The Columbus journal. (Columbus, Neb.) 1874-1911, March 29, 1911, Image 6

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SPRAYING PREVENTS DISEASE
AND DESTROYS INSEQS
Established Fact That Intelligent Use of Spray Always
Pays Formula Given That Is Accepted
as Safe and Reliable
AT THE TELEPHONE.
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h RESUMABLY everybody
B knows by this time that 1
M B there is a standing offer of i
raBHF $400 in cash for the man,
fa-a woman by or girl wno
HB I finds the nest of a wild plg-
JL I eon (ectopistes migratori-
us). otherwise known as
the passenger pigeon, and
finds with It the nestling
birds. In order to get the
roward the person who makes the dis
covery must leave the nest and the
;irds unmolested and prove the truth of
if by making a report and giving the sci
entists an opportunity to verify the case.
Magazine and newspaper articles lit
erally by the thousands have been writ
ten about the disappearance of the
wild pigeons which once, as it is al
ways put, "darkened the sun with their
fiishlE." The members of the biologi
r.al survey in Washington are specially
interested in the subject of the disap
pearance of this bird of passage from
its wild haunts. For years it has been
Imped that nesting pairs might be found
in some part of the country and that
with proper protection the bird might
lie restored in part at least to its place
In nature.
Recently there was a story published
to the effect that the birds, wearied of
Ihe constant persecution which met
them in the United States, had changed
tins course of their (light and had gone
into Mexico and there were living peace
fully and happily. This story proved to
in: absolutely without foundation. Still
another tale was to the effect that the
pigeons had gone into the heart of South
America and there finding conditions
pleasant were leading a non-migratory
l:te. This tale also proved to be en
tirely fictitious.
In all partB of the southern states in
the winter seasons there are people
witching sharp-eyed for a glimpse of
I'ij bird that once was a common sight.
In Hie summer sharp eyes of the north
are constantly on tho alert for the same
purpose, but as 3'et no authentic report
.' s been received that the bird of mys-K-iious
disappearance has revisited the
scenes familiar through the centuries to
its ancestors.
One of the scientists most interested
in the search for the wild pigeon Is
ftuthveu Deane, fellow of the American
Uniilhologists union and president of
Ihc Illinois Audubon Society for the
Protection of Wild Birds. Mr. Deane
ttrJually has given up all hope that any
living specimen of the passenger pigeon
rver will be found, but he is as tireless
otlay as ever in tracing reports of tho
Iiird's reappearance to their sources.
The offer of $400 for the discovery of a
nesting pair of the pigeons and their
undisturbed nest comes from Clifton R.
Hodge of Clark university, but $100 ad
ditional will be paid for the discovery
nf a pair of birds and their nest if found
in the state of Illinois. The additional
reward is the joint offer of Mr. Deane
and. as I remember it, of Professor Whitman of
lue University of Chicago.
Ono of the most curious features of the
search for the wild pigeon is the mistakes which
arc made constantly by men who years ago
trapped the pigeons and were as familiar with
their appearance as they were, and are today
for that matter, with the appearance of the com
mon robin of the dooryard. Reports have come
to from all sections of the country of the reap
pearance of tho pigeon, but on investigation it
invariably has been found that the discoverers
l;.id seen nothing more nor less than tho com
mon wild dove (venaidura macroura), or mourn
ing dove, which is so familiar a bird that it
serms almost impossible that any man of the
countryside could have failed to overlook it as
his constant neighbor and could confuse it with
iu? much larger cousin, the passenger pigeon of
other days.
To give an example of how the search is con
ducted for tho wild pigeon and how conscientious
arc the scientists In attempting to verify reports
cf its reappearance this one instance, taken from
a hundred Instances, may bo noted. Recently a
report from northern Michigan reached the presi
dent of the Illinois Audubon society that the
passenger pigeon in very truth had reappeared
in the vicinity of a club house frequented by
fishermen and gunners, many of whom had
known the pigeon well in the old days and who
were certain that in this case they could not
be mistaken as to the identity of the bird vis
itors. It was a long journey to the northern Michi
gan club house, but an ornithologist undertook
the trip believing in his heart that finally the
passenger pigeon had been found, for he knew
that the men who had made the report had been
familiar with the bird In the old days and sup
posedly knew the appearance of its every feather.
At the end of the journey he was told that the
pigeons were there and he was led out to see
them. They proved to be mourning doves, a
bird common in nearly all parts of Michigan
and In most of the states of the Union. The dis
appointment was keen, and keener in this case
because this was one report which seemed to
have about it every mark of truth.
When I was a boy I knew the wild pigeon
fairly well. It was nothing like .as abundant
?s It had been in the years gone by, but occa
sionally small flocks were seen in the vicinity of
my birthplace in the foothills of the Adirondack
mountains in central New York. I am sorry to
say that I shot some of the birds before I fully
realized the value of giving protection to a van
ishing race. The mourning dove I know as well
as I knoxv the English sparrow, and 1 think that
there is no chance of confusion in my mind re
jecting the identity of the dove and its bigger
relative, the pigeon. It is possible, though I am
not sure that such Is a fact, that I saw the last
wild pigeon reported in Illinois. Others may
have been seen since that time within the bor
ders of the state, but if so I have not seen their
appearance reported.
At five o'clock on the morning of a late April
toy, fifteen years ago, I went Into Lincoln park.
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Chicago, to look for migrating birds which had
dropped down into the pleasure ground from
their night flight in order to rest and feed. I had
just entered the park when my attention was
attracted to a large bird perched on the limb of
a maple tree and facing the sun, which was Just
rising out of Lake Michigan. My heart gave
a sort of leap, for I recognized it instantly as the
passenger pigeon, a bird of which I had not
seen a living specimen for at least twelve years.
Then Instantly I began to doubt and thought
that my ejes must be mistaken and that the at
mosphere was magnifying the bird and that what
was before me was realiy a mourning dove. I.
drew closer and then I knew there was no pos
sibility of deception. Before me was a beautiful
specimen of the male passenger pigeon with the
sun striking full on the burnished feathers of
his throat. I stood within 15 yards of the bird
for fully half an hour and then it left the maple
and ,went in arrowy flight down the lake shore
drive toward the heart of the city. I have often
wondered since what was its fate.
Theodore Roosevelt is deeply interested In
the outcome of the search for surviving mem
bers, if such there may be, of the passenger pigeon
tribe. Mr. Roosevelt knew the bird when he was
a boy and in his trips afield he always has kept
a watchful eye open for a possible sight of a
specimen of the species now feared to be extinct.
When Mr. Roosevelt was president of tho
United States he occasionally went to a wild
spot in Virginia where he owned a cabin. He
called the place Pine Knot. While there one day
he saw what he believed to be nine wild pigeons.
It would be perfectlj proper today for a man
who saw as many pigeons as this together to
shoot one of them one only in order to prove
beyond peradventure that the tribe still has ex
istence. When one simply reports the appear
ance of a pigeon or of a flock of pigeons every
one doubts very naturally the truth of the tale,
holding that the mourning dove has been again
mistaken for its cousin bird.
President Roosevelt did not have a gun with
himon the occasion of his meeting with what
he thought were wild pigeons. If he had he
probably would have shot one of them. He told
no one except a few scientists and a few friends
of his discovery. He knew as well as anyone
else did that in the absence of the proof fur
nished by a bird in the flesh it would be said at
once that he made the common error. No one
knows positively today whether the nine birds
which the president saw were or were not pas
senger pigeons. Every time that Mr. Roosevelt
has been to Pine Knot since he has hoped for
another sight of the birds which made him glad
some years ago.
John Burroughs heard from his friend, Theo
dore Roosevelt, that the nine pigeons had been
seen in Virginia. Burroughs believed the story
because he knew how accurate an observer of
nature his friend the president was and is. The
stories of the pigeons in Virginia led Mr. Bur
roughs lo n:ake inquiries at once in the counties
in Xew York state west of the lower Hudson
lying In the old Une of flight of the migrating
pigeon armies of years ago. There the farmers
and the country sports
men told Mr. Burroughs
that they had seen pig
eons that spring, at least
1,000 of them, but that
none of them had been
shot. Mr. Burroughs was
inclined to believe the re
port, for tho men who
made it were old-time
sportsmen and supposed
ly knew the bird well.
However, there is no pos
itive proof today that the
New York farmers and
gunners were not just as
much mistaken as were
the old-timers who told
the story of the return of
the pigeons to the upper
Michigan country.
In The Auk, a quar
terly journal of ornithol
ogy published by the
American Ornithologists'
union, there recently ap
peared a paper by Albert
Hazen Wright on "Some
Early Records of the Pas
senger Pigeon." In this
paper are reported some
of the first accounts
which ever saw print of
the pigeon multitudes of
the early days. When one
reads them it seems al
most Incredible that a bird species which num
bered its individuals almost, it would appear, by
the million millions could ever disappear from the
face of the earth.
The account of the great pigeon flocka which
Is most familiar to the people of the country is
that written bv John James Audubon, the natural
ist. It seems "from Mr. Wright's paper, however,
that a century and a half before Audubon was
born records were made of the immense numbers
of the birds which were seen in America. The
earliest writers called them turtle doves. Mr.
Wright quotes from the Jesuit father. Le Jeune,
who in the year 1637 likened the American Indi
ans to the pigeons. "Our savages are always sav
age; they resemble the migratory birds of their
own country. In one season turtle doves are some
times found in such abundance that the end of
their army cannot be seen when they are flying
in a body."
Mr. Wright found another reference to the Im
sense numbers of the pigeons in the writings of
another Jesuit father in the year 1671. The ob
servation was made at Cayuga lake In New iorh.
state. "Four leagues from here I saw by the side
of a river within a very limited space eight or
nine extremely, line salt springs. Many snares are
set there for catching pigeons, from seven to eight
hundred being often taken at once." Another fa
ther of the church in the latter part of tho seven
teenth century writes of the passenger pigeons of
the SL Lawrence country: "Among the birds of
every variety to be found here it is to be noted
that pigeons abound in such numbers that this
year one man killed 122 at a single shot."
Within the last five or six years reports have
onie of the reappearance of the pigeon in Mis
souri, Oklahoma, Illinois, Wisconsin, Michigan,
Ohio, Pennsylvania. New York and Virginia and
perhaps from some other states. In no instance
has proof been adduced that tho real passenger
pigeon, tire bird of the old time, was the species
seen. The disappearance of the flocks which once
covered the sky as with a cloud is one of the mys
teries of nature. Man's persecution of course had
much, if not everything, to do with the annihila
tion of the species, but it would seem that some
ting else, disease perhaps, must be held account
able at least in part for the dying out of a noble
race of feathered game.
He Was Too Wise
Dr. Harvey W. Wiley, the government's food ex
pert, said at a recent dinner in Washington:
"But in our search for pure foods we may go too
far. Thus a lady entered a grocer's the other day
and said:
"Have you got any currants?"
The clerk, a college graduate, replied:
"'Yes, madam, we have very fine Corinths, or
small dried grapes from the Greek town of that
name currauts. you know. Is the corrupted form.
How many will you have?"
" 'None at all if they are corrupted.' muttered the
lady. 'I belong to a pure food league." "
The Orang-Outang's Nest
' For the first time Londoners have
now an opportunity of seeing an
rang-outang in its "nest." or sleep
rag platform. Dr. Charles Hose having
recently presented to the national mu
seum a fine adult male of this Bornean
ape. together with a specimen of the
assL
Dr. A. Russel Wallace in his "Malay
Archipelago" states that orang-outangs
build their sleeping platforms
comparatively low down on relatively
small trees at a height of from twenty
feet to 50 feet above the ground, prob
ably for the reason that such a situa
tion is warmer and less exposed to
wind than one higher up. According
to Dyak report, each orang builds a
fresh platform every night, but this,
as Dr. Wallace remarks, is improb
able on account of the relatively small
number of these structures to be met
with. It may be added that the large
amount of materials in the nest in the
British Museum affords further evi
dence of the same kind. Photographs
are extant showing three or four
orangs' nests in a single tree. The
Field.
"Diplomacy" In China.
An expert in fine china frequently
gets a commission that requires the
utmost tact to fill.
"I am called Into private houses,"
she said, "to set a value on fine china
and bric-a-brac that have been broken
by a maid. It often happens that the
mistress sets an exorbitant price on
those things and threatens to take it
out of the girl's wages. If the girl
has spirit and thinks she has been im
posed upon she suggests that an ex
pert be called in to arbitrate. If the
mistress really wants to be fair she
consents. Most of those jobs in di
plomacy come to me. I dread them
because it is so difficult to decide just
ly and keep on good terms with both
parties."
Two classes of enemies attack fruit
trees and plants, viz.: insects and fun
gous diseases. The application of sub
stances, usually liquid, to the tree or
plant for the purpose of preventing
or destroying these constitutes spray
ing. We spray to destroy Insects and to
prevent fungous diseases. Spraying Is
no longer an experiment. It Is an
established fact that intelligent and
persistent spraying always pays. The
effects of spraying are cumulative.
The effects of spraying last year and
this year may result In an increased
yield next year. An Instructive bulle
tin issued by the Wisconsin Horti
cultural society, has the following to
say regarding spraying: Tho Insects
affecting fruit may be divided for con
venience Into two classes, which are
distinguished by their mode of feed
ing, viz.: eating or chewing insects
and sucking insects.
Eating insects consume the affected
tissues, commonly the leaves, and
thereby hinder the functions or the
plant. The common example Is the
potato "bug" or beetle. Insects of
this class are destroyed by poisoning
their food. Sucking Insects do not
consume the external tissues of the
plant, but feed only on the sap. In
order to accomplish this the insect
thrusts its proboscis through the ex
ternal coverings and sucks the juices
in the same way as a mosquito sucks
blood. As these insects do not con
sume the tissue of the leaf or branch,
poisons are of no avail. We must
therefore attack the insects. This Is
done by'covering them with some sub
stance which will penetrate their
bodies, or with substance which closes
their breathing pores. To repeat:
(1) Biting or chewing insects are
destroyed by placing poison on the
parts on which the insects feed.
(2) Sucking Insects are destroyed
only by attacking the insects and for
this class poisons are of no avail.
Apple scab, brown rot of plums and
peaches, potato rot, blight, rust and
other destructive plant diseases are
too small to be discerned singly with
out using a compound microscope.
These spors alight on leaf or fruit
and under favorable conditions of heat
and moisture germinate, giving rise to
threadlike projections which pene
trate the plant's tissues.
The main fact to be borne in mind
Is this: The spores which may be
present in Innumerable numbers may
be destroyed or their germination pre
vented by the application of certain
substances known as fungicides, while
existing as spores on the outside of
plants, but after these have pene
trated the tissue of leaf, stem or root,
spraying is of no avail. In other
words, spraying for plant diseases
must be wholly for prevention.
The following formula for Bordeaux
mixture Is used as a preventive ol
fungous diseases, as potato blight, ap
ple scab, etc. Various formulas are
quoted, but the following Is now ac
cepted as safe and reliable:
Copper sulphate, 5 pounds; fresh
lime, 5 pounds'; water, 50 gallons.
Either arsenate of lead or Paris
green may be safely combined witb
Barrel and Cart Spraying Outfit.
commonly ascribed to weather con
ditions. Indirectly this is often true,
but neither rain nor drought nor any
other atmospheric condition is ever
directly the cause of plant diseases.
Rainy weather does not directly
cause plum rot, but provides condi
tions favorable to the development of
the fungus, and probably unfavorable
conditions for the development of the
plum nnd its ability to resist the in
vasion of the disease.
Fungi (plant diseases) are propa
gated by spores, minute bodies which
may float in the air and are usually
Making Bordeaux Mixture.
Bordeaux mixture. In fact, in all
orchard spraying operations it has
come to be u common practice to add
either Paris green or arsenate of lead
to Bordeaux at every application. By
this means biting insects and fungi
are controlled at a single operation.
No other fact is more important than
this in spraying.
Arsenate of lead is a poison for
biting insects and is less liable to In
jure foliage than Paris green. It re
mains longer in suspension. It ad
heres better to foliage. It may be
used for any purpose for which Paris
green is employed in liquid sprays.
The formula is: Arsenate of lead. 2
to Z pounds; water, 50 gallons.
Up to the Farmer.
When a farmer breeds indifferent
cattle, horses or sheep he receives
less for his labor and feed than he
should receive, adds les3 to the wealth
of his stale than the up-to-date farm
er, and is at a disadvantage when he
undertakes to secure for himself and
family the things which help to make
life worth living, says a writer In an
exchange. I do not mean to say that
the individual farmer owes more to
the community or to the state than
the laborer, the lawyer, the doctor, the
educator, the preacher or the business
man; but we do expect more from
them as a whole, because there are
more of them than all these others
combined.
Many horses arc innocently injured
by overfeeding. It Is what is digested
that counts.
DIFFERENT KIND OF SPRAYS
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TOMATO
(Bat ao4 MkftU
VIIMT ATrUCATIOX.
ttpnr tofor fctu!, .tart.
ctnc ropp-r ailttllf
latton. ft ar aM a. kara
ran waraa ara flrat
am, fart crn. far Caa
Brllrv tUMrr aa4 taiara
tlaw. r labarra dtuft.
Ilrfara Uto ta apaa
mprAf wlih rpomr anlaaata:
Tar ftta apBHi m
Vrara praaltceatantaD
r.tara thai aaiai barer.
Am aaaa aa wwrvia aa
raaM aa lawar ami laare
Uam. aprar rarla
Aa trarva
ad rarla
fWnra bu4 tirt. fprar
with cofTrr ttlphaa aftltl
lion. AJ1 rarla ra fur
Iraf trttlaa
April t,
:i
acrar
IVf
Willi
lattaa
Itaftr bvi!a ota eoppar
aulphata solutloa
Cat aoJ Vara Mark
kaata arkraarrr famad. Ba-
M for aaaa la
aoklhcate (twa
raa to alvtaea aallaaa
a waaar). far ataarj- atav-
aprar artta aaapar aal-
Cat aa call. rrtrkrU
aaal raaaa aatfly dtanaaaa
wttk aatararaaaa, Iwfara
buda cr-ra. rsrar wttk rop
par nrgaata ashttlaa.
Ifetraar a
Bordeaas.
hzcum Arructnov.
Attar taa klaaaaaaa kara
fwrmnf. bat hafcra t&ry
apaa.apray a"ta lloraaa
mlatara aaj rarla
If
prat If
lac.
Wbra taa fr.lt baa art.
aprmr attti Itordaau ails
tara aa raria araaa.
prat. anVlaf Bararaaa far
aalllaa aaa la apat.
fa taa ha faartars car
raprat altk kaUa.
IVhas fnt l-arra ara half
crrra. Tmr laaf pupaara aa
karaara raiaUlaa.
Warn trait kaa art. aaa
Barlaaas aaUrara aa4
1-arla rrara. tawlblras
atrracta.
TTbra taa aliMiwn kara
farm, bat kafara thar
aaa. WaiaVaBi aaal Farla
a-raaa.
Aa aaaa aa la lliaiat
aaa failaa. aaa Hntiaa
alitva aaA Tarla aiaaa.
rThaa kratlaa r taatr
larra appaar. lSrat arraa
Wbra taa frK kaa art.
at rara ma
Wi aaa
faat kick.
Aflar tba frctt kaa ate
aaa wamh capaar aolutloa.
THIRO AITIJCVnOX.
nithla a aark altar lh
Moaama fall. Paadiauf aaj
l-arla in.,"
Aftrr brala farm, aaa b-a.
w2rr. pj'rtbmaa. 9f aalt
palrr a traap laafal t a
allaa af amlar.i
14.14 day lafar. If atura
a- 1I431 af rot afrcrar. f-r-aat.
ir avrfflf 'atll rnvubla.
Cjraikrum or attabir.
la-It oar kaaap
phMaar
laa amrarziaa.
Vrbaa (raft la aK. oa
ta.ta day Utcr rraaat.
Wlthha a arark aftrr taa
klaaaaaa fall.
aaal rarUl
-U aara tatar
It-U car latar rapaal
tl-la car latar iipaH
harraatail. rto4aus ftf t
ba kapt loncar)
nr.rt tr
BEST WAX
FOR GRAFTING
Recipe Given tor Maltin&? Mixture
hat Is Essential in All
Orchards Convenient , '
Sizes Made.
Rosin four parts (ounces or
pounds); beeswax, two pounds; tal
low, one part; melted, slowly, in an
iron vessel, patting In the rosin five
or ten minutes before the beeswax;
and all completely mixed together by
much stirring.
In 20 minutes or so It will be thor
oughly mixed, and a convenient por
tion is to be poured Into a bucket of
cold water. In a minute or less it
will be cool enough to take up with
.the hands (which must have been
greased with tallow) and pulled like
taffy. When It becomes light yellow
In color It Is done and can be made
Into sticks or balls and put into an
other vessel of cold water to harden.
Other portions can be treated in
the same way until all Is used up.
These balls, or sticks, of convenient
size can be laid away until required
for use.
Broilers and Roasters.
A fat broiler is quite a rarity; tho
best that can be done, in general, is
to have it plump, for the natural ten
dency of the chick is to use all nutri
ment for growth and development.
When the birds are nearly large
enough for the market they should bo
given all the fattening feed they will
eat, and for this purpose corn in vari
ous forms should be fed freely. They
will digest more feed if fed ground
than If whole or cracked. A moist
ened mash consisting of about two
thirds corn meal and one-third bran
by bulk Is good. Cooked potatoes are
good, and milk with a little sugar
added will hasten fattening. Broil
ers may be sold alive or dressed, ac
cording to the discretion of the grow
er. If dressed this should be done
according to the demands of the mar
ket to which they are to be shipa4.
He Is that you, darling?
She Yes; who Is that?
TO AVOID
SICKNESS
You must keep the stom
ach and liver in an active
condition, the bowels free
from constipation and the
blood pure. For this work
HOSTETTER'S
STOMACH
BITTERS
has been used success
fully for 58 years. Try a
bottle today for
Poor Appetite
Colds & Grippe
Fever & Ague
Indigestion
Malaria
Dyspepsia
All Druggists &Dealers
GRAND VOYAGE TO THE POLE.
; mmd
EYES WOULD BURN AND STING
"It Is just a year ago that my Bis
ter came over here to us. She had
been here only a few weeks when her
eyes began to be red, and to burn and
sting as if she had sand in them.
Then we used all of tho home reme
dies. She washed her eyes with salt
water, used hot tea to bathe them
with, and bandaged them over night
with tea leaves, but all to no purpose.
She went to the drug store and got
some salve, but she grew constantly
worse. Sho was scarcely ablo to look
In tho light. At last sho decided to
go to a doctor, because sho could
hardly work any more. The doctor
said it was a very severe disease, and
if she did not follow bis orders close
ly sho might loso her eyesight. He
made her eyes burn and applied elec
tricity to them, and gave her various
ointments. In tho two and a half or
threo months that she went to the
doctor, we could see very littlo im
provement. "Then we had read so much how
people had been helped by Cuticura
that we thought wo would try It. and
we cannot bo thankful enough that we
used it. Jly sister used the Cuticura
Pills for purifying the blood, bathed
only with Cuticura Soap, and at night
after washing, she anointed her eyes
ery gently on the outside with tho
Cuticura Ointment. In one week, the
swelling was entirely gone from tho
eyes, and after a month there was no
longer any mucus or watering of the
eyes. Sho could already see better,
and in six weeks she was cured."
(Signed) Mrs. Julia Csepicska. 2005
Utah St.. St. Louis. Mo., Aug. 25, 1910.
Tiiero never was a good war or a
tad peace. Franklin.
Oonipation. indigestion, sick-headache
nnd bilious conditions are overcome by a
course of Garfield Tea. Drink on retiring.
I am not so lost in lexicography as
to forget that words are the daughters
of earth and that things are the sons
of heaven. Samuel Johnson.
The Reason.
"I know a woman who never gos
sips about her neighbor.-."
"(let out. You don't."
"Yes. I do. She's dumb."
When He Was Slow.
"Swift Is the swiftest proposition I
ever saw."
"Is he? Did he ever owe you any
money?"
Patriotic Determination.
"Your wife insists on being allowed
to vote."
"Yes." replied Mr. Meekin. "She's
not content with having the last word
in political argument. Siie want3 to
go to the polls aud put in a post
Ecript." COLDS"
Monyoa's Cold Remedy Belteres the
bead. tL.oat and lunits almost Immediate
ly Cliecki Fevers, stops Discharge of.
the nose, takes away all aches and pains
caused by colds. It cures Grip and op
itlnate Conghs and prc-Tents Pneumonia.
Write Prof. Mnuyon. 63rd nnd Jefferson
Sts.. Phllsi.. ra Xor medical advice atx
olutely Xrcc