The daily Nebraskan. ([Lincoln, Neb.) 1901-current, June 25, 1963, Page Page Two, Image 2

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    Page Two
Summer Nebraskan
Tuesday, June 25, 1963
oviriniwiini4s -Ar
0 1!
iccntunued tram page 1)
sits with the council a
council member sod presid
ing officer. In only two
cities, Omaha and Grand Is
land (and, next year, Lin
coln), does the mayor have
veto power over council de
cisions. Omaha with its full
time mayor provision, as
signs many of its executive
decisions to the mayor. The
Rev. Walter Daniels, execu
tive secretary of the Omaha
Area Council of Churches,
believes that the Omaha
council Is a group which
legislates and also approves
some executive decisions
which are made by the may
ar. Mayor Frank D. Ryder of
Grand Island assigns all de-dskm-nnUitg
power to the
council as a whole. But the
mayor of another mayor
council community, North
Platte, explains that some
decisions belong t the may
or and some belong to the
whole council. The North
natte official said that the
councilman's authority is
limited to action around the
council table, unless some
special assignment Is dele
gated by the mayor or the
The mayor's closer knowl
edge of city proV.ems may
make him more influential.
Lincoln's former mayor,
Barflett E. Boyles, ex
plained, "The mayor, be
cause of his relationship,
knows more about city gov
ernment than do the council
members? Usually the coun
cil fellows the mayor's lead
because the mayor is usual
ly on top of the problems."
Special Education
Gifted Childrens' Parents
Class Continuation
A study of attitudes toward
a special education class for
the mentally gifted students
indicates that those parents
who opposed it were those
satisfied with their present
position in life.
A recent doctorate thesis
prepared at the University
y Donald W. Frazer, school
superintendent of Atchison,
Kan., sampled the attitudes
of parents toward a special
sixth-grade class in Atchi
son. Snpt Frazer, wba received
bis Doctor of Education de
gree this past month, found
that S7.4 per cent favored
continuation of the program,
2L1 per cent wanted it con
tinued with changes, 17.1 per
cent wanted it discontinued,
All-State Performances
Highlight Concluding Week
Nebraska lovers of the fine
arts wiQ have the opportunity
this week to see and hear the
work of the most promising
young high school students in
the state.
The final week of the Uni
versity of Nebraska All-State
High School Course is packed
with public performances by
the more than 400 students
attending this year.
The agenda for the week in
cludes plays, art and journal
ism exhibitions and a number
of musical performance.
The week's agenda begin
ning today:
Tuesday Band Concert, 160
students, under the direction
of Jack Snider, director of
the University of Nebraska
Marching Band, 7:30 p.m.
Nebraska Union.
:'::: :r
Now Associated
Corbcr Shop
Many of the leaders feel
that the citizens have some
effect on the decisions made
by city councils.
Guided and Advised
Rev. C. H. Prouty of Ne
braska City stated that the
commissioners are guided
and advised by friends snd
business Interests, and
sometimes cowed by those
who are outspoken critics
of change and expenditure.
However, he said that in the
final analysis, the commis
sioners, in session, make
the decisions.
Obviously, by law, the
councils (including the
mayors), make the final OF
FICIAL decisions. But who,
if anyone, influences those
Writers of fiction par
ticularly for television de
light in giving that influ
ence to everyone from the
councilmen's wives to their
barbers. Fact would seem to
bear out only one sure-fire
line of influence. The for
mer (the wives) do influence
the latter (the barbers)
where the councilmen's hair
cuts are concerned.
Beyond that, who influ
ences the councils? Is It the
Apparently, the mayors
in Nebraska cities have lit
tle such power. Only one in
terview indicated that the
mayor had any special in
fluence. He said:
"It seems that when our
mayor stands to speak in a
council meeting, all of the
cound members begin
shouting "aye' to show that
they are in favor of any
and the other 1.1 per cent
had no opinio.
Surprisingly, the study
found generally that a great
er percentage of those with
the higher income, level of
education, and occupation
were against continuance of
fiie program.
"It has been demonstrated
that the degree of satisfac
tion that the people in Atchi
son have enjoyed tend to de
velop an apparent unwilling
ness to support a program
that would bring about any
change of these conditions,"
the study said.
His findings included:
Of those making $10,000
or more, 25.7 per cent want
ed the urogram discontinued.
compared with 3.4 per cent
of the top income Dractet
wanted the program contin-
Wednesday MAa Evening
with Rogers and Hammer
stein,' 15 voice chorus di
dected by John Moras, All
State director, and a M piece
orchestra directed by David
Fowler, associate professor
of music education, 7:38 p.m.
Nebraska Union.
Thursday Chorus concert,
200 voices under the direction
of Richard Grace, assistant
professor of music, 7:30 p.m.,
Nebraska Union.
Friday a play, "Skin of
Our Teeth," directed by Dr.
William Morgan, assistant
professor of speech and dra
matic art, 7:30 p.m., Howell
Memorial Theater; Orchestra
Concert, 90 pieces directed by
David Fowler.
Saturday a play, "'Chan
ticleer," directed by Dallas
Williams, professor of speech
and dramatic art, 7:30 p.m.,
Howell Memorial Theater;
combined band, orchestra and
chorus concert, 7:30 p.m.,
East Stadium; Art Show, 10
a.m., Nebraska Union.
proposal which the mayor
may make." He added,
however, that if a weaker
mayor were in office, "this
situation might not occur."
Presiding Officer
Most frequently, how
ever, the mayor is des
cribed as the presiding offi
cer of the council and as
head for Ihe city, the per
son who delivers all dedi
cation speeches &nd makes
proclamations for the city.
Except for these areas,
the mayor is labeled as a
council member whose
power is no more concen
trated than that of the other
council members.
In this light, another
question follows: Does any-
one exert any special pow
er in city government? Is
there an "0 Street Gang"
in Lincoln? Do North Platte
officials feel the pressures
of railroad interests? On
the trail of that kind of in
fluence, Nebraska city offi
cials were asked:
Are you aware of special
interest or pressure groups
working to influence muni
cipal decisions?
AH of the officials were
aware of such groups. How
ever, they indicated that
only minor forms of influ
ence result from groups
The eight Chambers of
Commerce lead the list of
special interest groups men
tioned 39 of the leaders
cited these groups as "or
ganizations which work for
the individual and com
bined interests of their
members." In fairness, ob
ued without changes, while
65.6 per cent of the lower
bracket wanted it to ' con
Of those living in Atchi-j
son 10 years or more, 22 per-i
cent wanted it discontinued.
while 52 per cent wanted
it continued. But of those liv
ing in the city five years or
less, only 24 per cent want
ed it discontinued and near
ly 70 per cent wanted it con
tinued. "It would appear,
therefore, that people who
had bad experiences in other
communities were more read
ily willing to accept such a
Of the parents at the ex
treme ends of the levels f
education below 8th grade
and with college decreet
a smaller percentage were for
discontinuing the program.
Only six per cent of those
below Sth grade wanted It
stopped, and 11.7 per cent of
the College graduates .want
ed ft discontinued. However,
201 per cent of the high
school graduates favored dis
continuance. In an effort to deter
mine the parents' attitudes
toward the feeling that an
elite group was being formed.
Dr. Frazier found that less
than 40 per cent of the par
ents felt that snobbishness
would, or has, resulted be
cause of the experience of
children in the special sixth
grade program. "Many par
ents expressed an opinion
that such snobbishness, if
noticeable, is caused by the
parents of the children en
rolled in the special sixth
grade and not from being a
member of the special class."
"Approximately 81 per
cent of the people felt that
there was no noticeable ef
fect on the children because
of the competition experi
enced in the special class."
The thesis was done under
the supervision of Dean Walt
er K. Beggs of the Teachers
the drive-in with the arches
100 Ptfre BmI Hamburger
Tempting Cheesburgen
Old-Fashioned Shakes
Crisp Golden Trent Fries
Thirst-Quenching Coke
Delightful Boot Beer
Coffee At You Like It
Full-Flavored Orange Drink
Refreshing Cold Milk
53S5 0 St. 65 No. 27
servers pointed out that this
is one of the main functions
of a Chamber of Com
merce.) Proposals Followed
Gerald Whelan, Hastings
city attorney, commented,
"It is nxy opinion that when
there is merit for the entire
city, the proposals of the
Chamber of Commerce are
followed, as the Chamber's
proposals speak for the
members of the business
groups in town."
Only one city official men
tioned excessive Chamber
pressuring. He maintained
that several members
of his city's Chamber have
excerted a great deal of
pressure on him to gain
their ends. He added, "The
fact that I dont seem to
be very susceptible to their
pressure has not particular
ly endeared me to them."
The Chambers of Com
merce were not alone
among the pressure groups
cited. Others, and the fre
quency with which they
were mentioned, included:
Liquor promoters 29l.
P.T.A.'s and other youth
groups 211.
Ministerial groups (16).
Labor organizations (14).
Specialized business
groups t).
Organized club interests
One official said that spe
rial interest groups cannot
be described as "power be
hind the throne" organiza
tions, although certaia ones
have influence when poli
cies affecting them are be
ing considered.
Dr. Lavocat
Will Explore
Neb. Badland
After 100 years to the
month, France has again
sent a famous scientist and
explorer to study Nebraska
in the old way on foot
and in rugged country.
The Abbe, Dr. Rene Lavo
cat, presently consulting with
University scientists at the
State Museum, is preparing
to spend much of the sum
mer in the Nebraska Bad
lands. Father Lavocat, a Catholic
priest,; famous geologist and
vertebrate paleontologist, is
associated ' wifli the Labora
tory of Higher Studies at the
Sorbonne,' as well as with
the National Museum of Na
tural History ia Paris.
Not since Jules Maroou
came here to study the ge
ology near Omaha and Ne
braska City in 1863 has a
French geologist and explor
er studied in the state. Mar
cou was considered the last
of the French explorers in
Nebraska and the first geolo
gist to come here. He also
had an appointment as a
travelling scientist with the
museum in Paris.
The Abbe Lavocat is an au
thority on the same age
rocks in Europe that crop
out in the Badlands. He is
particularly interested in the
deposits along the White
River and has come to pur
sue a comparative study.
lie wffl be accompanied in
the field by Prof, and Mrs.
T. M. Stout of the depart
ment of geology and the Uni
versity State Museum. He has
spent the past several days
conferring with Professor
Stout and Dr. C. Bertrand
Schuuz, Museum director.
father Lavocat is an old
hand at living under hardship.
He has led geologic expedi
tions on foot in France, Al
geria. Morocco and Madagas
car and once walked ,200
miles on his expeditions
across the Sahara.
University scientists said
they were particularly de
lighted to have Dr. Lavocat
study with them. He is the of
ficial guest of the State, the
State Museum, the depart
ment of geology and the Con
servation and urvey Division
of the University of Nebraska.
oo, rv m 2-soci
cm opinio - rm made
920 M Sm
I. . . wtik 4renu, mesh4
MtataM. fables, cranbw-
I Wei mmi kwf rmi . - .
"This is not all bad.
Council members ought to
know the mind of various
groups on matters to be de
cided. The problem is to
make sure that the best
interests of the community
always prevail over the
particular interests of
small segments of the com
munity," the official noted.
Lincoln's ' Mayor Boyles
bluntly denied pressure
group influence. "It is sim
ply not true that pressure
groups make decisions,'"
he said, "We go along with
their wants only when the
independent-thinking coun
cil decides an issue in the
say way as the group is
Now, how about the news
papers? Does the editorial
which supports a proposed
school bond have any effect
upon the voter's decision?
Should a candidate for city
office "give up" on the
coming election if he has
failed to receive endorse
ment from the local paper?
Those interviewed gave
the newspaper editorial
pages little credit for sway
ing council and public opin
ion. More specifically, the civ
ic leaders felt that either
council members and voters
make it a point to go
against the newspaper's
stand on an issue, or they
formulate their own opin
ions after reading straight
rews stories which present
both sides of a question.
But, jvst bow much in
fluence da the newspapers
have in making city deci
sions? Do the papers exert
more influence than city of
ficials care t admit? (This
question is, as yet, sman
swered.) None of the officials think
that the newspaper is effec
tive in the pressure area.
However, most of them said
that their newspaper is ef
fective in presenting every
side of an issue.
"The . . . papers would
like to be influential,'
answered one Mayor ...
"However, many citizens
are likely to vote against
what the paper stands for."
He continued by crediting
the newspapers with effec
tiveness in keeping city gov
ernment matters alive for
the reading public. He cited
the example of controver
sial questions which are
pending in City Hall.
"The paper takes a side
while the controversy is still
in the air, and in this way
keeps the issue in front of
the people, and thus keeps
them stirred up," he ex
plained. Another mayor comment
ed that the newspapers have
absolutely no influence over
decisions of the elected city
officials, but that they have
a certain influence over
voter decisions.
Presenting a unique idea,
one community leader re
marked that it appears that
councflmen govern the
newspaper reporters, in that
the facts reported are ex
pressions cf council mem
bers. In the American system
of government political par
ties play a vital part. This
is particularly so at national
and state levels. The party
approach and its influence
are less prominent in city
Columbus is the only Ne
braska community included
in this study which uses
partisanship. Nebras
ka's non-partisan state leg
islature seems to encourage
non-partisanship in city gov
ernment. Apparently be
cause of this, 36 of the coro
rTiirnirv leaders polled felt
! that partisan politics in city
government would tend to
destroy the relationship of
-the city to the state.
Columbus spokesmen in
dicated that they are satis
fied with their partisan
j structure, but they feel that
J prime consideration should
! still be given to the candid
I ates' qualifications instead
; of thfiir political parties.
None of the officials in the
other towns felt that ihere
a need for partisanship
2 day servloe!
Student Prices!
Gool Grest Golf
Cool Crest offers you clean, wholesome amusement. This game will
help to develop your cor-ordination, and furnish you relaxation.
"A nice place for nice people"
on the city level.
The Columbus city attor
ney answers when asked if
he thonght partisanship
strengthened their system,
"Not particularly. I believe
this community is of such a
size that the average voter
considers the abilities of the
candidates more than his or
her political affiliation.
"I do not advocate the
abolition of the political
party on the city Isvel,
however, but feel that us
ually there is little appreci
able difference as the plat
forms espoused by either
political party as far as
city government is con
cerned," he further ex
plained. A Hastings official ex
pressed the view that since
some people vote for any
body, if he happens to wear
their party label, partisan
politics would weaken rath
er than help their situation.
He stressed that their pres
ent arrangement makes any
cause stand on its own
merits rather than s u c
ceed or fail depending upon
whether it has the right
party support.
Grand Island's city attor
ney, Paul Holmijer. called
for a divorce of politics and
city government. His an
sw?r to sound city govern
ment was a substitution of
good, solid businessmen
who would not have to
"count political noses."
According to Holmberg a
politician continually thinks
of the next election and a
statesman and a good busi
nessman thinks of what is
best for the community or
the political subdivision that
he serves.
Finally, are the citizens
of Nebraska communities
satisfied with their present
forms of city government?
Thirty-three leaders were
fully satisfied with their
forms of government. (In
cluded in this number were
at least two representatives
from each of the three city
government types.) Two
mayorcouncil form repre
sentatives mentioned that
they would add a full-time
mayor provision to t h e i r
structure, and six said that
they would prefer a city
manager plan in place of
their mayor and council.
The city manager plan
(under which the city hires
an administrator to take
over the community affairs)
w as the most popular alter
native. Those favoring it
pointed out that the hired
administrator is trained in
bis field and is not depend
ent on popularity vote in or
der to get his job.
Scottsbluff leaders voted
unanimously in favor of
their city manager plan.
According to the city attor
ney, "It is superior in its
efficiency, better coordinat
ed in its planning functions
and is responsive to the gen
eral public will as distin
guished from narrow neigh
borhood interests."
William E. Nichol,. mayor
Wj major p&e.l
of Scottsbluff, likens the
city manager to the man
ager of a large business.
"Someone has to be at the
head of it to get things done
and keep employees going.
The city council resembles
the board of directors of a
corporation," he said.
Not In Agreement
Representatives of the
commission form of city
government (Nebras
ka City) dont agree on the
effectiveness of their gov
ernment The city attorney feels
it is the custom in Ne
braska City, although
not required by law,
that the commissioner who
receives the highest vote is
mayor, the one who re
ceives the second highest
vote, finance commission,
and the one who receives
the least votes is head of
the street 'department and
public property.
Concerning this custom,.
Gary Blakeman of the
Chamber of Commerce,,
stated that he would like
to see each candidate nut.
for a specific office than
see the jobs allocated ac
cording to the number of
votes received. If this were
the case, Blakeman be
lieves that more people
would be willing to enter
the race as a candidate.
Hastings and Columbus
representatives indicated
satisfaction with their gov
ernment forms.
Columbus city attorney
Wilbur Johnson mentioned
that under the mayor-council
form there is direct con
nection between the resi
dents of the city and the
local government so that
the various problems which
arise can be given attention
with a minimum amount of ,
"red tape."
FuH-Time Mayer
"The only change I would
recommend," commented
one Columbus representa
tive, "would be a full-time
mayor, because there is too
much work to be done on a
part-time basis.
Hastings city attorney
Gerald Whelan states that
under their system the
mayor has insufficient pow
er, but a forceful mayor, if
be so desires, can accom
plish as much even though
he does not have power un
der their ordinances. He
adds that, by tradition,
mayors are strong whether
they have the legal strength
or not.
Some North Platte lead
ers, although not dissatis
fied with their present pro
gram, are concerned about
lack of leadership in local
Who makes the decisions
in these eight Nebraska
This study did not un
earth any one over-iiding
answer to that question.
But, as some students of
government are fond of
pointing out "Cities are
like people, and cities are
made up of people.
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KifftoNaicggLg$ tjTTT?
1S1I t
Open 10 o.m. to midnight
220 N. 48
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