:30 p.m. Friday on the mall
north of Love Library.
mall private colleges face
Editor's note: Bob Hepburn, a journalism
major takes an in depth look at the financial
troubles facing the state's small private col
leges. The story was completed as an assign
ment for the school of journalism's depth re
porting class.
by Bob Hepburn
NU School of Journalism
Last spring, Duchesne College in Omaha
At the time, officials at the small private
women's college said that the school could no
longer operate because of the financial problems
facing it. This closing came as a surprise to
many persons, but not to any of the private
college presidents In Nebraska.
The money crisis which plagued Duchesne
College Is not unique. It Is shared by nearly
every private college In the state as well as
throughout the nation.
Duchesne will not be the last private college
In Nebraska to close. One educator even predicts
all private colleges In the state will fold within
20 years.
While most persons do not hold such an
extreme view, they almost unanimously agree
that all private colleges In Nebraska are In
great financial difficulty.
Many educators expect several colleges to
fall within the next four or five years. The
most frequently mentioned schools are John F.
Kennedy In Wahoo, John J. Pershing in Beatrice,
and Bellevue College In Bellevue.
These schools have received much publicity
concerning their money problems. But other
small colleges considered to be fairly successful
' also face great money shortages.
Basically, the financial crisis Is caused by
the private colleges having to pay the spirallng
costs of education with a fairly stable income,
primarily from tuition.
Public schools can overcome this problem
somewhat by obtaining more state aid. Private
collegej cannot. To get more money, they must
Increase already high tuition rates c get addi
tional help trom private sources.'
The solution, however. Is not quite that
timple. .
There are two usual techniques employe!
fey a school when it first realizes it Is lacing
a financial crisis. Both create their own pro
blems. Incrt'use enrollment
The first is to increase enrollment. For ex
ample, Union College in Lincoln has increased
its enrollment nearly 50 jier cent in the last
five years and Doane College in Crete has nearly
tripled its student body in the last seven years.
"In 1962, we realized that colleges with less
than 1,000 students were not "going to make it,
so we started to increase our enrollment," said
Philip lleckman, Doane president.
Doane now has 7ti8 students, its largest
enrollment In history. While the school has no
ultimate enrollment goal, it does plan to have
a minimum of 1,000 students within the next
few years.
Increasing enrollment only compounds the
problem, according to Dale K. Hayes, chairman
of the University of Nebraska's educational ad
ministration department.
Hayes said more students Increase costs.
New dormitories must be built, more classrooms
added, more teachers hired. All of this cannct
be covered by the additional Income from tui
tion. Since Doane College started to increase its
enrollment, it has built four new buildings and
is constructing three more. The school owes
the federal government almost $1 million in long
term loans. In 1962, before the enrollment ex
pansion, the college had no plant Indebtedness.
Iiafce tuition
The second technique frequently used by
private colleges to Increase income is raising
Tuition at all private colleges is much higher
than that of state schools. Doane now charges
$1,320 a year for tuition and fees and will charge
$1,400 next year. Union Col'ege in Lincoln
charges $1.2C0 a year for tuition and fees and
will raise its costs to $115" next yenr. KK
College in Wahoo charged $970 for tuition and
fees this year. That figure will be n ie.l 'o
$1,170 next fall.
In comparison, tuition at the state-supported
University of .Nebraska for the t3-6!) school
year was f4"H for resident slu Jenis.
Private college presidents are confer. ied
about rising tuition, lleckman oid colleges
"walk the line on tuition. The question Is at
wha level do you price ypurse'f out of the
Doane tries "to keep the quality comparable
with schools on the East Coast, while keeping
the price $100-3200 cheaper," he added.
R. W. Fowler, Union College president, said
he is concerned that the tuition increase at the
Lincoln school may result in an enrollment
decrease, This would offset the expected addi
tional income from tuition. Union College's
enrollment was down 70 students in li)03-69 as
compared to 1967-68.
Stanley Newcomb. academic dean at JKK,
said that while he is concerned about rising
tuition rates. "Many state schools are also rais
ing their tuition which somewhat offsets our
tuition raise."
Only rich attend
Several educators contend that private col
leges are running the risk of a return to the
days when only the economically rich could at
tend school.
The myth that tuition pays for all of a
student's educational costs is closer to the truth
at a private college than at a tax-supported
institution. Tuition represents 70-80 per cent of
the operating income at r private school. t
Union College, it Is 80 per cent while at .IKK
Is is about 70 per cent and 77 per cent a!
Some schools tried to operate under the
assumption that tuition could pay all expenses.
"Up until last year, all of our income wa
expected to come from tuition. We simply found
this to be an Impossibility." said Jr'K Dean
Newcomb. The new college now expects to get
about two-th'rds of its income from tuition.
Where does the remainder of the money
needed to operate come from?
For public schools, it comes from the tax
payer. For private' colleges, "It conies tram
wherever we can get it," as Newcomb put it.
An established sehool such as Doane or
Hastings Col'e-.e In lb:;tin-:s obtains its ad 'i
tirnnl ini-ome irrm endo'vme-i's, -r from its
s'udent center, nn.l frj.n g fts md grants.
Needed jriflV fjranl
Lrst vfir. Dean? receive J $7"5.597 from tui
tion, $13?..?!7 iT-M-cst on its $4 million 'en-do-Aciei
s. a- ' 'V n" mc it from the operation
of its capjpus e:i'er and dormitories. Yet !t
st'U p. '.:!? I C"5 'n gifts and grants to operate
less ta t $::.1.0M) in the black. That margin wa
on'y U' 0' ' in 'T7-63.
I'ni n C 'l e ie, a Seven :h-l)ay Adventist sup.
P"i e '. .lakes up the rem.iin 'er of .Is
operating expenses from church contributions.
Last year, the college received $240,000 from
the church for building construction and about
$100,000 for instructional purposes.
Union College president Fowler said while
this money is enough to meet its costs, the
school "doesn't get as much as we would like
to have."
Union College does not accept federal funds,
except as student loans.
The board of trustees debated last fall
whether to accept federal assistance, but decided
against it. "We felt when the government gets
money into a school, the more control it has
over the school." Fowler said.
Most schools are taking all methods they
can to get federal funds, according to Frwin
Cloldcnstein, a trustee at Dana College in Blair
and chairman of the Educational Philosophy
Department at the University of Nebraska.
Dale Hayes, chairman of the University's
Educational Administration Department, said
that "because of the increasing costs, prlvata
colleges will have no choice but to go to the
federal government for help, first In the form
of construction loans."
"Some schools have gambled on the hope
that the conservative, anti-government fringe
which opposes federal assistance to private
education would come to their aid," Heckman
said. They guessed wrong, he added.
"It's been my experience that many persons
opposing federal aid are among the least likely
to donate money themselves. It's foolish to tit
your financial hopes to that star."
Federal usitanre
'aw accepted federal assistance 1
1..M when a men's dormitory was built, th
spool's first new building in more than 40 years
Doane has more than $900,000 In outstanding
federal loans. This year the school has borrowed
another $700,000 for constructing a women'a
dormitory and has received a $539,000 federal
grant for constructing a communications center
2'!.ny,slcal1fJuca,i0" building. An additional
$it0 (Kio loan. If needed, has been approved
For new colleges such as JFK, Pe'rshln.
Bellevue. and Hiram Scott in Seottsbluff: the
problem of where to obtain the additional incomo
is acute.
With no alumni to make contributions, few
endowments or Investments, these schools are
loreed to rely on community support. The scnools
have had little luck in petitioning nttlonal foun-
contlnued on page 3