The Conservative (Nebraska City, Neb.) 1898-1902, May 11, 1899, Page 2, Image 2

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    tlbe Conservative ,
Til 15 STAMC.
Tlio seven states of Ohio , Indiana , Il
linois , Missouri , Kansas , Iowa and Ne
braska may bo properly classed as the
principal corn-growing region of the
United States. They are almost wholly
located between latitudes 41 and 87.
These lines of latitude bound on the
north and south the great populational
bolt of the United States. Thpy define
as to north and south limits the greater
portions of the productive corn area of
this country. They establish the Amer
ican corn laws by which those who de-
Biro to cultivate that cereal extensively
are commanded to live and practice ag
riculture within those latitudes.
The attention of thoughtful citizens
who read THE CONSERVATIVE is called
to the following table , which shows
the acreage , the average yield per acre ,
the total number of bushels and the
total valuation of the corn raised in the
seven states above nientiouod during the
year 1897 :
and begin to grow. The tube is a long
one for it grows down the entire length
of the silk to the kernel at the base.
Then it fertilizes the kernel , as in the
case already described. It appears to
bo necessary that each kernel should be
fertilized by material from the pollen in
order to develop normally or to bo cap
able of reproducing a plant. The im
perfect kernels are believed not to have
been fertilized.
Considering the number of kernels on
each ear of corn , it appears little less
than marvelous that every kernel should
bo fertilized. Some , of course , fail of
being fertilized and we have incom
pletely developed kernels. But a large
proportion are fertilized and developed if
the conditions are favorable.
The growth of the plant is now com
plete and the energy of' the plant can be
devoted largely to supplying materials
for filling out the kernels. The kernels
pass through the milk stage , fill out , the
contents become of thicker consistency ,
Reliable data gathered from reputable
sources show that in 1897 there wore 80
million acres of corn raised in the
United States. In 1898 there were
three millions less acreage in corn , there
being only 77 million acres of that cereal
grown in that year in the entire re
The Corn Flower.
The Indian corn plant is one of those
which has two kinds of flowers , both on
the same stalk. Tlio kernels and silk
are the female part and the tassel the
male part. That is , the tassel has the
stamens which furnisli the pollen ; and
the ear has the pistils and ovaries. But
neither are simple flowers. The tassel
is an aggregation of staminate flowers ;
the ear an aggregation of pistillate
flowers. Each kernel has a thread of
silk attached to it. The silk is the pistil
and the kernel at the end is the ovary.
Each kernel and its thread of silk there
fore constitute a separate pistillate
flower. As a matter of fact the kernels
are as independent as if they were each
on a separate ear. By breeding and
development wo have made corn what
it is , that is , a large , long cob , with
many rows of kernels. Wild corn was
originally only one kernel enclosed in
each husk , something like grains.
Now as the pollen in the tassels rip
ens , the pollen cases burst and the pollen -
lon in the form of a dust is set free to
bo blown about by the wind , and so find
its way to the silk. The silk is sticky.
The pollen grains fall upon it , adhere
the outer cell walls thicken , forming a
hard seed coat and finally we have the
ripened grain.
AVater Used by Corn IMmit.
The following table ( King , Wisconsin
experiment station report ) shows 'the
amount of water used by the corn plant
in comparison with barley , oats and
the relatively small consumption of
water by corn is to be found in the fact
that much less water is lost from the
soil by direct surface evaporation on
account of surface cultivation during so
much of the growing season.
Field Experiment With Corn.
Ill the field of corn in which two cyl
inders were placed the water content of
the soil was determined down to a depth
of four feet , in the spring at the time of
every planting , and again at the end of
the growing season. The yield of dry
matter per acre was also very carefully
determined. One portion of this ground
was manured while another portion was
not , and the average amount of dry
matter per aero was (5,851 ( pounds on the
uumanured ground , and 7,740.6 on the
manured ground.
The mean amount of water in the soil
near the time of planting for each col
umn of soil one square foot in section
and four feet deep was 88.09 ll > s. , and
at the time of harvesting it was 74.78
Ins. , on the unmauured ground and
74.47 Ihs. on the manured.
The total rainfall during the growing
season was 100.29 Ihs. per square foot.
A large amount of this rain , 10.6 inches ,
or 54.0 lt > s. per square foot , fell between
the time of planting and June 30 , when
the corn was yet small , and must have
been mostly lost by percolation. Sup
posing this amount to have been lost in
this way during the season , the amount
of water used per square foot must have
been 69 lhs. for the uumanured and
59.3 for the manured ground. Under
these conditions it must have required
404.6 11)S. ) of water for a pound of dry
matter on the unmanured and 888.7 Ibs.
on the manured ground , while the aver-
Tablt ; Showing ; Amount of Water Itcqitircd fcir a Pound of Dry Matter in Wisconsin.
It will be observed in the second place ,
that the corn crop , the great American
staple , has during these trials consumed
less water per pound of dry matter than
either of the other crops , barley , cleverer
or peas , the average of the four cases
being only 809.2 ll > s. as compared with
888.48 for barley , 477.87 for peas , 518.52
for oats , and 5G4.48 His. of water for one
pound of dry matter in clover. One of
the chief reasons , in niy judgment , for
age iii the cylinder was 816 tt > s. of water
for a pound of dry matter.
Itulatloii JJetwcc'ii tlio Amount of Dry
Matter Produced and the Number of
Inches of AVator Consumed.
In the last annual report , page 180 ,
attention was called to the fact that
while the yields of dry matter calculated
per aero of the crops grown in the cyl
inders were very much greater , in every