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A DEMOCRATIC VIEW.
Somehow it is difficult to get away
from the suspicion that President Taft
may have sprung Canadian reciprocity
as a measure of retaliation. When
just after the close of the last session of
congress, a large portion of his own
party broke into a chorus of prote.t
against the high cost of living and
the enormous exactions of the -tariff
system, and he undertook at Winona.
Wis., to appease the so-called progres
sives, he simply made matters worse
within his party and aroused the in
surgents to still greater indulgences in
To everyone ho sympathized with,
and lent support to, the insurgent
cause it is almost a mutter ofchngrm
to reflect that the outcry thai was made
against the Payne-Aldrich hill m.iy
have determined the president to give
the insurgents, and disaffected republi
cans generally, more in the way of
tariff concessions than they had dared
True, it does not exactly re fleet
credit upon the president to suspect
that he was goaded into this reciproc
ity agreement, but it is about as credi
table to him as it is to calculate that
he was driven into it by the fear of de
mocratic ascendancy in case no tariff
concessions were made, and his utter
ances have indicated that that was one
of the considerations which had weight
Perhaps it would be doing the pres
ident no justice to conclude that he
made up his mind from the political
evolutions of his two years in the white
house that the American people were
determined to get relief from the exac
tions of the great protected interests,
and that the time was here, and he the
instrument, to afford them that relief.
One cau hardly avoid admiring the
diplomacy of the partisan republican
press iu its announcements of the re
sult of the vote in the lower house of
congress upon the endorsement of the
president's policy. Almost unanim
ously the papers announced that the
agreement had been endorsed "with
the aid of democrats."
Surely they did not overstate the
agency of the democrats. The deed
was done by democrats, in fact, "with
the aid of republicans." When one
notes that 141 democrats voted to sus
tain the president's policy, and only
78 republicans, he can realize how
gingerly the republican press conced
ed that the republican president had
received an endorsement of his chosen
policy from the hated democratic par
ty, and that more representatives of
his own party voted against than with
It cannot be denied that there was
something great-hearted in the action
of the democrats in supporting Presi
dent Taft. True they believe in the
policy which their vote endorsed, but
it has not always been customary,
or even occasionally so, for a hostile
congress to support the titular -leader
of the opposition. It is this free will
offering of conciliatory support that
comprises the promise of relief which
the consuming inasses now enjoy.
Approval of the reciprocity policy
has swept the country like a prairie
fire. Only here and there has a voice
been raised against it. Legislative as
semblies have hastened to proclaim
their favor for it and the press of the
nation is almost unanimously for it.
So overwhelming has been its approv
al that those who at first sought to op
pose it have now been forced to resort
to overdoing their approval by serious
ly proposing annexation, in the hope
of thus arousing a feeling in Great
Britain and Canada that will-defeat it
at that end.
The strategic position which the pre
sident occupies makes him the master.
Only the fact that he has the power to
call a special session of the democratic
congress elected last fall, and the cer
tainty that it would unhesitatingly en
dorse hie policy, has rendered him im
mune from the severest denunciation
by his party and its masters. Such a
festival of political medicination has
not occurred within the memory'of the
current political generation. Lincoln
THE BUBONIC PLAGUE.
At HaddonsGcld, New York, resides
Dr. Cbas. S. Braddock. jr., former
medical commissioner of the govern
ment of Siam. Out of his store of
terrible memories and experiences Dr.
Braddock tells some of the terrors of
the black plague.
"There is no hone for a victim of
the bubonic plague," said Dr. Brad
dock. ''Medical science has no treat
ment. It is too deadly to study. In
Siam a young physician, with desper
ate bravery, attempted to perform an
autopsy on a victim's body. He drop
ped dead within a few hours, siuking
into a state of coma before he was able
to tell other physiciaus what he dis
covered. "A physiciau cannot save the lives
of those who are stricken. His duty
is to prevent the spread of the disease,
and that is a tremendous task.
"In the plague camps in Siam, every
morning we would line up the inhabi
tants and I would pass along the line,
feeling the pulse of each man, woman
aud child. At the slightest sign of
fever I would direct the person to step
back. That order was the death war
rant. It meant that that person would
be dead before night. We had to
seregate the sufferers from the well.
Wails would go up from various parts
of the hue whenever one stepped back.
Every person would be shivering with
fear during the inspection.
"The first symptom of the disease,
in a town, would be the dying of rats.
The fleas on the rats carry the disease.
As --"on as a rat dies the fleas go to
li'-i g rats or to any other fur or hair
lii.tntig atiitiials. We paid 2 cents
each for live rats. We dipped them
in tar barrels, to iaun the lleas to
them, aud then but mil the rats in
bonfires. Many brave Siamese sol
diers uli handled the rats gave up
"The children are always the first
sufferers. I was greatly puzzled un
til I observed that the lleas were car
ried by dogs with which the children
played. In one Siamese city, iu 1U07,
14,000 dogs were killed and 24,000
rats were burned. We also burned
down the houses in which the plague
had appeared. We put a sheet iron
guard around each house, as it burned,
to keep the rats within. Soldiers shot
every living animal on the premises,
including pets and cattle.
Thousands of persons died before
the epidemic was finally checked.
"The first symptoms of the disease,
in a human being, arc headache aud
fever. Within a few moments the
glandsTn the body begin to swell with
the poison. The glands of the groins,
throat aud arm pits grow to abnormal
size. If the victim were conscious the
pain would be intense, but fortunately
by this time the sufferer is pois
oned throughout. The heart stops.
Within a very short time the body
turns black iu color.
"This form of the disease is the
mildest and least dangerous, in epi
demic form. The pneumonic form is
the worst. The disease can then be
communicated by the breath. In the
milder form, occasionally, there arc
recoveries, but in hundreds of cases of
the pneumonic form I did not sec any
recoveries. The breath of the victim
is like a poisonous blast, carrying
"This is the form of the disease
which is killing thousands today in
China. Doctors, nurses, missionaries,
all take their lives in their hands in
fighting the disease. Even the germ
killing masks which they wear over
their faces aud through which they
breathe are not sure tj save them.
The very air is filled with poison.
The only way to stop such a plague is
to take all the sufferers into the open
air, at a great distance from the city,
and after death, to bury their bodies.
"In the year 1340 the bubonic
plague swept over Europe and killed
:J0.000,OO0 people, one-third of the
population. Medical science knows
no more today about a cure than it
did then. All we cau do is to guide
in preventing the spread of the epi
demic." Omaha News.
Tho Wicked Majority.
A new gardener had been employed
on a Long Island estate. This man
was raking leaves off the lawn one fall
day when a neighbor, passing by. in
quired of him. "Where's the gardener
who used to work Juere?"
"Dead, sir." was the reply.
"Dead!" said the astonished neigh
bor. Then, musing, ho added. "Joined
the great majority, ch?"
"Oh, sir." the gardener interrupted iu
a shocked voice, "I wouldn't like to
say that. lie was a good enough man
as far as I know."
"Shall I have this prescription filled
'itiiout further consultation!-" asked
"Certainly." replied the physician.
"I thought maybe I'd better call In
a handwriting expert." Washington
There is one word which may serve
as a rule of practice for all one's life
that word is reciprocity. What you do
not wish done to yourself do not do
to others. -Confucius.
Does the Farmer Owe the Manufacturer
Just when we simple-minded farm
ere were preparing to demonstrate to
the president's tariff commission that
we were entitled to protection to the
extent of the difference in the cost of
production of wheat on the one-hun
dred-dollar land of the wheat belt of
the west, as compared with that grown
on twenty-dollar land in Canada, of
cattle in the corn belt as compared
with cattle on the Canadian ranges,
and of corn in tho corn belt as com
pared with corn grown on the steppes
of Argentina, the president makes a
sudden flop and proposaKto wipe out
all protection against Canada by a
treaty providing for fiec trade in all
All this is exactly what we expect
ed, what we have been telling our
readers for two years past, at which
statement some of them were disposed
to take offense. Neither the standpat
ers nor the .rogressives in Washington
know just what they are at. There is
a wholesome fear on both sides that
the farmer will gradually show his
teeth and possibly make an ugly rent
in the whole tariff system.
We are not now going to discuss the
question as to what extent the farmer
will be injured by this reciprocity
treaty, for that would be discussing it
from a purely selfish standpoint, the
same low standpoint from which this
question has been discussed for forty
years. In fact, we do not know just
what effect the proposed treaty would
have on prices of the farm products of
the central west. Rather, we wish to
put this fundamental question to our
readers: Do the farmers owe the man
ufacturing interests a living? That wo
do has been quietly assumed for forty
years. The doctrine of the times of
Washington, Clay, Webster and even
Lincoln was that the farmer, and in
fact the whole people, owed infant in
dustries struggling for an existence
protection against the well-established
industries of the Old World and gave
For the last fforty years it has been
tacitly assumed, not that the people
owe infant industries this sort of pro
tection, but that they owe them a liv
ing, a guarantee of success. This as
sumption underlies all attempts at re
form that have been made. The re
publican party at its last convention
advocated a tariff equal to the differ
ence in cost of production plus a rea
sonable profit. The president's tariff
commission is acting on precisely the
same assumption. Every proposition
in congress for a reform of the evils of
the tariff proceeds on the same basis.
Now, is this true or false? Does the
farmer, docs the laborer, owe the man
ufacturer a living? At any rate, they
have consented to the advance of tar-J
iiTs on manufactured products to such
an extent that the people rebelled last
NO INCREASE IN FREIGHT
The decisions of the
Commerce commission refusing to ap
prove the schedules of increased freight
rates presented by the railroads are a
momentous victory for the shipper and
the consumer. While they will doubt
less cause wry faces aud elicit dismal
forebodings from railroad magnates
and bond syndicate promoters, these
decisions will be hailed with intense
satisfaction by the general public that
pays the freight. Public satisfaction
will be the more marked because the
combined railroads of the country
brought all possible pressure to bear
on the commission, while the cause of
those who might suffer from increased
rates had to be pleaded by volunteers.
A general increase of freight rates at
this time would unquestionably have
tended to hold up, if not raise higher,
the present high cost of living, which
seems to have reached a turning point.
The course of these rate cases has
reflected a peculiar change of base on
the part'of the railroads. When the
roads filed the higher rate tariffs the
common impression was that they
were making a play to prevent the
Interstate Commerce commission from
reducing rates by setting up a claim
Lthat existing rates were noncompensa
tory and left them in dire need of more
revenue. When they began to pre
sent their side the railroad officials
and their lawyers, if they were previ
ously in doubt, actually persuaded
themselves that they were in a condi
tion requiring relief, and that thev
might win the commission over to that
view if they could create a public sen
timent to support it. From ihe read
ing of the opinions handed down by
Commissioners Prouty and Lane it
would seem that the railroads overshot
the mark, and that they merely proved
that where the weaker roads were
handicapped the big trunk lines were
meeting the increased cost of operation
and higher wages out of the revenue
from increased traffic not) continued to
November; have fostered infant indus
tries until they reach a point where
more than half our exports are manu
factured products sold iu competitive
markets at a fraction of the prices at
which they are sold at home. There
being no further advance possible in
this direction, then on this theory it is
perfectly proper that we should begin
at the other end, and by wiping cut ev
ery vestige of tariff 'on natural
products grain, roots, lumber, live
stock build up these manufactur
ing interests by giving them raw mat
erials at the lowest possible cost.
This is a direction iu which we have
been moving for years. We see it
stated that about half our imports are
raw material for manufacturers, and
most of them free. We give them re
bates to the extent of ninety-nine per
cent on raw material on which they
pay duty; for example, wheat milled
iu transit for export; corn shipped in
from Argentina aud made into corn
products for export; tin shipped in
from Wales to be made into oil cans.
The step which the president has
taken is therefore a logical oue on the
assumption that we owe the manufac
turer a living. The next logical step
will be the admission of cattle free
from Mexico; corn, wheat and cattle
free from Argentina. The senate has
passed a ship subsidy bill looking to
this end. Senator Cummins voted
against it.but Senator Youug was pair
ed for it, and this vote, or rather pair,
was sufficient to carry the bill. By
the time this is accomplished the trusts
that control the great factories can do
what they please with the farmers,
who will stand unhitched and cat out
of their hands. They will then not
fear the wrath of the granger as they
do now. The fears of many students
of political economy, that the farms of
America will be owucd by great
landlords and farmed by a peasantry,
will then be in a fair way to be reali
zed. The fundamental question which
the farmer must now consider is whe
ther he owes the manufacturer, the
transporter, or the merchant, or
anybody else under the suu.fa living.
This question settled, the rest will be
easy. He will then be in a position to
say: Free hides, free shoes; free wool;
free woolens; free coal and ore. then
free steel, woven wire aud building
material. "Sass" for the goose, "sass"
for the tranuer.
This. proposition of iree tr:c with
Cauada, to be followed by free trade
with Mexico and the Argentina, is no
surprise to us. It is the logical result
of the theory upon which we have been
building tariffs, namely, that the farm
er owes the manufacturer a living. It
has come sooner than we expected, on
account of the elections of last Novem
ber. Wallaces's Farmer.
pay normal dividends aud add to their
surplus. To increase rates to the
point of giving the weakest road full
returns on claimed investment would
iusure the strong roads extravagant
profits, and the commission will not
force the public to pay for the mis
takes of inefficiency of the railroad
Failure to put the new freight
schedules over may be exacted to
react somewhat on the stock market
and the quotations of railway securi
ties, but the prospect for development
and the assurance of a steady volume
of traffic should be too clear to let it
operate as a serious setback. Omaha
Of all the great national heroes
and statesmen of history, Lincoln is
the only real giant, Alexander,
Frederick the Great,Caesar, Napoleon,
Gladstone and even Washington stand
in greatness of character, in depth of
feeling and in a certain moral )ower
far behind Lincoln. Lincoln was a
man of whom a nation has a right to
be proud; he was a Christ in miniature,
a saint of humanity, whose name will
live thousands of years in the legends
of future generations.
Now, why was Lincoln so great
that he overshadows all other national
heroes? He really was not a great
general, like Napoleon or Washing
ton; he was not such a skillful states
man as Gladstone or Frederick the
Great; but .his supremacy expresses
itself altogether in his peculiar moral
power and in the greatness -of his
character. It iVuatural that before
he reached his goal he had to walk
the highway of mistakes! But we
find him, nevertheless, in every tend
ency true to one main motive, and
that was to benefit mankind. He was
one who wanted to be great through
his smallness. If he had failed to be
come President, he would be, no
doubt, just as great as he is now, but
only God could appreciate it.
Washington was a typical Ameri
can, Napoleon was, a typical French
man, bat Lincoln was a humanitarian
as broad as the world. He was bigger
than his country bigger than all the
presidents together. Why? Because
he loved his enemies as himself, and
because he was a universal individual
ist who wanted- to see himself in the
world not the world in himself. He
was great through his simplicity and
was noblo through his charity.
Lincoln is a strong type of those
who make focr .truth and justice, for
brotherhood and freedom: Love is
the foundation of his life. That is
what makes him immortal and that is
the quality of a giant. I hope that
his centenary birthday will create an
impulse toward righteousness among
the nations. Lincoln lived and died
a hero, and as a great character he
will live as long as the world lives.
May his life long bless humanity.
Tolstoy's Tribute to Lincoln.
DEADLY MINE GASES.
Their Action Upon the Flame of the
The safety lamp, a heavy metal lan
tern shaped object with a circular
globe of heavy plato glass, is the only
light other than electricity that can be
safely carried into a gaseous mine.
The lamps arc lit before they aro
taken into flie mine and. in addition,
are securely locked, tha,t no accident
or ignorant Intention may expose tho
open flame to the gases of the mine.
Over a small sooty yellow name
which gives a light less bright than
that of an ordinary candle are two
wire gauze cones fitting snugly inside
the heavy globe, and it Is through
these cones that die flame draws the
air which supports it. The preseuce of
black damp, or carbon dioxide, can
easily be dctnctxil. if not by its odor, by
the action of tlie flame, which grows
dim and. if the black damp exists in
any quantity, is finally extinguished.
White damp, the highly explosive gas
which is most feared, has. on the
other hand, a totally different effect.
In tiie presence of this gas tlie flame
of the safety lamp becomes pointed,
and as the gas grows stronger the
flame, seems to separate from the wick
and .an almost invisible blue cone
forms beneath it. If the miner con
tinues to advance into the white damp
he will pass through a Hue in which
there are nine parts of air to one part
gas (the explosive mixturei. and the
lamp will instantly repister this ex
plosive condition by a sudden crack
ling inside the gauze and the extin
guishing of the flame. Were it an open
lamp the explosion ignited by the
flame would sweep throughout the en
tire workings, eurying death and de
struction before it. but by the con
struction of the safety lamp the ex
plosion confines itself to the limited
area within the gauze cones, and un
less the lamp is moved suddenly and
the flame is dragged through the gauze
at the instant that the explosion oc
curs within the glole it wUl not ex
tend beyond the gauze. Atlantic.
SPHERICITY OF THE EARTH.
"Parallax" Bet Against It. and' He Lost
The straightest canal in the world is
in England and runs from Eritli. in
Cambridgeshire, to Delivers Sluice,
twenty-two miles away. It avus here
that years ago a decisive exjierimcnt
was conducted to prove the sphericity
of tlie earth. At that time, says "High
ways anT Ityways In Cnmhridiseshire."
a deluded gentleman, who called him
self "Parallax." was obsessed with tho
notion that the globe was a flat disk
and used to go lecturing with great
vigor on tlie subject. After these lec
tures he invited questions, none of
which was able to shake Ids belief.
When asked, for example. "Why does
the hull of a ship disappear below the
horizon while the masts remain vis
ible?" he would answer. 'Because the
lowest stratum of air Is the densest
and therefore soonest corneals objects
seen through it." Finally he showed
his whole hearted lielief in his absurd
views by laying a heavy wager that no
one would disprove them. The stakes
were deposited in tlie hands of judges,
and the trial, under agreed conditions,
took place iiinii the Xew river, as part
of the canal is called. Three boats
were moored three miles apart, each
provided with a cmsstree of equal
height. If the earth was spherical the
central crs would appear above the
other to an observer looking through
a telescope leveled from the cross! ree
of the boat at either end: if it was flat
he would set both the other crosstrces
as one. "Parallax" declared that lie
did see them so. but the judges unani
mously decided against him. and the
poor man lost his money.
We're All Actors.
Mine. Alexandria Viarda. the Polish
tragedienne, once proiNMindcd the fol
lowing: "It is a strange thing, but ask a man
to mend a rip in his coat.
"Xo; he Is not a tailor.
"Ask another to stop the faucet from
"Xo; he's not a plunder.
"Or another to do a bit of cabinet
"Xo; ho is not a carpenter.
"But ask any one of tlie three or all
of them to enact a little part in a play
and each will smile in fatuous confi
dence and instantly acquiesce.
"But watch him act!"
That state of mind which let us call
the ignominy of the virtuous is not
entirely confined to boys of nine
years. I have seen grown men and
women, being accused of saintliness,
over whose faces passed an expression
of mortification. They would accept
with more complacency the tribute
that they were getting to be devils in
their old age. Atlantic.
What Is experience? A poor littls
ant constructed from the rains of thf
palace of gold and marble called onr
The Board of Army Engineers appointed to apportion the ReolaaMtioa Fund
to the various projects, has set aside $2,000,000 from the special fund,2 and
$2,185,000 from the regular "fund for use in the North Platte Valley project ia
Wyoming and Nebraska, and $2,000,000 from the regular fund to.coaplsU the
Shoshone project in the Biff Horn Basin, Wyomiag, making a total of saore tkaa
$0,000,000 that will be spent by the Government upon these two projects, in
making desirable homes in Wyoming for our citizens.
CAREY ACT PROJECTS
SEVERAL MILLION DOLLARS will be spent by private companies in
Wyoming, and many of these projects will be pushed rapidly to completion.
Just think what the expenditure of SEVERAL MILLION DOLLARS for
irrigation is going to mean to the State or Wyoming. It means work at good
wages for many people, many new opportunities to get valuable farm hoses,
more new growing towns and new business locations.
YOU SHOULD KEEP POSTED ABOUT WYOMING! Send ma your
name and address for onr mailing list.
How Scientific Methods Raised the
Standard of a Day's Work.
There are now eminent consulting
engineers who are engaged by indus
trial heads to study their establish
ments from top to bottom with a view
to finding by scientific study the meth
ods of working, accounting and han
dling labor which will improve on the
old traditional habits. Some extraordi
nary results have been attained. What
scientific management means is ad
mirably illustrated by the story of
bricklaying, as told by an expert.
Ordinarily a brick mason makes
eighteen different sets of motions In
laying a single brick. lie bends over,
in the first place, to pick up one brick,
and in lifting it he lifts ten pounds of
brick and about a hundred pounds of
brick mason the upper part of his
own body. In laying 1,000 bricks in a
day's work ho lifts 100,000 pounds of
brick mason. This was an obvious
waste of labor. So a common laborer
was hired to put the bricks where the
masons would not have to stoop for
them. Another thing is that when a
mason picks up a handmade brick,
which is always a little thicker at one
side'than on the other, he tosses the
brick up. turning it over until his
touch tells him which side is the top
before he puts it In place in the wall.
The cure for this was to have all tho
bricks piled top up before they were
brought to the masons. Then, further,
every one lias seen the mason tap his
brick several times to settle it into the
mortar more waste of time. The cure
was to make the mortar thinner, so
that the weight of the brick would set
tic it into the right position. This was
scientific management, "motion study."
It raised the day's work for the aver
age brick mason from 1,000 up to 2.700
bricks a day and in individual cases to
much higher figures. The mason made
only six motions where he used to
make eighteen. American Review of
Lack of Tact.
"That man is about the most tact
less person I have ever known."
"I agree with you. He would have
no more seuse than to ask a barber to
fcubscribe to a fund for the purpose of
providing a monument for the Inven
tor of the safety razor." Chicago Record-Herald.
She Knew Her Dad.
'Smithers- Do you know any one who
has a horse to sell? She Yes; 1 sus
pect old Drown has. Smithers Why?
She Well, papa sold him one j-ester-day.
Defending Counsel (to witness in
bandages) Are you married? Wit
ness Xo: I was knocked down by a
W r: ?-'r&gfSESh!i 3&&$2
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D. CLEM deaver. General Jiff
Land Seakars luff iwatHii Bursa
1004 Farnam StrMt, Omaha, Hhr.
WHISTLER WAS INDIGNANT.
The Idea of Buying His Pictures and
Then Demanding Possession.
A certain eminent English lady, the
proud possessor of a title of fairly high
degree, who admired Whistler's gen
ius to the extent of purchasing one of
his pictures, never was able to obtain
possession of her property. One day
she drove to the studio in her victoria.
Sir. Whistler went to greet her.
".Mr. Whistler." she said, "two years
ago I bought one of your pictures, a
beautiful thing, and I have never been
able to hang it on my walls. It has
been loaned to one exhibition or an
other. Now. today I have my carriage
with me. and I would like to take it
home with me. I am told it is jn your
"Dear lady." returned Whistler, "you
ask the impossible. I will send it to
you when I have it again, but it is not
here. You have been misinformed."
And so forth, and so forth, to tho same
effect, and the Indy drove off without
After she had departed Whistler
commenced to poke around his studio
and. to the great astonishment of a
friend who had been an Involuntary
listener to the above conversation, he
brought forth a canvas.
"Hero it in." he said. "She was right
about one thing it is beautiful." And
it was beautiful.
"!!ut the impudence of these people."
he continued, "who think that because
they pay a few paltry hundred pounds
they own my pictures. Why. it mere
ly secures them the privilege of hav
ing them in tiicir houses now and
then! The pictures are mine!"
A Medical Sherlock Holmes.
A physician was knocked down and
robbed while on his way to see a pa
tient. His pockets were rifled, and
one of the articles stolen was a clin
ical thermometer with which be had
earlier in the evening taken the tem
perature of a patient. He remem
bered the temperature registered and
also that he had not shaken down the
mercury before putting the thermom
eter in his pocket. He communicated
these facts to the police. Some time
afterward a thermometer registering
the identical temperature was discov
ered in a pawnshop, and the police
were enabled thereby to track the doc
tor's assailants aud to arrest them.
Fame is easily acquired. All you
have to do is to be In the right place
at the right time and do the right
thing in the right way and then ad
vertise It properly. Puck.
Tommy Pop. what Is ennui? Tom
my's Pop Knnui. my son, is a disease
that attacks the people who are so
lazy that they get tired of resting.
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