The Columbus journal. (Columbus, Neb.) 1874-1911, September 07, 1910, Image 6

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    I''
CONSERVATION
DECLARES
Members of National Congress at St. Paul Find
Him ThorougLly in Accord wzlh Their
Ideas His Speech.
St. Paul. Sept. 5. The National
Conservation congress listened with
deep interest to President Taft's ad
dress today. The chief executive
spoke substantially as follows:
Gentlemen of the National Conservation
Congress:
Conservation as an economic ami po
litical trm has come to mean the preser
vation of our natural resources for
economical use. so as to secure the great
est Rood to the greatest number.
The danger to the state and to the peo
ple at large from the waste and dissipa
tion of our national wealth is not one
which quickly impresses Itself on the peo
ple of the older communities, because it
mot obviouK instances do not occur in
tiieir neighborhood, while In the newer
part of the country the sympathy with
xnansion and development is so strong
that the danger is scoffed at or ignored.
Among scientific men and thoughtful ob
server, however, the danger lias always
been present: but it needed some one to
bring home the crying need for a remedy
of this evil so as to impress itself on the
public mind and lead to the formation of
public opinion and action by the repre
sentatives of the people. Theodore Roose
velt took up this task in the last two
years of his second administration, and
well did he perform It.
As president of the I'nlted States I
have. :is It were, inherited this policy,
and I rejoice in my heritage. I prize my
high opportunity to do all that an ex
ecutive can do to help a great people
realize a great national ambition. For
conservation is national. It affects every
man of us. every woman, every child.
AVhal I can do in the cause I shall do.
not as president of a party, but as presi
dent of the whole people. Conservation
is not a tjuestion of politics, or of fac
tions, or of persons. It is a question that
affects l lie vital welfare of all of us of
our children and our children's children.
1 urge that no good can come from meet
ings of this sort unless we ascribe to
Uiom- who take part in them, and who
are apparently striving worthily in the
cause, all proper motives, and unless we
Judicially consider evety measure or
method proposed with a view to itseffec
tiveness in achieving our common pur
pose, and wholly without regard to who
proposes It or who will claim the credit
for its adoption. The problems are of
very great difficulty and call for the
calmest consIdertfJon and clearest fore
sight. Many of th questions presented
iiave phases that at new in this coun
try, and it is possible that in their solu
tion we may have to attempt first one
w and then another. What I wish to
emphasize, however, is that a satisfac
tory conclusion can only lie reached
promptly if we avoid acrimony, imputa
tions of bud faith, and political contro-
ersy.
The public tlomain of the government
of the fnlted States. Including all the
cessions from those of the thirteen states
that made cessions to the United States
and including Alaska, amounted in all to
about l.K.v)X0 acres. Of this there is
left as purely government property out
side of Alaska something like 700.000.or) of
r,erc. Of this the national forest re
er;es in the I'nlted States proper em
brace 144.000.(100 acres.
I shall' divide my discussion tinder the
heads of (1 agricultural lands: (2) min
eral lands that id. lands containing
metalliferous minerals: (3) forest lands:
(i) cial lands: o) oil and gas lands; and
(6) phosphate lands.
Agricultural Lands.
Our land laws for the entry of agricul
tural lands are now as follows:
The original homestead law. with the
requirements of residence and cultivation
for five years, much more strictly en
forced than ever before.
The enlarged homestead act. applying
to nnairrigable lands only, requiring five
years residence and continuous cultiva
tion of one-fourth of the area.
The. desert-land act." which requires on
the part of the purchaser the ownership '
r a water right and thorough reclama
tion of the land by irrigation, and the
payment of $1.25 per acre.
The donation or Carey act. under which
the slate selects the land and provides
for il reclamation, and the title vests In
the settler who resides upon the land and
cultivates it and pays the cost of the
reclamation.
The national reclamation homestead
law. requiring five years' residence and
cultivation by the settler on the land Ir
rigated by the government, and payment
by him to the government of the con of
thft reclamation.
The present congress passed a bill of
great importance. se-erlng the ownership
f coal by the government In the ground
irom the surface and permitting home
stead entries upon the surface of the
land, which, when perfected, give the
settler the right to farm the surface,
while the coal beneath the surface is re
tained in ownership by the government
and may be disposed of by It under other
laws.
There is no crying need for radical re
form in the methods of disposing of what
are really agricultural lands. The pres
ent laws have worked well. The en
larged homestead law has encouraged the
successful farming of lands In the seml
arld regions.
Reclamation.
By the reclamation act a fund lias been
created of the proceeds of the public
lands of the United States with which to
construct "works for storing great bodies
f mater at proper altitudes from which,
by a suitable system of canals and ditch
es. Iht- water is to be distributed over the
arid and subarld lands of the government
lo le sold to settlers at a price sufficient
to pay for the improvements. Primarily,
the projects are and must be for the im
prAirment of public lands. Incidentally,
wliero private land is also within reach
of the water supply, the furnishing at
cost or profit of this water to private
. owners by the government Is held by the
federal court of appeils not to be a
usurpation of power. Hut certainly this
' might not to be done except from sur
plus water, not needed for government
' land The total sum already accumula
ted In the reclamation fund is S60.2T3.
2JS.?2. ad T'that all but 16.191 .51.31 has
been expended. It became very clear to
congress at Its last session, from the
statements made by Kperts. that these
!W projects could not be promptly com
pleted with the balance remaining on
hand or with the funds likely to accrue
hi the near future. It was found, more
over, that there are many settlers who
have been led into taking up lands with
the hope and understanding of having
water furnished in a short time, who arc
left in a most distressing situation. I
recommended to congress that authority
lie given to the secretarv of the Interior
to issue bonds in anticipation of the as
He Was Mistaken.
"This country would be all right."
said the traveler in a heathen land,
"but it isn't civilized."
"That's where you go lame, stran
ger." rejoined tho native. "Two per
cent, of the population owns 90 per
cent, of the land. What more civiliza
tion do you want?"
A Pull Somewhere.
H So you finished the novel 1
brought you. How did it come out?
She The author must have had a
pull; I can't see any other way
A DUTY,
PRESIDENT TAFT
sured earnings by the projects, so that
the projects, worthy and feasible, might
be promptly completed, and the settlers
might lie relieved from their present In
convenience and hardship. In authorizing
the issue of these projects, congress lim
ited the application of their proceeds to
those projects which a board of army en
gineers, to be appointed by the president,
should examine and determine to be
feasible and worthy of completion. The
board has been appointed and soon will
make Its report.
Suggestions have been made that the
I'nlted States ought to aid In the drain
age of swamp lands belonging to the
states or private owners, because. If
drained, they would be exceedingly val
uable for agriculture and contribute to
the general welfare by extending the
area of cultivation. I deprecate the agi
tation in favor of such legislation. It Is
inviting the general government Into
contribution from its treasury toward en
terprises that should lie conducted either
by private capital or at the Instance of
the state. In these days there is a dispo
sition to look too much to the federal
government for everything. I am liberal
In the construction of the Constitution
with reference to federal power: but I
am firmly convinced that the only safe
course for us to pursue is to hold fast
to the limitations of the Constitution and
to regard as sacred the powers of the
states. We have made wonderful prog
ress and at the same time have pre
served with judicial exactness the re
strictions of the Constitution. There is
an easy way in which the Constitution
can be violated by congress without
Judicial inhibition, to-wit. by appropria
tions from the national treasury for un
constitutional purposes. It will ! a sorry
day for this country If the time ever
comes when our fundamental i-ompact
shall lie habitually disregarded in this
manner.
Mineral Lands.
Hy mineral lands I mean those lands
bearing metals, or what are called metal
liferous minerals. The rules of owner
ship and disposition of thes lands were
first fixed by custom In the west, and
then were embodied in the law, and they
have worked, on the whole, so faifly and
well that I do not think it is wise to
attempt to change or better them.
Forest Lands.
Nothing can be more important In the
matter of conservation than the treatment
of our forest lands. It was probably the
ruthless destruction of forests In the
older slates that first called attention to
a halt In thp waste of our resources. This
was recognized by congress by an act
authorizing the executive to reserve from
entry and set aside public timber lands
as national forests Speaking generally,
there has been reserved of the existing
forests about seventy per cent-, of all
the timber lands of the government.
Within these forests (Including 2J.noo.(K
acres in two forests in Alaska) are 192.
OuO.OdO of acres, of which 1&J.OO0.OU) of
acres are In the United States proper and
Include within their boundaries some
thing like S.roO.W) of acres that belong
to the state or to private individuals. We
have then, excluding Alaska forests, a
total of about 144.OW.C01 acres of forests
belonging to the government which is
being treatinl In accord with the princi
ples of scientific forestry.
TIi Rovtrnment timber in this coun
try amounts; to only one-fourth of all th
timlier. ihe rest being In private own
ership. Only three per cent, of that which
Is in private ownership Is looked after
properlv and treated according to mod
ern rules of forestry. The usual de
structive waste and neglect continues in
the remainder of the forests owned hy
private persons and corporations. It Is
estimated that fire alone destroys J30.000.
000 worth of timber a year. The
management of forests not on public
land is beyond the jurisdiction of the fed
eral government. If anything can be done
by law it must be done by the state leg
'.slatures. I believe that It is within their
constitutional power to require the en
forcement of regulations in the general
public Interest, as to fire and other
causes of waste in the management of
forests owned by private individuals and
c orporatlons.
I have shown sufficiently the conditions
as to federal forestry to Indicate that no
further legislation is needed at the mo
ment except an increase in the fire pro
tection to national forests and an act
vesting the executive with full power to
make forest reservations In every state
wher. govc rnment land is tlmber-covennl.
or where the land Is needed for forestry
purposes.
Coal Lands.
The next subject, and one most Impor
tant for our consideration, is the disposi
tion of the coal lands in the United
States and In Alaska. First, as to those
in the United States. At the beginning
of this administration they were classi
fied coal lands amounting to 5,476,0.0
acres., and there were withdrawn from
entry" for purposes of classification 17.
S67.000 acres. Since that time there have
lieen withdrawn by my order from entry
for classification 77.C4S.001 acres, making
a total withdrawal of 95.513.000 acres.
Meant' me. of the acres thtfs withdrawn.
11.371.000 have been classified and found
not to contain coal, and have been re
stored to agricultural entry, and 4.3M.000
acres have been classified as coal lands:
while 79.7SS.O00 acres remain withdrawn
from entry and await classification. In
addition 336.000 acres have been classi
fied as coal lands without prior withdraw
al, thus increasing tlio classified coal
lands to 10.168.000 acres.
Under the laws providing for the dispo
sition of coal lands, the minimum price
at which lands are permitted to be sold
is $10 an acre: but the secretary of the
Interior has the power to fix a maximum
price and sell at that price. By the first
regulations governing appraisal. ap
proved April 8. 1907. the minimum was $10.
as provided by law. and the maximum
was $100. and the highest price actually
placed upon any land sold was $75. Un
der the new regulations, adopted April 10.
li09. the maximum price was Increased to
$3. except In regions where there are
large mines, where no maximum limit Is
fixed and the price Is Getermined by the
estimated tons of coal to the acre. The
highest price fixed for any land under
this regulation has been $606. The ap
praisal value of the lands classified as
coal lauds and valued under the new and
old regulations is shown to be as follows:
4.503.9J1 acres, valued under the old regu
lations at $77.fi44.329. an average of $1S an
acre, and 5.S4.702 acress classified and
valued under the new regulation at $7)4.
203.24J. or a total of 10.1CS.C23 acres, val
ued at $471,847,571.
For the year ending March 31. 1D09. 227
coal entries were made, embracing an
area of 35.331 acres, which sold for $S.
020.1. For the year ending March 31.
1910. there were 17C entries, embracing an
She Was Settled. I
Mrs. Uppson I don't want another
giddy girl. Can't you get me a setttoS
woman?
Employment. &ssni r think I can.
ma'am. I mow of one ba has had
five husbands, and doesn't want any
more.
A Pleasant Memory.
The veteran pulled at his pipe and
stared thoughtfully into the glowing
embers. "Yes." he said, "we made the
enemy ran that day. But, thank
heaven, they didn't catch us."
area of 23.413 acres, which sold for $3C3.
813: and down to August. 1310. thsre wer
but 17 entries. With an area of 1.720 acres,
which sold for $B.9l'i.. mailing a dispo
sition of the coal lands in the last two
years of about 60.000 acres for $1,303,000.
The present congress, as already said,
has separated the surface of coal lands,
either classified or withdrawn for classi
fication, from the coal beneath, so as to
permit at all times homestead entries
upon the surface of lands useful for (ag
riculture and to reserve the ownership
in the coal to the government. The ques
tion which remains to be considered Is
whether the existing law for the sale of
the coal in the ground should continue
In force or be repealed and a new method
of disposition adopted. Under the present
law the absolute title In the coal be
neath the surface passes to the grantee
of the government. The price fixed Is
upon an estimated amount of the tons
of coal per acre beneath the surface, aad
the prices are fixed so that the earnings
will only be a reasonable profit upon the
amount paid and the Investment neces
sary. But. of course, this Is more or less
guesswork, and the government parts
with the ownership of the coal in the
gt.;rd absolutely. Authorities of the ge
ologtvv.! survey estimate that In the
United Statr today them a supply of
about three thousand billions of tons of
coal, and that of this one thousand billions
are in the public domain. Of course, the oth
er two thousand billions are within private
ownership and under no more control as
to the use or the prices at which the
coal may be sold than any other private
property. If the government leases the
coal lands and acts as any landlord
would, and Imposes conditions In Its
leases like those which are now Imposed
by the owners in fee .of coal mines In the
various coal regions of the east, then It
would retain over the disposition of the
coal deposits a choice as to the assignee
of the lease, or of resuming possession at
the end of the term of the lease, which
might easily be framed to enable It to
exercise a limited but effective control
in the disposition and sat of the coal to
the public. It has been urged that the
leasing system has never been adopted in
this country, and that Its adoption would
largely Interfere with the investment of
capital and the proper development and
opening up of the coal resources. I ven
ture to differ entirely from this view.
The question us to how great an area
ousrht to lie included In a lease to one
Individual or corporation. Is not fret from
difficulty: but in view of the fact that
the government retains control as owner.
I think there might be some liberality In
the amount leased, and that 2..VW acre
would not be too great a maximum.
By the opportunity to readjust the
terms upon which the coal shall b held
by the tenant, either at the end of each
lease or at periods during the term, the
government may secure the benefit of
sharing In the increased price of coal and
the additional profit made by the tenant.
By Imposing conditions in respect to the
character of uork to be done In the
mines, the government may control the
character of the development of the
mines and the treatment of employes with
reference to safety. By denying the
right to transfer the lease except by the
written permission of the go ernmental
authorities, it may withhold the needed
consent when It Is proposed to transfer
the leasehold to person interested in es
tablishing a monopoly of roa! production
In any state or neighborhood. The change
from the absolute giant to the leasing
system will Involve a good deal of
trouble In the outs!, and the training of
experts In the matter of making proper
leases: but the change will bo a good
one and can be made. The change Is In
the interest of conservation, and I am
glad to approve it.
Alaska Coal Lands.
The investigation of the geologic! sur
vey show that the coal properties in
Alaska cover about 1.140 rjuare miles,
and that there are known Jo be available
about 15.000.ono.000 tons. This Is. however,
an underestimate of the coal in Alaska,
liecause further developments will prob
ably increase this amo'ir.t many times;
but we can say with considerable cer
tainty that there are two fields on the
PaciCe slope which can be reached by
railways at a reasonable cost from deep
water in one case about fifty miles and
in the other case of about 1C0 miles
which will afford certainly C.bOO.oon.000
tons of coal, more than half of which Is
of a very high grade of bituminous and
of anthracite. It is estimated to be worth,
in the ground, one-half a cent a ton.
which makes its value per acre from $50
to $500. The coking-coal lands of Penn
sylvania are worth from $S00 to $2,000 an
acre, while other Appalachian fields are
worth from$!0 to $3J an acre, and the
fields In the central states from $10 to
$2,000 an acre, and In the Rocky moun
tains $10 to $5C0 an acre. The demand for
coal on the Pacific coast is for about
4.7.n0,O0 tons a year. It would encounter
the competition of cheap fuel oil, of
which the equivalent of 12.000.000 tons of
coal a year Is used there. It is estimated
that the coal could be laid down at Se
attle or San Francisco, a high-grade bf
tuminous. at $4 a ton and anthracite at
$5 or $6 a ton. The price of coal on the
Pacific slope varies greatly from time to
time in the year and from year to year
from $1 to $12 a ton. With a regular coal
supply established, the expert of the
geological survey. Mr. Brooks, who has
made a report on the subject, does not
think there would be an excessive proPt
in the Alaska coal mining because the
price at which the coal could lie sold
would be considerably lowered by conijH
tition from these fields and by the pres
ence of crude fuel oil. The history of the
laws affecting the disposition of Alaska
coal lands shows them to need amend
ment badly.
On November 12. KiK. President Roose
velt issued an executive order with
drawing all coal lands from location and
entry in Alaska. On May lfi. 1907. he
modified the order so as to permit valid
locations made prior to the withdrawal
on November 12. 1906. to proceed to entry
and patent. Prior to that date some SCO
claims had been filed, most of them said
to be illegal because either made fraudu
lently by dummy entrymen in the Inter
est of one individual or corporation, or
because of agreementsjnade prior to lo
cation between the applicants to co-operate
In developing the lands. There are 33
claims for 160 acres each, known as the
"Cunningham claims." which are claimed
to be valid on the ground that they were
made by an attorney for 33 different
and bona fide claimants who. as
alleged, paid their money and took the
proper steps to locate their entries and
protect them. The representatives of the
government in the hearings before the
land office have attacked the validity of
these Cunningham claims on the ground
that prior to their location there was an
understanding letween the claimants to
pool their claims after they had been
perfected and unite them in one com
pany. The trend of decision seems to
show that such an agreement would in
validate the claims, although under the
subsequent law of May 2S. 190$. the con
solidation ofueh claims was permitted,
after location and entry. In tracts of
2.360 acres. It would be. of course, im
proper for me to Intimate what the re
sult of the issue as to the Cunningham
and other Alaska claims is likely to lie.
but it ought to le distinctly understood
that no private claims for Alaska coal
lands have as yet lieen allowed or per
fected, and also that whatever the result
as to pending claims, the existing coal
land laws of Alaska arc most unsatisfac
tory and should be radically amended.
To legin with, the purchase price of the
land is a flat rate of $10 per acre. r.S
p i
though, as we have seen, the estim; of j
ttic agent ot uie geoiog-cai suv---v woulC "
DiffcVtfift Matter.
Vrsttf Daughter But, papa. I don't
see why you should be so down on
Harold. He is willing to die for me.
Papa Oh. well. I don't object to his
doing that. I thought he wanted to
marry you.
Yellow.
Friend I suppose there Is a great
deal of money in contributing to the
leading magazine?
Author Yes, but there's a great
deal more in contributing to the
misleading ones. Puck.
csrry up the maximum of value to $500
an acre. In my judgment It Is essential
In the proper development of Alaska, that
these coal lands should be opened, and
that the Pacific slope should be given the
benefit of the comparatively cheap coat
of fine quality which can be furnished at
a reasonable price from these fields: but
the public, through the government,
ought certainly to retain a wise control
and Interest in these coal deposits, and I
think It may do so safely If congress will
authorize the granting of leases, as al
ready suggested for government coal
lands in the United States, with provi
sions forbidding the transfer of the
leases except with the consent of tho
government, thus preventing their acqui
sition by a combination or monopoly and
upon limitations as to the area to be in
cluded In any one lease to one Individual,
and at a certain moderate rental, with
royalties upon the coal mined propor
tioned to the market value of the coal
either at Seattle or at San Francisco. Of
course such leases should contain condi
tions requiring the erection of proper
plants, the proper development by mod
ern mining methods of the properties
leased, and the use of every known and
practical means and device for saving the
life of the miners.
Oil and Gas Lands.
In the last administration there were
withdrawn from agricultural entry 2.820.
000 acres of supposed oil land in Califor
nia; about a million and a half acres in
Louisiana, of which only 6.500 acres
were known to be vacant unappropria
ted land; 75.C00 acres in Oregon and 174.-
000 acres in Wyoming, making a total of
nearly 4.M0.00Q acres. In September. 1909.
1 directed that all public oil lands,
whether then .withdrawn or not. should
be withheld from disposition pending con
gressional action, for the reason that the
existing placer mining law. although
made applicable to deposits of this char
acter. Is not suitable to such lands, and
for the further reason that it seemed de
sirable to reserve certain fuel-oil deposits
for the use of the American navy. Ac
cordingly the form of all. existing with
drawals was changed, and new with
drawals aggregating 2.75O.O0O acres were
made in Arizona. California. Colorado.
New Mexico. Utah and Wyoming. Field
examinations during the year showed
that of the original withdrawals. 2.170.
000 acres were not valuable for oil, and
they were restored for a?ricultural entry.
Meantime, other withdrawals of public
oil lands in these states were made, so
that July 1. 1910. the outstanding with
drawals then amounted to 4.550.OW acres.
The needed oil and gas I.tw Is essential
ly a leasing law. In their natural occur
rence, oil and gas cannot bo measured In
terms of acres, like coal, and It follows
that exclusive title to these products can
normally be secured only af:r they reach
the surface. Oil should be disposed of as
a commodity In term of barrels of
transportable product rather than In
acres of real estate. "This i. of course,
the reason for the practically universal
adoption of the leasing system wherever
nil land is In private ownership. The
government thus would noi lie entering
on an experiment, but simply putting
Into effect a plan successfully operated in
private contracts. Why should not the
government as a landowner ileal directly
ith the oil producer rather than through
the intervention of a middleman to whom
the government gives title to the land?
The principal underlying feature of
such legislation should be the exercise of
beneficial control rather than the collec
tion of revenue. As not only the largest
ouner of oil lands, but as a prospective
large consumer of oil by reason of the
Increasing use of fuel oil by the navy,
the federal 'government is directly con
cerned both in encouraging rational de
velopment and at the same time Insuring
the longest possible life to the oil sup
ply. One of the difficulties presented, espe
cially In the California fields. Is that the
Southern Pacific railroad owns every
other section of land In the oil field,
and in those fields the oil seems to be in
a common reservoir, or series of reser
voirs, communicating through the oil
sands, so that the excessive. draining of
oil at one well, or on the railroad terri
tory generally, would exhaust the oil in
the government land. Hence it is im
portant that If the government is to have
its share of the oil it should begin the
opening of wells on its-own property.
It has been suggested, and I believe the
suggestion to bo a sound one. that per
mits be issued to a prospector for oil
giving him the right to prospect for two
years over a certain tract of government
land for the discovery of oil. the right to
be evidenced by a license for which he
pays a small sum. When the oil is dis
covered, then he acquires title to a cer
tain tract, much In the same way as he
would acquire title under a mining law.
Of course if the system of leasing Is
adopted, then he would be given the
benefit of a lease upon terms like that
above suggested. What has been said In
respect to oil applies also to government
gas lands.
Phosphate Lands.
Phosphorus is one of the three essen
tials to plant growth, the other elements
being nitrogen and potash. Of these
three, phosphorus Is by all odds the
scarcest element In nature. It Is easily
extracted In useful form from the phos
phate rock, and the United States con
tains the greatest known deposits of this
rork in the world. They are found In
Wyoming. Utah and Florida, as well as
in South Carolina. Georgia and Tennes
see. The government phosphate lands are
confined to Wyoming. Utah and Florida.
Frior to March 4. 19(0. there were 4.000.000
acres withdrawn from agricultural entry
In the ground that the land covered phos
phate rock. Since that time. 2,322.000 acres
of the land thus withdrawn was found
not to contain phosphate In profitable
quantities, while 1.K7S.O0O acres was classi
fied properly as phosphate lands. During
this administration there has been with
drawn and classified 437.000 acres, so that
today there is classified as phosphate rock
land 2.115.000 acres. This rock is most
Important in the composition of fertilizers
to improve the soil, and as the future is
certain to create an enormous demand
throughout this country for fertilization,
the value to the public of such deposits
as these can hardly be exaggerated. Cer
tainly with respect to these deposits a
careful policy of conservation should be
followed. A law that would provide a
leasing system for the phosphate depos
its, together with a provision for the sep
aration of the surface and mineral rights
as Is already provided for in the case of
coal, would seem to meet the need of
promoting the development of these de
posits and their utilization In the agri
cultural lands of the west. If It i
thought desirable to discourage the expor
tation of phosphate rock and the saving
of It for our own lands, this purpose
could be accomplished by conditions In
the lease granted by the government to
its lessees. Of course, under the consti
tution the government could not tax
and could not prohibit the exportation of
phosphate, but as proprietor and owner
of the lands In which the phosphate is
deposited It could impose conditions upon
the kind of sales, whether foreign or do
mestic, which the lessees might make of
the phosphate mined.
Water-Power Sites.
Prior to March 4. 1909, there had been,
on tho recommendation of the reclama
tion service, withdrawn from agricultural
entry, liecause they were regarded as
useful for water-fearer sites which ousht
not to be dl?t?te1 of as agricultral .lands,
tracts nreitlng to about four million
acre-. he withdrawals were hastily
and included a great deal of land
that y3 not useful for power sites.
Tliev were intended to include the power
sites on 2 rivers In nine states. Since
No Comparison.
The portly dame in the back seat
cf the hotel back waxed impatient.
"He's the slowest driver Iever
saw!" she exclaimed.
"That only shows, ma'am." said the
imperturbable jehu, speaking in his
own behalf, "that you've never seen
a pile driver at work."
Never Can Live It Down.
"They say she is a woman with a
past."
"Yes. Once In a game of bridge she
failed to play the heart convention."
that time 3.473.412 acres hare been rs
storert for settlement of the original four
trillion, because they do not contain pow
er sKes; and meantime there have been
newly 'withdrawn 1.245.&C acres on vacant
public land and 211.007 acres on entered
public land, or a total of 1.454.899 acres.
These withdrawals made from time to
time cover all the power sites Included
In the first withdrawals, and many more,
on 125 rivers and In 11 states. The dispo
sition of these power sites Involves one
of the most difficult questions presented
In carrying out practical conservation.
The statute of 1S91 with Its amendments
permits the secretary of the Interior to
grant perpetual easements or rights of
way from water sources over public
lands for the primary purpose of Irriga
tion and such electrical current as may
be incidentally developed, but no grant
can be made under this statute to con-'
ceras whose primary purpose is gener
ating and handling electricity. The stat
ute of 1901 authorizes the secretary of
the Interior to Issue revocable permits
over the public lands to electrical power
companies, but this statute is woefully In
adequate because it d'es not authorize
the collection of a charge or fix a term
of years. Capital is slow to Invest In en
enterprise founded on a permit revocable
at will.
It is the plain duty of the government
to see to It that In the utilisation and de
velopment of all this Immense assouat
of water power, conditions shall be im
posed that will prevent monopoly and
will prevent extortionate charges, which
are the accompaniment of monopoly. The
difficulty of adjusting the matter Is ac
centuated by the relation of the power
sites to the water, the fall and flow of I
which create the power. In the states
where these sites are. the riparian own
er does not control or own the power in
the water which flows past his land.
That power is under the control and with
in the grant of the state, and generally
the rule is that the first water user Is en
titled to the enjoyment. Now. the pos
session of the bank or water-power site
over which the water Is to be conveyed
In order to make the power useful, gives
to Its owner nn advantage and a certain
kind of control over the use of the water
power, and It Is proposed that the govern
ment In dealing with its own lands should
use this advantage and lease lands for
power bites to those who would develop
the power, and impose condition on the
leasehold with reference to the reason
ableness of the rates at which the power.
when transmuted. Is to be furnished to
the public, and forbidding the union ot
the particular power with a combination
of others made for the purpose of monop
oly by forbidding assignment of the
leas- save by consent of the government.
Serious difficulties are anticipated by
some In such an attempt on the part of
the general government, because oi the
sovereign control of the stnte over the
water piwer In Its natural condition, and
the mere proprietorship of the govern
mnt in the rlpar'an lands. It is con
tended that through Its mere proprietary
rh;ht In the she. ch central govcrn.t.vsd
has no power to at'ompt to exercise po
lice Jurisdiction with reference to how
the water power In a river owned and
controlled by the 3tate shall be used, and
that it Is a violation of the state's rights.
I question the validity of this objection.
The government may Impose any condi
tions that It chooses In its leus-t of Its
own property, even though it may have
the same purpose, and in effect accom
plish Just what the state would accom
plish by the exercise of its sovereignty
There are those and the directoe ot the
geological survey. Mr. Smith, who has
given a great deal of attention to this
matter, is one of them) who Insist that
this matter of transmuting water power
Into electricity, which can be conveyed
all over the country and across state
lines, is a matter that ought to be re
tained by the general government, and
that it should avail itself of the owner
ship of these power sites for Che very
purpose of co-ordinating In one general
plan the power generated from ihtse
government owned sites.
Arguments Against Idea.
On the other hand. It Is contended -that
it 'would relievo a complicated situation
If the control of the water-power sits
and the control of the water were vested
In the same sovereignty and ownership,
viz.. the states, and then were disposed
of for development to private lessees un
der the restrictions needed to preserve
the interests of the public from the extor
tions and abuses of monopoly. Therefore,
bills have been Introduced In congress
providing that whenever the state au
thorities deem a water power useful they
may apply to the government of the
United States for a grant to the state
of the adjacent land for a water-power
site, and that this grant from the fed
eral government to the state shall con
tain a condition that the state shall
never part with the title to the water
power site or the water power, but shall
lease it only for a term of years not ex
ceeding ffty. with provisions In the
lease by which the rental and the rates
for which the power Is furnished to the
public shall be readjustr-d at periods less
than the term of the lease, say. every ten
years. The Argument Is urged against
this disposition of power sites that legis
lators and state authorities are more sub
ject to corporate Influence and control
than would be the central government: In
reply it is clnlmed that a readjustment
of the terms of leasehold every ten years
would secure to the public and the state
just and equitable terms.
I do not express nn opinion upon the
controversy thus made or a preference
as to the two methods of treating water
power sites. I shall submit the matter to
congress and urge that one or the other
of the two plans be adopted.
I have referred to the course of the last
administration and of the present one In
making withdrawals of government lands
from entry under homestead and other
laws and of congress In removing all
doubt as to the validity of these with
drawals as a great step In the direction
of practical conservation. But it Is only
one of two necessary steps to effect what
should be our purpose. It has produced
a status quo and prevented waste and Ir
revocable disposition of the lands until
the method for their proper disposition
can be formulated. But It is of the ut
most Importance that such withdrawals
should not be regarded as the final step
In the course of conservation, and that
the idea should not be allowed to spread
that conservation Is the tying up of the
natural resources of the government for
indefinite withholding from use and the
remission to remote generations to decide
what ought to be done with these means
of promoting present general human com
fort and progress. For. if so. It Is certain
to arouse the greatest opposition to con
servation as a cause, and If it were a
correct expression of the purpose of con
servationists It ought to arouse this op
position. As I have said elsewhere, the
problem Is how to save and how to util
ize, how to conserve and still develop:
for no sane person can contend that It is
for lhe common good that nature's bless
ings should be stored only for unborn
generations.
I beg of you. therefore. In your delib
erations and In your informal discussions,
when men come forward to suggest evils
that the promotion of conservation is to
remedy, that you invite them to point
out the specific evils and the specific
remedies : that you invite them to come
down to details In order that their discus
sions may flow Into chanels that shall be
useful rather than into periods that shall
tie eloquent and entertaining, without
shedding real light on the subject. The
people should be shown exactly what is
needed in order that they make their
representatives in congnss and the state
legislature do their Intelligent bidding.
Behind the Times.
Lettice Denby But this Is bo sud
den! Uppen Dewing Sudden! It's near
ly two weeks! Young lady, don't you
know that the modern, up-to-date.
Robert W. Chalmers period of court
ship is only two minutes? '
Sign of Quality.
"I'm suro that thero is some won
derful quality In my daughter's voice."
"What makes you think so?"
"None of the neighbors have or
jected to her practising."
ALL OVER NEBIASKA
Cost of Farmers.' Institute.
The Omaha Weekly Trader is now
and has been for some time past in
teresting Itself in the work of fann
ers' institutes throughout Nebraska.
We quote its words on the subject:
"We thoroughly believe in the
kind of work they are doing and the
way in which it is being done and
we believe that across the length and
breadth of this state its people, city
people or country people, have only
to be well informed as to results to
bring about a thorough and complete
support on their part of those de
voted citizens who hare this
propaganda nearest to their hearts.
"Our readers are aware, of course,
that the state is virtually conducting
three separate kinds or institutes,
regular farmers' institutes, boys and
girls' institutes or contest and
farmers' institute schools. These di
visions have been an outgrowth of
the urgent requests from com
munities anxious to obtain help from
the .ate university. Here is the
graded summing up of results:
Regular Farmers Insttiutes:
Two-day meetings 124.
one-day meetings. S3.
total 137
Total number of ses
sions 57S
Average attendance, per
sessions ISO
Total attendance per ses
sion .. ii.ii4
Average cost per Insti-
titute $"9.30
2SI days, cost per day 32.30
55X sessions, cot per scs-
"ion j 9i"
Average cost, per person .09
Total cost of 157 nlstl-
tutes $9,210.61
Boys' and Girls' Insti
tutes (or contests):
Total number of Insti-
Total attendance 6.9 3
Average per session 259
Cost per session $39.f!
Average cost, per child.. .15
Total cost of 27 insti
lutes $1.0t7.S3
Farmers" Institute
Schools:
Total number schools
l .short course) S
Total nttend'ince 1.9S3
Cost per school or per
week $270.2:
Aierago cost tier person. .St
Total cost of 6 schools... 1.621.61
Total cost of all Institutes $12,000.03
Average cost per person. 11.2c
"In figuring the attendance of
regular institutes the above figures
do not show actual number of per
sons in attendance. The system of
adding attendance per session to the
total attendance is recommended by
the National Association of Farmers'
Institute workers, and is uniform
throughout the state. Our readers
will notice from these figures the
average cost of each of the different
lines of work is 9 cents per person
attending regular farmers' insti
tutes and 81 cents per person attend
ing farmers' institute schools. The
average cost of carrying instruction
to the 105,504 people was 11.2 cents.
It may be well to observe that those
registered for the short course work
receive six days instruction, which
would make the cost If. 3 cents per
day or practically the same as for
the regular institute work.
These figures reveal wonderful
economy of administration, small ex
penditures securing tremendous re
sults, and are worthy the careful
study of everyone interested in the
future of this commonwealth. The
agricultural possibilities of Nebraska
will be increased rapidly and four
fold under such educational ad
vantages as these institutes are giv
ing to the farmers."
Young Woman Commits Suicide.
Otoe County. Miss Clara Kuen
ning. 2C. residing four miles north of
Syracuse, with her parents. Mr. and
Mrs. Henry Kuenning. became
despondent and during the absence of
the family from the home Sunday
morning, committed suicide by hang
ing herself wtih a towel, tied to a nail
and holding up her feet until she had
choked to death. She was a very
popular young woman and the caiiFe
of the suicide is said to be brought on
by brooding over a little love affair.
Two Candidates Will Speak.
Gage County. The Gage County
Fair association have arranscii to
have James Dahlman and C. H. Aid
rich, candidates for governor, to
speak during the fair. Mr. Alriricii
will speak on September 21 and Mr. ;
Dahlman the day following.
Douglas County Complete.
Douglas County. The county can
vassing board has completed the
canvass of votes for Douglas county
and it only remains for the totals to
be cerified. According to the figures
now in. which will be little changed
in the verification. Dahlman's ma
jority in Douglas county is .!.n:,),
against 5.291 on the first returns.
Custer County Fair.
Custer County. The Custer county
fair of 1910 will open September I?,.
Large sums of money have been ex
pended on improving the grounds,
while the new $2,000 tables have
sheltered, for some time past, a line
of tine running and trotting stock in
training for the fair.
Burned to Death.
Adams County. As a result of
burns received in an attempt to make
a smouldering fire burn by aiding it
with coal oil Mi's. E. E. Wither of
Hastings died after suffering intense
pain all day.
Lexington Man Killed by Horse.
Buffalo County. The horse which
Camille Giltett was ridinc became
frightened at an automobile. The
animal reared and ten. felt backwards
on top of young Gillett. knocking him
unconscious. He died soon after.
Ten Cars Are Burned.
Box Butte County. A fire that
originated in an empty stock car in
a string of cars loaded with ties at
Orelta station resulted in the total
destruction of ten cars and contents
representing a loss of about ?G,000.
Safe Blown at Virginia.
Gage County. Burglars broke into
the general store of II. J. Nicholson
at Virginia, blowing open the safe
with dynamite. Entrance was secured
through one of the rear doors of the
store building. No money was kept
in the safe.
Hfl
Til HHE EVE KID V
IWBitWtsA.V.WsiaryEjssa-J f
GJUUUJlJtTEDEYEUDS I
DoeA'tSssat-tUSctiieaEyePain
r.Usa Sc.yi
KT BOOKS AND ADVKS RIB BT HAH.
FASTIDIOUS.
CTJ'C'-jmr
"Lady, can youse give ma a littla
rasollne?
"Per the land's cake! Tou don't
lrink gasoline, do yon?"
"No. lady. I wants ter clean
rloves wit it."
me
Deafness Cannot Be Cared
if local appUeatloaa, as taey eaaaot resell the dhw
Md portion at tbs csr. Tacts to only one war to
niro deaiocas. sad taat at r coaaUtuUesat rcsiedlea.
fni is caused by aa tesaated coadKan ot tbm
aucous llDlnc ot taa Eustachian Tata. Waca Una
aba is taOaaiad you aavs a runbUac saaed or ba
jertrct bearing, sad wbaa ft la anUrety tiosrd. Deal
uaa to tt rcaalt. aad naJeaa taa tonammation caa.be
Mkaa oat and Urte tuba restored to lis normal coddl
ta. BaattBC U1 daanotd fartrer: saw cava
iii of ue ara caaaad by Cattrrk, wale to aotaiac
lit aa toaaawd ceadmoa ot tfcs arenas asrSwca.
Wa wtt gtvs Om Huadtsd DeHan ft say aats.af -Paataasa
(caused by oatartU.ttas iaaan-W curat
V Hairs Gaiina Cats, esad lar rtcalsm tree.
F. t. CHEMET A CO. Toiado. Ok
Bald T Drasstota. TSe,
7aka llaU-a FaaOly rffls t
Lemons Curs Malaria.
Lemons are said to be an Infallible
:ure for malaria. This Is the method
jf preparation: Take one leawn. wash
thoroughly with a brush and hot wa
ter till all germs are gone, cut In
very small pieces, using skfo. seeds
ind all; cook In three glasses of wa
ter till reduced to one. and take this
while fasting. A cure Is generally
iffected within a week.
Tit fer Tat.
"Mb? Brags." stammered the young
nan. "I called on you last sight did I
otr
"What aa odd question! Of coarse,
rou did."
. "W-w-well. I Just waated to say that
if I proposed to yos I was droak.
To ease your nrisd. I will say that
if I accepted yon I was crazy.' Jadge.
English so She Is Spake.
Chinatown Visitor John, sabee. see
screen how muck sabee want for
him?
The Chlnamanr-Whafs the matter
with you? Can't yoa speak Eaglish?
Judge.
Net to Overdo It.
Lily I'se gwlne to a a'priss party
tonight. Miss Sally.
Miss Sally What win yon take for
present?
Lily Well, we dldn' cal'late on
rnkin' no present. To' see. we don't
a an to s'prise 'em too muck.
The Witching Hour.
Claire Jack told me he waated to
toe you the worst possible way.
Ethyl And what did you say?
Claire I told blmtocome to break-
'lust soma morning.
How many of us have cravings that
never will be stilled, though we do
not talk about them. Dr. Robertson
Nicooll.
If a man amounts to anything Is a
mall town he soon begins to think he
would amount to mora In a big town.
LACK OF MONEY
Was a Geesens In This Caaa.
It Is not always that a lack of
mosey Is a benefit.
A lady of Green Forest. Ark., owes
ser Health to the fact that sheceuld
ot pay la sdvsaca tka fea demaad
Ti by a specialist 'to treat her for
Itomaca troable. la telling of her
caaa she says:
' 1 had been treated by four differ
ent puyaldsas dorlag It years of
stomach trouble. Lately I called oa
another who told ma ha couM sot cure
ma; that I had neuralgia of the stom
ach. Then I went to a spadallst who
told ma I had catarrh ot the tamacs
sad said ha could euro ma la fear
months hut would havs to have hi
money down. I could act raise the
necessary sum aad la my extremity I
was lad to quit coffee aad try Postum.
"So I stopped coffee and gave Poet
am a thorough trial aad the result
iave been xnaglcaL I bow sleep well
at night, something I had not done
fjr a long time; the pain In my stom
ach Is goas aad I am 'a different
woman.
1 dreaded to quit coffee, because
every time I had tried to stop It I suf
fered from severe headaches, so I con
tinued to drink It although I had rea
son to believe It was Injurious to me.
and was the cause of my stomach
trouble and extreme' nervousness. But
when I had Postum to shift to it was
different.
"To my surprise I did not miss cof
fee when I began to drink Postum.
"Coffee had been steadily and sure
ly killing me and I didn't fully realizo
what was doing jit until I quit and
changed to Postum."
Kver read the abova letter? A nr-n
ac appenra front time to tlaae. Tb-y
are crania.?, true, aad full of buaaaa
laterrMt.
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