The daily Nebraskan. ([Lincoln, Neb.) 1901-current, March 28, 1969, Image 1

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    ASUN constitution vote today
King Week proclaimed
Voting on the proposed ASUN con
stitution takes place today in the City
Campus Nebraska Union and the East
Campus Activities Building, according
to John McCollister, ASUN election
Students may vote in the Nebraska
Union from 8:15 a.m. until 7:15 p.m.
and oi) East Campus from 8:30 a.m.
until 4:30 p.m., McCollister said.
Election procedures will be similar
to those of the past, where election
officials will use ultraviolet lights and
students ID cards as means of iden
tification. Students will vote to either accept
or reject the proposed constitution.
If less than 30 per cent of the students
vote, the number of approval votes
necessary for passage will remain at
Filing for next year's ASUN offices
begins Monday. Positions are open for
Student Senate, Advisory Boards and
ASUN executive positions.
Apportionment and a clause expan
ding the powers of ASUN are the
two major amendments to the con
stitution. The proposed revisions were
adopted recently by the ASUN
Constitutional Convention.
The representation of Senate is
proposed to change from the present
college system to a mixed system of
representation of at-large, district and
advisory board representation.
The proposed constitution includes
several sections based on Government
Bill 24, passed by Senate last fall.
The sections are aimed at increasing
the powers of ASUN.
The proposal would allow ASUN to
exercise ul powers over student life.
This would include the power to
establish rules, policies, and regula
tions over social and group life such
as curfews, publications and parietal
ASUN would also have the power
to participate equitably in the alloca
tion and distribution of student fees.
Similarly, ASUN would participate
equitably with University Ad
ministration and faculty in the ex
ercise of all power and responsibility
over University housing policy and
non-disciplinary matters.
The proposed reapportionment
would have Senate composed of a
maximum of 38 Senators, an increase
of three over the existing Senate.
All University students would vote
for eight senators elected at-large.
Greeks would elect four senators bas
ed on a representation ratio of one
senator for every 750 students.
Off-campus-students would follow a
one-per-1500-students ratio allowing for
six off-campus senators. The five
undergraduate advisory boards would
each elect a senator.
The week of March 31
through April 3 has been de
clared Martin Luther King
Week in observance of King's
assassination last April 4. ac
cording to Lonetta Harrold,
University student.
Programs and activities for
the four-day observance are
being coordinated through Miss
Harrold of the Afro-American
Collegiate Society. Society
members open the week Mon
day with a panel of black
students at a Hyde Park ses
sion. The main observance will
take place Wednesday after
noon. A program will be pre
sented in the Nebraska Union
ballroom featuring readings
from King's works and views
of the year since his death by
Tom Windham of Nebraska
Wesleyan and Phil Scribner of
the University.
Films, a theater production,
and Hyde Park sessions fill
the week's programs.
3m. rn on r
FRIDAY, MARCH 28, 1969
IglThe jj(L
VOL. 29, No. 86
Modern conception prevention methods
effective, sophisticated, readily available
By Joanell Ackerman
Nebraskan Staff Writer
Anyone leafing through volume 84 of the Ladies
Home Journal located among the bound periodicals in
the Love Library stacks may notice that in the July,
1967 issue, pages 46 and 47 are missing.
"The First Complete Guide to Modern Birth Control"
is the title of that article, which someone decided to
appropriate for his own files.
Dispensing information about birth control has come
a long way since the first family planning clinic was
opened 50 years ago in New York. Margaret Sanger
and her sister, nurse Ethel Byrne, were promptly ar
rested for their activity.
HOW KNOWLEDGEABLE are college students on
the subject?
One Lincoln gynecologist feels that "those students
who are interested know about birth control methods.
The ones who do not know the various methods just
are not interested."
Patricia Knaub, who teaches a human development
course, finds that student attitudes toward birth control
Editors Nole
The significance of birth control to virtually all
students is considerable. To many single students, knowl
edge of contraception may be crucial in preventing an
unwanted child or an unwanted marriage. To married
students and that majority of the population which will
marry, decisions in family planning are of primary Im
portance. The Dally Nebraskan, through researched informa
tion and through the reporting of the knowlcdgable opin
ion of doctors, sociologists, ministers and teachers, is
attempting to inform the students on the past, present
and future of family planning and birth control.
are sophisticated though there is also "a great deal
of misinformation" on the subject.
Perhaps this misinformation Is best reflected in the
questions students ask.
"CAN A GIRL become pregnant if she has in
tercourse at the time of menstruation?" was one question
a couple of coeds put to a Student Health staff member
after a recent program at one of the dormitories.
The answer is no because ovulation the release
of an egg by the ovary does not occur during
Currently information Is available through several
Student health staff members and consulting
gynecologists have program on birth control which
is presented to campus living units upon request.
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT 191, a courscon marriage
and family relations, includes a unit about family plan
ning and birth control methods.
The Planned Parenthood Committee In Omaha has
family planning clinics as well as booklets, lectures
and films concerning birth control. Family service
organizations and public health offices are other sources
of information.
The family doctor, a gynecologist or public health
nurse have information on birth control methods and
are able to answer individual questions.
A little research at the library will yield books
and magazines with Information on the subject.
The Pill
THE PILL, available only on a doctor's prescription,
is the most reliable contraceptive. It is close to KK)
per cent effective when taken as directed.
Pills contain two synthetic hormones, estrogen and
progestin, which closely resemble natural hormones pro
duced by the ovaries. The estrogen-progestin pills prevent
ovulation. Since no eggs are produced by the ovaries,
pregnancy cannot occur.
There are two types of pills. Combination pills con
tain both estrogen and progestin. A pill Is taken dally
from the fifth day of the menstrual cycle to the 25Ui
Menstruation usually occurs one to three days after
the pill Is stopped. The pill is resumed on day five
of the new cycle, which begins with the start of menstrual
bleeding designated as day one.
WITH THE sequential pills, an estrogen pill is taken
from the fifth day of the cycle to the 20th day and
an estrogen-progestin pill is taken from the 21st day
to the 25th day. Because the woman receives less pro
gestin with the sequential pills, undesirable side effects
are minimized. The lower progestin dosage also makes
these pills slightly less effective than the combined
tablets if a pill is missed.
Side effects similar to those of early pregnancy
which some pill users experience weight gain, nausea,
irregular bleeding, breast tenderness have been
minimized with lower dosage pills. Usually these side
effects disappear after the first month.
The effects of long term, constant use of the pill
are not known. Oral contraceptives have been in use
since 1958, and U.S. Food and Drug Adminisration ap-
Sroval of pill precrlption was given in June, 1960. About
.3 million women are taking the pill In the U.S. today.
As to the pill's safety, one Lincoln gynecologist says
that there are a relatively small number of complications
from the pill considering the number of dosages that
have been taken during the 11 years it has been in
ANOTHER LINCOLN gynecologist feels that the pill
is "more of a moral issue than a medical Issue."
Prescription times vary. One doctor prescribes the
pill on a yearly basis. If no complications arise during
the year, he continues the prescription. Other doctors
take their patients off of the pill for one or two months
after they have used the pill two years in order "to
let their cycles straighten out."
Doctors suggest annual or semi-annual checkups for
women taking the pill, including a pelvic examination
and a Pap smear (test for cancer of the cervix).
A month's pill supply costs between $1.80 and $2.50.
depending on which one of the 12 brands issued. Married
students may obtain pills from the Student Health
pharmacy at lower rates.
THE STAFF at Student Health and doctors in
Lincoln do not prescribe the pill to single girls for
birth control purposes.
Intrauterine devices (IUD) are small loop, spiral
or ring shaped objects made of plastic or stainless steel,
The main advantage of the IUD is that after it
has been inserted in the uterus by a doctor, no further
attention is needed. This makes it the . simplest to use
of all contraceptive methods. If pregnancy is desired,
the doctor simply removes the device.
The IUD does not prevent ovulation. Instead, it acts
as an Irritant and prevents the egg from attachlu
itself to the uterine wall if fertilization occurs.
THOUGH ll'D's are not 100 per cent effective
they are considered to be the second most effective
contraceptive device. There is about a two or three
per cent chance of pregnancy occurring within the first
year of use.
Initially, the IUD may cause heavier menstrual flow,
cramps or bleeding between periods. These discomforts
usually do not last long.
Not every woman can use the device. It is not
recommended for women who have not had a pregnancy
because insertion is difficult. However, smaller IUD's
are made for women who have not been pregnant.
A gynecologist at the Planned Parenthood clinic in
Omaha says that the device is being used successfully
by patients who have had no prior pregnancy.
About 15 to 20 per cent of the women who have tried
the IUD could not use it because of excessive uterine
bleeding, excessive cramping or because the device was
spontaneously expelled from the uterus. (Most IUD's
have thin plastic strings attached which can be felt
with the fingers to make sure the device is in place).
In rare cases, the IUD has perforated the uterine wall
or caused infection of the reproductive tract.
THE DEVICE costs about $32 and insertion fees start
at about $25. IUD's are inserted by the gynecologist
at his office. Annual checkups are recommended.
Not all doctors recommend the IUD. One Lincoln
gynecologist will not prescribe the defice for his patients.
"Everytime a foreign body is inserted In the uterus,
there is a reaction. The IUD casuses cramps and
bleeding. I do not approve of this method," he says.
About one million U.S. women use the IUD. In
other parts of the world where the population problem
is critical, the IUD is widely used as the simplest,
least costly and most effective means of birth control.
In Russia, family planning programs favor the IUD-
The diaphragm
A birth control method which antedates the pill
and the IUD is the diaphragm used with a contraceptive
jelly or cream.
Doctors widely recommended this method before the
pill and IUD were available because its 97 per cent
effectiveness (when used properly) made the diaphragm
the most reliable method then in use.
The diaphragm, a rubber dome-shaped device about
two inches In diameter, is placed in the vagina to
cover the cervix and prevent sperm from entering the
uterus. The jelly or cream is spermicidal and serves
as an added protection.
The diaphragm may be inserted some hours before
intercourse and must be left in place for at least six
hours after the last sexual relation.
THERE ARE no undesirable side effects connected
with the diaphragm method, though some females find
Insertion unappealing.
Cost of a diaphragm is $3 to $4.50 plus a doctor's
fee for fitting the device. A new fitting is required
after giving birth. The jelly or cream costs about $3 50
for 20 applications.
Many times when the woman cannot use the pill
for medical reasons or if she choses to discontinue
the pill, the couple will choose the diaphragm method.
Some birth control methods do not require a doctor's
Continued on page 2
Revolution in birth control
questions nature of marriage
by Connie Winkler
Nebraskan Staff Writer
The contraceptive revolution has raised many ques
tions about the nature of woman, marriage and
motherhood. Such things as religion and family environ
ment seem to enter in to how a person answers these
Modern birth control methods have given women
freedom to choose the life they want to lead, said Mrs.
Patricia Knaub, Human Development and the Family
course Instructor. Individuals can do their own thing
and don't have to fit into a prescribed role, including
motherhood, she continued.
The pill allows women to approach sex on a more
equal basis with men: also, their personalities are no
longer submerged in their femininity. Sex Is no longer
something that nice women don't enjoy, ghe said.
SINCE CONTRACEPTIVES free the female from fear
of pregnancy, she is more able to enjoy sexual union,
Mrs. Knaub continued. Effective birth control has also
meant that a woman's life can be more predictable
and that she takes on more responsibility for planning
her life.
In the wake of the contraceptive revolution, attitudes
toward pre-marital sex are changing, Mrs. Knaub con
tinued. "There is a greater ability to accept behavior
in other people, that may be unacceptable In yourself.
Attitudes are changing but we don't really know how
much behavior Is changing," she said.
Sex is an emotional experience and its effect cannot
be projected, Mrs. Knaub continued. In the case of
pre-marital sex there might be guilt feelings afterward.
She feels It is well to remember that sex is cot an
isolated experience that successive sexual experiences
effect further sexual relations.
When approaching any sexual act one must consider
the consequences and responsibilities. "I do not think
everyone is destined to be a parent, each individual
needs to cholse If he wants to cast himself in the
role of parenthood," she said.
MARRIAGES CAN survive and grow without children
and the presence of children does not necessarily mean
that the relationship is growing. In certain marriages
it might be better not to have children, she explained.
If the couple decides to have children they should
be spaced and planned for, the Human Development
and the Family instructor said. A child is disruptive
to the marital relationship and is a financial liability.
She feels that whether or not the couple will have
children is a basic value and should be determined
before marriage because the decision represents two
different life styles.
Birth control should also be a mutual decision of
the couple, she said. Often the responsibility of birth
control is placed on the female, but this also should
be shared. Science is working on contraceptive hormones
for males, she added.
"I DON'T think society is quite ready to say if
contraceptives should be more readily available," Mrs.
Continued on page 4
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