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About The Columbus journal. (Columbus, Neb.) 1874-1911 | View Entire Issue (July 27, 1910)
WO of the greatest Industries In the
world are railway building and the
preparation of hides and skins into
leather. For the former the sleep
ers on which the rails are laid are
essential and costly factors; for the
latter nothing can talce the place
of some vegetable extract which Is
the tanning substance of the trade.
Sleepers can be made of glass and
metal, but these do not give the
satisfaction of those made of wood.
The oak and the hemlock have for
ages supplied tannin by which
leather is cured; In fact, the very word tann implies
by its derivation its relation to the oak, by which
name the tree was called in pld Breton language.
Railway sleepers have been made from the oak, but
the expense grows higher year by year. No wonder,
therefore, that the earth is scoured for trees to fur
nish either the one or the other or both of the sub
stances, and no wonder also that manufacturers and
builders hailed with delight the announcement a few
years ago of the availability for both purposes of the
"Jouth American tree called "Quebracho."
Quebracho Is a contraction of the colloquial Span
.h and Portuguese term qulebra-hacha, originally
Ipplled to many trees in Latin America. It means
fax breaker," and the character Is Implied In this
leaning. The wood Is hard, fine grained, and tough
and had been used by the natives for ages in their
primitive construction work. Of recent years, how
ever, quebracho is restricted in the arts and indus
tries to a particular tree found only in South Amer
ica, and even here only within broad limts of the
drainage basin of the River Parana. In Cuba there
Is a "quebracho," so-called locally, which is a mem
ber of the Copaiba family. In Chile a quebracho is
rather of the Cassia family, and probably in other
parts of Latin America the name is indiscriminately
given to any hard wood that has tested the metal of
the native's ax. No such indefinite use of the word,
however, can be permitted today, because the tree of
E or ALL a
Laa.SgSSg .1 -rue wrronB rr a 1
if J VUa&C sBK I 0 & BllfaBBBBT,J) T aattb JL Bm aV MA
-the cweo B5fryfriVsamllsrast
3 I &?M Jr. f I yT?Jfa&3i
yr rttuithjut i o rTittir-
y znnj'vj.s. xgj rrxjcst
the South American Chaco has become so commer
cially important that it must be understood to signi
fy only that one tree and nothing else.
The genuine quebracho tree is found in Brazil,
Paraguay, and the Argentine Republic. There are
two Important varieties and a third has been dis
tinguished, although it has no great significance
botanically or value commercially. Locally and in
the trade the names given are Quebracho Colorado
(red), and Quebracho bianco (white). Quebracho
Colorado has the scientific designation of Lox
optcrygium lorentzil, and belongs to the order of
Anacardiadae. This Is the particular tree from
which both the sleepers and the better quality of
tanning extract are derived. The other. Quebra
cho bianco, la neither so straight nor so service
able as the red variety, but is nevertheless of
definite commercial value, as it furnishes some
tanning extract and the logs can be used for
fence posts and axles. From it Is taken also a
drug extensively used for bronchial diseases; In
fact, as a plaint It was studied for this purpose
long before Its other advantages were exploited.
The scientific name Is Aspidosperma quebracho.
Railways must have sleepers on which to lay
their rails. In some instances wooden ones are
Imported at great expense, or substitutes there
for are used If climatic conditions are favorable.
As a rule, however. It Is preferred to take sup
plies from native timber whenever procurable.
This was the case In the Argentine Republic when
railway 'building away from the coast had begun,
and no more fitting wood could be discovered than
that recommended by the natives, both by the
name and by the experience of those who had
used It. The quebracho wood proved by far the
most serviceable for sleepers on South American
railways, and its reputation grew so steadily that
today many miles of European rails are supported
by sleepers brought from the River Plate.
In one respect quebracho resembles rather ma
hogany than oak or pine. The trees do not grow
In clump6 or groves, but are dispersed through the
forests and the less dense woods, singly or In
groups seldom more than four or five to the acre.
The tree itself is tall, about two or three feet in
diameter, and is crowned by a rather thin, aval,
or V-shaped, mass of branches and leaves. The
white quebracho is somewhat smaller than the
fed, and begins to branch lower to the ground, so
that it is not hard to distinguish them from each
other. The leaves are oval, or lance shaped,
smooth, somewhat shining and leathery; they do
not fall completely in the winter, but cling to the
branches in company with the fruit The tree
seems to thrive best on a sandy soil, where toe at
mospheric moisture is not very great, but where
rbundant water Is provided for the roots, either
by dews or sufficient rain. It is neither a Moun
tain nor a river growth, but lives best in the sub
tropical stretches between water courses. Al
though the age of the tree has been given as
measured by hundreds of years, it Is well enough
established that at ten years from planting the
first small shrubs are big enough to use for posts.
The future promises, therefore, an opportunity
for the actual cultivation of quebracho, because,
although savage inroads have been made into the
supposedly inexhaustible forests of the Chaco, it
Is not too late to restrict the cutting of the tree,
or even to adopt modern forestry methods of
plaining :.nd conservation for the supply of com
ing c-i;-sacioiis. In fact, the Argentine Republic
!-;!: -:- passed suitable laws in this direction.
: :.:i ii ? : or. than probable that under the wise
of "-"vn-nnint tpre W li
7MS 3AFX OF WtE QUJ&XAMO
developed an arborlcultural Industry to proceed
hand in hand with the preparation of quebracho
posts for fences and construction work, sleepers
for railways, and of tanning extract, the three
Industries for which this unique tree Is at present
"Rolllzos" Is the Spanish word commonly em
ployed In the trade for the rough and untrlmmed
logs (which the word means), from which only
the bark has been removed. They are still sup
plied by smaller camps from dwarfed under
growth not great enough for other purposes than
posts, beams, cabin pillars, or cart axles. When
the forest was first invaded these logs were the
only product brought out of It, and the stoiles told
of the primitive methods adopted by the natives
for transport carry one back before the days of
steam and machinery. A popular way of loading
the logs was to lay them on the ground on ropes;
then the animals were unharnessed and the cart
was tilted bodily upside down over the logs;
these were then made fast to the body of the cart,
after which maneuver It was brought back to Its
normal position. Of course only two-wheeled carta
were used. As soon as modern methods were in
troduced, and better carts or wagons became
known, these primitive and cumbersome habits
disappeared, although in the far interior even to
day rolllzos are still brought to market in this
manner. "Durmlentes," according to the Spanish,
or sleepers. In the English idiom, are probably the
most Important product of the quebracho of the
The industry of making sleepers has assumed
huge proportions. The difficulties of former days
have been largely overcome by the Introduction
of modern machinery, especially saws, and some
of the mills many miles distant from any main
railway are equipped and organized in a manner
which would reflect credit on any similar plant in
the United States. Special saws are needed to
penetrate the wood, but they are furnished from
the factories of England. France, and America.
This mill business is carried on by many com
panies, although the tendency Is to concentrate
the management Into fewer but larger organiza
tions. One company owns a tract of land of about
4,000,000 acres, and Is prepared to cut timber,
fashion It into logs and sleepers, prepare tanning
extract, and utilize every other resource which the
land provides. Another company can turn out
20,000 to 30,000 sleepers a week. This number, how
ever, can by no means meet the steady demand
for railway building which Is characteristic of this
portion of South America. Sleepers are laid at
about an Interval of two feet from center to cen
ter. Assuming, therefore, only 2.000 sleepers for
; very mile. It will be 6een that 20.000 are enough
for only 15 miles. A year's supply at fullest capac
ity will consequently build only 750 miles of rail
way. But the Argentine Republic, Uruguay, Chile
and Bolivia, all contiguous to the Chaco, are con
structing more than this mileage, so that it Is
easy to see that every sleeper turned out from
modern mills can at once find a local market
These sleepers are now finished at the mill, and
the mill is situated at the spot in the forest itself
most convenient for carrying on the process.
QhI- v" "vfrart nronnroH - inninjr skins
and hides Into leather Is. however,
the most serviceable product of
the tree. AH the timber com
panies are adjusting their plant
so as to utilize the wood, either
In Its entire output, or in that
portion not reserved for posts and sleepers, for
this extract In Paraguay and areas in the Chaco
remote from good roads, so that the cost of sup
plying timber is excessive, every particle of the
wood is turned into extract, because the demand
Is usually In advance of the supply, and it Is there
fore more profitable to manufacture the more
concentrated article, which can be easier and more
economically carried to market
One feature of quebracho. In which It Is su
perior to other sources of supply. Is that the bark,
the sapwood, and the whole of the central part
of the tree produce the extract in considerable
quantities. The bark contains 6 to 8 per cent of
tannin, the sap 3 to 5 per cent, and the heart 20
to 25 per cent As the heart represents two-thirds
and often three-fourths of the total quantity of
wood, the amount of tannin In the Quebracho Colo
rado is seen to be considerable. It Is merely a
chemical question whether this tanning material
Is equal or Inferior to that from the oak, but later
methods of preparation point to a full Justification
of the claim that the leather from quebracho ex
tract grades up to that resulting from any other
tanning substance. So serviceable is it, however,
that since Its discovery, the tanning Industry of
the Argentine Republic has made noticeable ad
vance, because, with both hides and extract as
great natural products of the country, the govern
ment Is making every effort to foster the leather
industry within Its own border.
"Quebracho extract," as it Is called In the trade
Is easily manufactured when the machinery Is
once installed. All the wood Is passed througk
a machine that cuts it into shavings or the small
est possible chips. It Is then collected into Im
mense kettles, in which It Is treated by chemical
processes until all the tannin is removed: after1
this tho fluid preparation Is reduced by evapora
tion to a thick. Jelly-like mass, which is poured
Into sacks, where it is finally dried into the sub
stance sold in commerce.
The difficulty of gathering the raw material far
outweighs the preparation of the finished article,
especially as tho extract Is no longer to be con
sidered a by-product hut Is coming to have more
importance and value than posts and sleepers. In
Paraguay particularly, where all the wood is util
ized for extract, the hardest part of the business
lies in gathering wood for the factory. The trees
arc cut in the heart of the virgin forest and
hauled by ox teams to the nearest clearing. Only
native Indians have proven themselves suitable
for the work, as they are thoroughly acclimated,
understand the wilderness, and can withstand the
plague of Insects which make life at night mis
erable for the foreigner; and exposure for night a
as well as days Is unavoidable, because the cut
ting stations are usually remote from any settle
In 1SS5 the first real exportation of quebracho
extiact from the River Plate was recorded. The
Increase has been rapid from 400 tons In the first
year to 9.000 lens In 1902, 120,591 tons In the next
five years, and 2S.195 tons in 1907. Of this quan
tity the United States received 17,733 tons, or al
most 05 tfr cfnt.
In the Toils of the Law
By DONALD ALLEN
(Copyright, laio, by Associated Literary Press.)
It was late winter when Miss Bes
sie Hyde arrived at her aunt's country
house for a two weeks' stay, but there
was still plenty of snow on the ground.
Even before unpacking her trunk and
hanging up her dresses the girl was
out romping around. Not that snow
was a novelty to a girl from town.
Even at that moment there were piles
of It in front of her father's house,
waiting to be removed, and growing
blacker every moment
But this snow was different It was
white snow. It wasn't mixed with
soot, cinders, old shoes, tomato cans
and beef bones. It was as clean as
the spread on a spare bed. It was
good enough to eat She threw snow
balls at the dignified old family dog
and gave him a bad opinion of her
city manners, also of her Bkill as a
On the second day of her stay Miss
Bessie observed something. It was
something that the man of all-work
around the house had never observed
yet. although he had been there five
years. To the north of the house was
a hill that was evidently on some one
else's land, as there was a dividing
fence. By takine down a Danel of the
fence a girl on a sled could start at
the top of the hill, come whizzing
down over Aunt Hetty's lawn, and
then pass through an open gate and
strike the highway. The road had a
gradual descent for a quarter of a
mile. That was a slide down hill
worth talking about If only there
was a sled of some sort about
There was. It was a bandsled used
by the all-work man for various Jobs.
He was not about, and Miss Bessie
took possession. Aunt Hetty wasnt
looking, and a panel of the fence was
removed almost as neatly as a farmer's
hired man could have done it Then
the sled was dragged to the top of the
hill, and all was ready for the gee
whiz. Had the girl swung her hat and ut
tered a few preliminary war whoops
before starting, and thus brought Aunt
The Sled Came Down Like a Bullet.
Hetty to the door, things would have
been altogether different She would
have been told that that hill belonged
to old Adam Flint, who was both mean
and miserly. His hill stood there ready
to do business, but he was so afraid
that somebody would elope with It
that he had posted signs everywhere.
"No trespassing under penalty of
the law!" read the signs.
The girl could have seen no less
than three such signs had she looked
around her. She wasn't looking for
signs, however. Also, had she looked
about she would have been warned
that a girl gee-whizzing on a sled into
the highway and down another hill
might possibly meet a vehicle of some
sort coming up.
If she had been told these things the
ride would have been postponed and
Miss Bessie Hyde might have lived on
to be an old maid. Fortunately she
was not interfered with. The first
anyone knew of the adventure was
when a shout came from the top of
the hill. The sled came down like a
bullet. The all-work man ran to stop
it. but fell down and rolled over. Aunt
Hetty ran to stop it. but she slipped
on the veranda and sat down hard.
Away went the sled with a fright
ened girl hanging on for dear life and
one foot trailing behind as a rudder.
It was going like a hundred rabbits
when it made the turn into the high
way, and then there was a sigh of re
lief. But the respite was short Com
ing up the long hill was old Adam
Flint in his "pung." which is a home
made sleigh. Close behind him fol
lowed a man driving a horse and cut
ter. The road was narrow, the banks
Miss Bessie shut her eyes and
screamed. Old Adam Flint called
I "M'tin-.! -k lift; hnrca on.1 idul.ln.! V..
his last hour had come.
as he helped to extricate the cause of
tho smash-up and deposit her in his
cutter, where she indulged in a few
hysterics to prove that she still lived.
It was old Adam who did most of the
talking, and he didn't talk In a whis
per. He talked to the seven winds ot
earth, and he tried to gesticulate with
his injured arm as he orated:
"Now by jimlny-cracky. but some
body shall pay for this!" he piped.
"Who's this gal? I'll bet a cent she's
been riding down my hilL If she has,
then it's trespass and a lawsuit! Then
she banged into my hoss! That's
another lawsuit Then she's banged
into me! That's a third. Then the
pung has been smashed, and the law
has got to assess the damages. Then
I've got to have pay for being skeercd
half to death. AH them lawsuits, and
then this young feller is to be settled
with. Young woman. I wouldn't want
to be in your shoes!"
Miss Hyde began to cry. It was the
first time in her life she had been
threatened with ten or fifteen lawsuits.
Her father was a prosperous merchant
In the city, but so many verdicts must
drive him into bankruptcy. The young
man called old Adam for his threats
and said he would see him later about
Miss Bessie was driven up the hill
and turned over to the care of her
aunt She was still nervous, but she
could see that bruise, and she insisted
that it be attended to at once. It was
attended to. The young man intro
duced himself as Mr. Howard Kyle,
and it was a long hour before he con
tinued his drive. Of course he returned
next day. That was only good form.
He was visiting a brother only two
miles away and it was no great trouble
to come over.
The bruise was still there, but befr
ter. Miss Bessie's wrist was also still
there, and also much better. What she
was worrying about was those law
suits. Would the damage altogether
amount to a hundred thousand dollars?
Would she have to go out as a servant
girl for the rest of her life to help
make up the sum? Mr. Kyle had been
very kind, but did that mean he would
not seek to collect damages? It was
only after the adventure had been
talked over at length that she heaved
a sigh of relief. He informed her that
he had settled all damages with old
Adam for ready cash. The sigh of re
lief still lingered in the air when a
horrible thought came to the sigher
and she cried out:
"But I've got to pay you. and maybe
papa hasn't money enough! Please
tell me how much It is. and I will
write him at once."
But he didn't tell her not then. He
waited a whole year, and then, one
evening as they were sitting together,
he suddenly said:
"I paid old Adam five dollars to set
tle damages. It's been a year now.
and I want a settlement with you.
She reached out her hand, and he
took it and seemed to think he had
got the best of the bargain.
Added to the Long list doe
to This Famous Remedy.
Oronogo. Mo. "I was simply a ner.
Tons wreck. I could not walk across
the floor without
my heart flutterint
and I could not even
receive a letter.
Every month I had
such a bearing down
sensation, as if the
lower Darts would
fall out Lydia E.
ble Compound has
done my nerves a
great deal of good
and has alsoreliered
he bearing down. I recommended it
to some f nends and two of them have
been sreatlr benefited bv It" Mrm.
MaeMcKnioiit. Oronoffo. Mo.
Another Grateful Woman "
Bt Louis. Mo. "I was bothered
terribly with a female weakness and
had backache, bearing down pains and
pains in lower parts. I benn taking
Lydia E. Pinkham's Vegetable Com.
pound regularly and used the Sanative
Wash and now! have no more troubles
that way." Mrs. Al. Herzog 6721
Prescott Ave., St Louis, Mo.
Because your case isa difficult one,
doctors having done you no good,
do not continue to suffer without
giving Lydia E. Pinkham's Vegetable
Compound a trial. It surely has cured
many cases of female Ills, such as In
flammation, ulceration, displacements,
fibroid tumors, irregularities, periodie
pains, backache, that bearing-down
feeling, indigestion, dizziness, and ner
vous prostration. It costs but a trifle
to try it, and the result is worth xnU
lions to many suffering women,
I 1 1 sfc sfc of Paxtlae.
fr mt eye mad
aobed k a Am m hot wt
g PW aad baobtcly Ks
1m. Tiya, Staple. 50c
lt bos at dragpSa or byaaL
Tmc PAXTON Toarroa.
TOO MANY IN PROFESSION
Absurd, However, to Reduce the Num
ber of Students, Says Amer
HEAVY IRON CULVERT PIPES
Com ud wtm them. We pay upnsea If yon bni
nMiB JBoumr rip vo.
HE'D GET THE APPLE.
"The overcrowding of the medteel
profession conies up for discusaiort
every little while, and always will
come up, for it is the normal condI
tion in all callings." says American
Medicine. "Economists have repeat,
cdly shown that industries owe their
existence to a large unemployed class
from whom labor can be obtained at a
moment's notice. In the parable, the
master said: 'Why stand ye here, all
the day idle?'
"There are always more workmen
than the work requires, and the cry
of overcrowding is as old as man and
is now heard every year in trade. In
every civilized land we find some doc
tors in poverty, some lawyers, and
some clergymen. It is a condition
which cannot be remedied and the
proposition to reduce the number of
medical students is palpably absurd
almost amounts to the suggestion that
the sick be compelled to submit to
the ministrations of the least efficient.
"The number of students is being
reduced in England on account of the
increasing cost and labor of obtaining
a license, but it will not guarantee all
the graduates success. Indeed over
crowding is socially desirable, as it
increases the struggle for efflclency.
In the struggle for existence, success
goes to the efficient, not necessarily
to those we consider the best.
"The diminishing incomes of physi
cians have already been mentioned In j
these columns, and the causes deter
mined, but that has nothing to do with
the utter failure of some a matter
due solely to the inevitable overcrowding."
Eddie Say, mom, give Jessie aa ap
Mamma Then youll want one. too
Eddie No. Just give It to Jessie.
We are going to play Adam and Eve,
and she Is going to tempt me.
Refinement ot Assurance.
Busy Business Man (irately) Sir. .
didn't ask you to sit down!
Persistent Salesman (settling bad
comfortably) That's all right n
apology Is necessary. I knew it wm
only an oversight. Harper's Weekly.
We live truly In proportion as w
go out of ourselves and enter into the
fulness of the experience of those
whom we serve, and by whom in tura
we are served. Westcott.
Golden Key to Child's Mind
A Pirate Queen.
Anion:; a party of C4 Ananiite pirates
The man in the cutter grinned and and malefactors just brought to .Mar
got ready to enjoy a good thing. seilles was on of the wives of the
The sled struck old Adam's knock-1 pirate De Tham. who has given the I
kneed horse. It just had to strike French so much trouble in Indo-China. !
Co-IJa. as the woman pirate Is called, i
exercised a dominating Influence over '
the pirate king and his followers, a '
power sh1 even preserved throughout
the voyage, which the prisoners made
in a specially constructed iron cage.
built amidships. The other prisoners!
on receiving their rations immediately '
handed them to Co-Ba for distribution.!
and she laid down Iron reflations for
It Is Sometimes Hard to Find, but in
This Particular Case It Was
A Chicago school and home visitor
tells this story: "Mary was the ter
ror of her teachers and her compan
ions. It was light, fight from morning
until night. She threw erasers and
uoefcs at her teachers and at the other
children, she broke every rule and
was a problem. When I visited her
home I found Mary was the little
drudge, doing all the work and caring
for the sick mother. We found work
for the boys out of work, sent the lit
tle ones to kindergarten and moved
h family into a new locality. Mary's
new teachers were willing to help
make a new girl of her. One morning
when I visited her school Mary came
to me and whispered: 'Miss B, I want
to tell you something all by yourself
where no one can hear us. It is some
thing you must not tell anyone.' I
took Mary off by herself and she
looked at me with an expression I
shall not soon forget and said: 'Miss
B., I love music." Here was the gold
en key which would unlock Mary's
stubborn little heart. I took her to a
music teacher, who promised to train
her voice as soon as Mary is old
enough, and in the meantime a happy
little girl trudges to a piano teacher
once a week and has been told ltow to
care for her body and her voice so
that she may some day become a real
ly fine singer."
somebody or something. The knees of
the horse were bent as he strained at
the sled. He fell In a heap and didn't
try to get up. That was a wise move
on his part, for tho sled and the girl
climbed over his back, knocked old
i Adam out of his sleigh ami struck the
; other horse before coming to a stop.
: The man In the cutter was smiling !
; when a splinter from the "pung" hit '
him in the forehead and left a grea
iiruise. There was a uai mtx-up ror : was always scrupulously respected. I
five minutes. When the prisoners landed it was j
It's wonderful how a girl can gee- j Co.Ka wno marched proudly at their j
whiz down hill and knock men and ; hn.i inkim not ti. slichtet not?
the prisoners' life on board. Her word
"Pa. here's a piece of poetry that
says something about a 'moated
grange.' What is a 'moated grange
"Lemme look at it. I guess that
must be a misprint for 'garage.' A
moated garage is one that's designed
for motors. That's U."
horses Into the middle of next w.-ek J
and yet do very little damage. When
things were straightened out. it was '
found that the girl had a cut on the j
wrist and a twisted ankle; old Adam's
iwiucn-Kiieei! uiefii uuu ins kqccs
barked; old Adam himself had a shoul
der wrenched; the old "pung" could
be patched up. As for the young man.
he had a bruise, but be was smiling
of the crowds who watched the de
barkation of the prisoners on their
way to the Isle de Re. in the Bay of
Biscay. London Daily Mall.
Going It Blind.
Boarner Do you believe danger
lurk3 behind the kiss?
Rural Maid I never see what's be
hind it. for I always shut my eyes.
An economical hot weather
luxury food thtf pleases
and satisfies at ar.j meal- So
good you'll w?nt Yiore.
Served right from the
package wi"V cream or milk.
Especially pleasing with fresh
'The Memory Lingers"
rkfs. lie aai 15c
Soli fty Greet
Postura Cereal Co.. Limited
Battle Creek. Mich.
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