The Columbus journal. (Columbus, Neb.) 1874-1911, December 10, 1902, Image 4

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PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE
Dociment Deals with Questions of Vast
Importance to the Nation
TRUSTS AND THE
Fitfol Changes of Import Dities a Menace to the Business
Interests of the Comtry Reciprocity Treaties
Desirable Monetary Legislation Rela
tions of Labor and Capital.
To the Senate and House of Represent
tatlves: We still continue in a period ol
unbounded prosperity. This prosperity
is not the creature of law, but undoubt
edly the laws under which we work have
been instrumental in creating the condi
tions which made it possible, and by un
wise legislation it would be easy enough
to destroy it. There will undoubtedly
be periods of depression. The wave will
recede; but the tide will advance. This
nation is seated on a continent flanked
by two great oceans. It is composed
of men the descendants of pioneers, or
in a sense, pioneers themselves; of men
winnowed out from among the nations
of the old world by the cnersj". boldness,
and love of adventure found In their own
eager hearts. Such a nation, so placed,
will surely wrest success from fortune.
As a people we have played a large
part in the world, and we arc bent upon
making our future even larger than the
past. In particular, the events of the last
four years have definitely decided that,
for woe or for weal, cur place must be
great among the nations. We may cither
fall greatly or succeed greatly: but we
cannot avoid the endeavor from which
either great failure or great success
must come. Even if we would, we can
not play a small part If we should try.
all that would follow would be that we
should play a large part Ignobly and
shamefully.
No country has ever occupied a higher
plane of material well-being than ours
at the present moment. This well-being
is due to no sudden or accidental causes,
but to the play of the economic forces
in this country for over a century: to
our laws, our sustained and continuous
policies: above all, to the high individ
ual average of our citizenship. Great
fortunes have been won by those who
have taken the lead in this phenomenal
Industrial development, and most of these
fortunes have been won not by doing
evil, but as an Incident to action which
has benefited the community as a whole.
Never before has material well-being
been bo widely diffused among our peo
ple. Great fortunes have been accum
ulated and yet in tho aggregate these
fortunes are small indeed when com
pared to the wealth of the people as a
whole. The plain people are better off
than they have ever been before. The
Insurance companies, which are prac
tically mutual benefit societies especially
helpful to men of moderate means rep
resent accumulations of capital which are
among the largest in this country. There
are more deposits In the savings banks,
more owners of farms, more well-paid
wage workers In this country now than
ever before in our history. Of course,
when the conditions have favored the
growth of so much that was good, they
have also favored somewhat the growth
of what was evil. It is eminently neces
sary that we should endeavor to cut out
this evil, but let us keep a due sense of
proportion: let us not in fixing our gaxe
upon the lesser evil forget the greater
rood. The evils are real and some of
them are menacing, but they are the
outgrowth, not of misery or decadence,
but of prosperity of the progress of our
gigantic industrial development. This
industrial development must not be
checked, but side by side with it should
go such progressive regulation as will
diminish the evils. We should fall In
our duty If we did not try to remedy the
evils, but we shall succeed only If we
proceed patiently, with practical common
sense as well as resolution, separating
the good from the bnd and holding on to
the former while endeavoring to get rid
of thi latter.
National Action to Control Trusts.
In my message to the present Congress
at its first session I discussed at length
the question of the regulation of those
big corporations commonly doing an in
terstate business, often with some ten
dency to monopoly, which are popularly
known as trusts. The experience of the
past year has emphasized, in my opin
ion, the desirability of the steps I then
proposed. A, fundamental base of civil
isation is the inviolability of property;
tut this Is in no wise inconsistent with
the right of society to regulate the ex
ercise of the artificial powers which it
confers upon the owners of property, un
der the name of corporate franchises, in
such a way as to prevent the misuse
of these powers. Corporations, and espe
cially combinations of corporations,
should be managed under public regula
tion. Experience has shown that under
our system of government the necessary
supervision cannot be obtained by state
action. It must therefore be achieved
by national action. Our aim Is not to do
away with corporations; on the contrary,
these big aggregations are an Inevitable
development of modern industrialism, and
the effort to destroy them would be futile
unless accomplished in ways that would
work the utmost mischief to the entire
body politic We can do nothing of good
In the way of regulating and supervising
these corporations until we fix clearly In
our minds that we are not attacking the
corporations, but endeavoring to do away
with any evil in them. We are not hos
tile to them: we are merely determined
that they shall be so handled as to sub
serve the public good. We draw the line
against misconduct, not against wealth.
The capitalist who. alone or in conjunc
tion with his fellows, performs some
great Industrial feat by which he wins
money Is a welldoer, not a wrongdoer,
provided only he works in proper and
legitimate lines. We wish to favor such
a man when he does welL We wish to
supervise and control his actions only to
"prevent him from doing ill. Publicity
can do no harm to the honest corpora
tion; end we need not be overtender
bout sparing the dishonest corporation.
The Necessity for Care.
In curbing and regulating the combina
tions of capital which are or may become
injurious to the public we must be careful
not to stop the great enterprises which
have legitimately reduced the cost of pro
duction, not to abandon the place which
our country has won In the leadership of
the international Industrial world, not to
strike down wealth with the result of
closing factories and mines, of turning
the wage-worker Idle In the streets and
leaving the farmer without a market for
wnat ne grows, insistence upon the Im
possible means delay In achieving the
possible, exactly as. on the other hand.
the stsbborn defense alike of what Is
ood sad what Is bad la the existing sys
tems, the resolute effort to obstruct any
attesapt at betterment, betrays blind-
- stess to the historic truth that wise evolu
tion Is the sure safeguard against reve
lation. liwjMrtance of the Subject.
No Biore laaportant subject can come
efere ta Congress than this of the
regulation of interstate business. The
country cannot afford to sit supine on
the plea that under our peculiar system
of government we are helpless in the
presence of the new conditions, and un
able to grapple with them or to cut out
. whatever of evil has arisen in eonnec--tlon
with thesa. The power of the Con
gress to regnlate interstate commerce Is
-n absolute and unqualified grant, and
- wtthewt Itettatkms other, than those pre
scribed by tho constitution. The Con-
constitutional authority to
U laws necessary and proper for
wis power, and I am satisfied
that this power has not been exhausted
by any wmjsfcllun sow en the statute
hooka. It at evident, therefore, that evils
iestifc.tlje.ot commercial freedom eataO
'taar restraint anon national commerce fan
wrtthla tho regulative power of the Con
areas, aa that a wise and reasonable
weali he a necessary and proper e
ereJaa of coagresstenal authority to the
end that ah vho shsalil ho eraaicateC
EvHe Cot Be Dene Away With.
I haste that awopuHea. wnfast df-
whleh prevent or cripple
naaialent evercanltallaa-
in treat
'Kt-'-jdA'
TARIFF DEALT WITH
i tlons and practices which injuriously af-
feet Interstate trade, can be prevented
under the power of the Congress to "regu
late commerce with foreign nations and
among the several states" through regu
lations and requirements operating di
rectly upon such commerce, the instru
mentalities thereof, and those engaged
therein.
I earnestly recommend this subject to
the consideration of the Congress with a
view to the passage of a law reasonable
in its provisions and effective in Its oper
ations, upon which the questions can be
finally adjudicated that now raise doubts
as to the necessity of constitutional
amendment. If it prove. Impossible to ac
complish the purposes above set forth by
such a law. then, assuredly, we should
not shrink from amending the constitu
tion as to secure beyond perad venture the
power sought.
The Tariff Question.
One proposition advocated has been the
reduction of the tariff as a means of
reaching the evils of the trusts which
fall within the category I have describ
ed. Not merely would this be wholly
ineffective, but the diversion of our ef
forts in such a direction would mean the
abandonment of all intelligent attempt
to do away with these evils. Many of
the largest corporations, many of those
which should certainly be Included In
any proper scheme of regulation, would
not be affected In the slightest degree
by a change in the tariff, save as such
change interfered with the general pros
perity of the country. The only relation
of the tariff to big corporations as a
whole is that the tariff makes manufac
tures profitable, and the tariff remedy
proposed would be in effect simply to
make manufactures unprofitable. To re
move the tariff as a punitive measure di
rected against trusts would Inevitably re
sult in ruin to the weaker competitors
who are struggling against them. Our
aim snouid be not by unwise tariff
changes to gi'e foreign products the
advantage over domestic products, but by
proper regulation to give domestic com
petition a fair chance; and this end can
not ba reached by any tariff changes
which would affect unfavorably all do
mestic competitors, good and bad alike.
The question of regulation of the trusts
stands apart from the question of tariff
revision.
Fitful Tariff Changes Decried.
Stability of economic policy must al
ways be the prime economic need of this
country. This stability should not be
fossilization. The country has acquiesced
in the wisdom of the protective tariff
principle. It is exceedingly undesirable
that this system should be destroyed or
that there should be violent and radical
changes therein. Our past experience
shows that great prosperity In this coun
try has always come under a protective
tariff; and that the country cannot pros
per under fitful tariff changes at short
Intervals. Moreven, If the tariff laws
as a whole work well, and if business
has prospered under them and is pros
pering, it is better to endure for a time
sugnt inconveniences and inequalities in
some schedules than to upset business
by too quick and too radical changes. It
is most earnestly to be wished that we
could treat the tariff from the stand
point solely of our business needs. It Is
perhaps, too much to hope that partisan
ship may be entirely excluded from con
sideration of the subject, but at least
it can be made secondary to the busi
ness interests of the country that la. to
tho interests of our people as a whole
Unquestionably these business interests
will best be served if together with
lixity of principle as regards the tariff
we combine a system which will permit
us from time to time to make the neces
sary reapplicatlon of the principle to the
shifting national needs. We must take
scrupulous care that the reapplicatlon
shall be made In such a way that It will
not amount to dislocation of our sys
tem, the mere threat of which (not to
speak of the performance) would pro
duce paralysis in the business energies
of the community. The first considera
tion in making these changes would, of
course, be to preserve the principle which
underlies our whole tariff system that is.
the principle of putting American busi
ness interests at least on a full equal
ity with interests abroad, and of always
allowing a sufficient rate of duty to more
than cover the difference between the la
bor cost here and abroad. The well-being
of the wage-worker, like the well
being of the tiller of the soil, should
be treated as an essential in shaping our
whole economic policy. There must never
be any change which will jeopardize -the
stnndard of comfort, the standard of
wages of the American wage-worker.
For Reciprocity Treaties.
One way in which the readjustment
sought can be reached is by reciprocity
treaties. It is greatly to be desired that
such treaties may be adopted. They can
be used to widen our markets and to
give a greater field for the activities of
our producers on the one hand, and on
the other to secure in practical shape
the lowering of duties when they are no
longer needed for protection among our
own people, or when the minimum of
lamage done may be disregarded for the
sake of the maximum of good accom
plished. If it prove Impossible to ratify
the pending treaties, and if there seem
to be no warrant for the endeavor to
execute others, or to amend the pending
treaties so that they can be ratified, then
the same end to secure reciprocity
should be met by direct legislation.
For Expert Tariff Commission.
Wherever the tariff conditions are such
that a needed change cannot with ad
vantage be made by the application of
the reciprocity idea, then lt can be made
outright by a lowering of duties on a
given product. If possible, such change
should be made only after the fullest
consideration by practical experts, who
snuuiu appruacn ine suDject from a
business standpoint, having In view both
the particular Interests affected and-the
commercial well-being of the people, as
a whole. The machinery for providing
such careful investigation can readily be
supplied. The executive department has
already at Its disposal methods or col
lecting facts and figures: and if the con
gress desires additional consideration to
that which will be given the subject by
its own committees, then a cosunlsslen
of business experts can be appointed
wnose duty lt should be to recommend
action by the Congress after a deliberate
and scientific examination of the various
schedules as they are affected by the
changed and changing conditions. The
unhurried and unbiased report of this
commission would show what changes
should be made In the various schedules
and how far these changes could go
without also changing the great pros
perity which this country is now enjoy
ing, or upsetting its fixed economic pol
icy. The cases in which the tariff can pro-
duce a monopoly are so few as to eon-1
stltute an innniii.n),i. . 1
stltute an inconsiderable factor n ..
question: but of course If in any case
It be found that a given rate of duty
does promote a monopoly which works
ill. no protectionist would object to such
reduction of the duty as would equalise
competition.
In my Judgment the tariff on anthra
cite coal should be removed, and anthra
cite put actually, where It now Is nom
inally, on the free list This would have
crises It might be of service to the peo-
Monetary Legislation.
Itoterest rates are a potent factor In
business activity, and In order that these
fte 7 ra,l to meet the vary
ag needs of the seasons and of widely
?Tpmtca co wnlties. and to prevent
w. I"?"0 ,ot 5?"nci rlngenc!es
which lajarioesly affect legitimate bust-
is in. accessary mat there should
he as element of elasticity fa oar atoae
tary system. Banks are the 'natural ser
vants of commerce, and anon them should
be placed, aa far aa practicable, tho
burden of furnishing and maintaining a
circulation adequate to supply the needs
of 'ear diversified industries and of our
domestic and foreign commerce; and
the Issue of this should be so regulated
that a sufficient supply should be al
ways available for the business Interests
of the country.
It would tie both unwise and unneces
sary at this time to attempt to recon
struct our financial system, which has
been the growth of a century: but some
additional legislation is. I think, desir
able. The mere outline of any plan suffi
ciently comprehensive to meet these re
quirements would transgress the appro
priate limits of this communication. .It
Is suggested, however, that all future
legislation on the subject should be with
the view of encouraging the use of such
instrumentalities as will automatically
supply every legitimate demand of pro
ductive industries and of commerce, not
only in the amount, but in the character
of circulation: and of making all kinds
of money interchangeable, "and, at the
will of the holder, convertible into the
established gold standard.
Relations of -Labor and Capital.
How to secure fair treatment alike for
labor and for capital, how to hold in
check the unscrupulous man, whether
employer or employe, without weakening
Individual Initiative, without hampering
and cramping the industrial development
of the country, is a problem fraught with
great difficulties and one which it is of
the highest Importance to solve on lines
of sanity and far-sighted common sense
as well as of devotion to the right. This
is an era of federation and combination.
Exactly as business men find they must
often work through corporations, and as
it is a constant tendency of these cor
porations to grow larger, so It is often
necessary for laboring men to work in
federations, and these have become im
portant factors of modern industrial life.
Both kinds of federation, capitalistic and
labor, can do much good, and as a neces
sary corrollary they can both do evil.
Opposition to each kind of organization
should take the form of opposition to
whatever is bad in the conduct of any
given corporation or union not of at
tacks upon corporations as such nor upon
unions as such; for some of the most
far-reaching beneficent work for our peo
ple has been accomplished through both
corporations and unions. Each must re
frain from arbitrary or tyrannous inter
ference with the rights of others. Organ
ized capital and organized labor alike
should remember that in the long run the
interest of each must be brought into
harmony with the Interest of the general
public; and the conduct of each must
conform to the fundamental rules of obe
dience to the law. of Individual freedom,
and of Justice and fair dealing toward all.
Each should remember that In addition to
power, it must strive after the realization
of healthy, lofty and generous Ideals.
Every employed, every wage worker, must
be guaranteed his liberty and his right to
do as he likes with his property or his la
bor so long as he does not infringe upon
the right of others. It is of the highest im
portance that employer and employe alike
should endeavor to appreciate each the
viewpoint of the other and the sure dis
aster that will come upon both in the
long run If either grows to take as habit
ual an attitude of sour hostility and dis
trust toward the other. Few people de
serve better of the country than those
representatives both of capital and labor
and there are many such who work
continually to bring about a good under
standing of this kind, based upon wisdom
and upon broad and kindly sympathy be
tween employers and employed. Above
all. we need to remember that any kind
of class animosity in the political world
is. if possible, even more wicked, even
more destructive to national welfare,
than sectional, race or religious animos
ity. We can get good government only
upon condition that we keep true to the
principles upon which this nation was
founded, and judge each man not as a
part of a class, but upon his Individual
merits. AH that we have a right to -ask
of any man. rich or poor, whatever his
creed, his occupation, his birthplace, or
his residence. Is that he shall act well
and honorably by his neighbor and by
his country. We are neither for the rich
man as such nor for the poor man as
such: we are for the upright man, rich
or poor, so far as the constitutional
powers of the national government touch
these matters of general and vital mo
ment to the nation, they should be exer
cised in conformity with the principles
above set forth.
Department of Commerce Needed.
It is earnestly hoped that a Secretary
of Commerce may be created, with a
seat in the Cabinet The rapid multipli
cation of questions affecting labor and
capital, the growth and complexity of the
organizations through which both labor
and capital now find expression, the
steady tendency toward the employment
of capital in huge corporations, and the
wonderful strides of this country toward
leadership in the International business
world justify an urgent demand for the
creation of such a position. Substantial
ly all the Ieadine comm prrl.il twviiM in
f this country have united in requesting Its
creation, it is desirable that some such
measure as that which has already passed
the Senate be enacted into law. The
creation of such a department would In
itself be an advance toward dealing with
and exercising supervision over the whole
subject of the great corporations doing
an interstate business; and with this
end In view, the Congress should endow
the department with large powers, which
could be increased as experience might
show the need.
Cuba Must Have Consideration.
I hope soon to submit to the Senate a
reciprocity treaty with Cuba. On May 20
last the United States kept its promise
to the island by formally vacating Cuban
soil and turning Cuba over to those whom
her own people had chosen as the first
officials of the new republic.
Cuba lies at our doors, and whatever
affects her for good or for ill affects us
also. So much have our people felt this
that In the Piatt amendment we definite
ly took the ground that Cuba must here
after have closer political relations with
us than with any other power. Thus In
a sense Cuba has become a part of our
international political . system. This
makes it necessary that in return she
should be given some of the benefits of
becoming part of our economic system.
It Is. from our own standpoint a short
sighted and mischievous policy to fall to
recognize this need. Moreover. It Is un
worthy of a mighty and generous nation.
Itself the greatest and most successful
republic In history, to refuse to stretch
out a helping hand to a young and weak
sister republic Just entering upon its
career of independence. We should al
ways fearlessly insist upon our rights in
the face of the strong, and we should
with ungrudging hand do our generous
duty by the weak. I urge the adoption
of reciprocity with Cuba not only because
It Is eminently for our own Interests to
control the Cuban market and "by every
means to foster our supremacy In the
tropical lands and waters south of us.
but also because we. 'of the giant repub
lic of the North, should make all our sis
ter nations of the American continent
reel tnat whenever they will permit It we
desire to show ourselves disinterestedly
and effectively their friend.
International Arbitration.
Aa civilisation grows, warfar becomes
less and lesst the normal condition of for
eign relations. The 1at century baa seen
a marked diminution of wars between
civilized powers; wars with uncivilized
powers are largely mere matters of inter
national police duty, essential for the
welfare of the world. Wherever possible,
arbitration or some similar method should
be employed In lieu of war to settle dif
ficulties - between civilized nations, al
though as yet the world has not pro
gressed sufficiently to render- It possible,
or necessarily desirable, to Invoke arbi
tration in every case. The formation of
the International tribunal which sits at
The Hague is an event of nn ran
from which great consequences for the
wenare or an mankind may flow.
it i
far Detter where possible, to Invoke such
a permanent tribunal than to emr .
clal arbitrators for a given purpose.
It Is. a matter of sincere congratulation
to our country that the United States
and Mexico should have been the first
to use the good offices of The Hague
court This was done last summer with
most satisfactory results ia the case of
a claim at issue between us and our
sister republic It Is earnestly to be hop
ed that this first case will serve as a
precedent for others. Ia whleh-not only
the United States, but foreign nations
may take advantage of the machinery al
ready In existence at The Hague.
I commend to the favorable considera
tion of the Congress the Hawaiian fire
claims, which were the subject or care
ful Investigation during the last session.
.
Panama Canal Favored.
The Congress haa wisely provided -thst
we shall build at once, an isthmian ea
nal. if possible at' Panama. The attorney
general reports that we can undoubted
ly acquire good title from the French
:.v
sTis.iiL.'ssfLr-?s-
-xZ&K-r--'--:
Panama Canal Company. Negotiations
are now pending with Colombia to ge
stae her assent to our building the eaaal.
This work should be carried oat aa a
continuing policy without regard to
change of administration; and lt should
be. begun under circumstances which
will make It a matter of pride for all
administrations to continue the policy.
The canal will be of great benefit to
America, and of Importance to all the
world. It will be of advantage to us
Industrially and also as improving our
military position. It will be of advan
tage to the countries of tropical Amer
ica. It is earnestly -to be hoped that
all of these countries will do as some
of them have already done' with signal
success, and will invite to their shores
commerce and Improve their material
conditions by recognizing that stability
and order are the prerequisite of suc
cessful development No Independent na
tion In America need 'have the slightest
fear of aggression from the United
States. It behooves each one to main
tain order within its own borders and
to discbarge its just obligations to for
eigners. When this is done, they can
rest assured that, be they strong or
weak, they have nothing to dread from
outside Interference. More and more the
increasing interdependence .and complex
ity of International political and eco
nomic relations render lt Incumbent on
all civilized and orderly powers to In
sist on the proper policing of the world.
Pacific Cable Assured.
During the fall of 1901 a communication
was addressed to the Secretary of State,
asking whether permission would be
granted by the President to a corpora
tion to lay a cable from a point on 'the
California coast to the Philippine Islands
by way of HawalL A statement of con
ditions or terms upon which such cor
poration would undertake to lay and
operate a cable was volunteered.
Inasmuch as the Congress was shortly
to convene, and Pacific cable legislation
had been the subject of consideration by
the Congress for several years, it seem
ed to me wise to defer action upon the
application until the Congress had first
an opportunity to act. The Congress ad
journed without taking any action, leav
ing the matter In exactly the same con
dition in which it stood when the Con
gress convened.
Meanwhile It appears that the Com
mercial Pacific Cable Company had
promptly proceeded with preparations for
laying its cable. Jt also made applica
tion to the President for access to and
use of soundings taken by the U. S. S.
Nero, for the purpose of discovering a
practicable route for a trans-Pacific ca
ble, the company urging that with ac
cess to these soundings It could complete
its cable much sooner than if it were
required to take soundings upon its own
account.
In consequence of this solicitation .of
the cable company, certain conditions
were formulated, upon which the Presi
dent was willing to allow access to these
soundings and to consent to the landing
and laying of the cable, subject to any
alterations or additions thereto Imposed
by the Congress. This was deemed prop
er, especially as It was clear that a cable
connection of some kind with China, a
foreign country, was a part of the com
pany's plan.
These conditions prescribed, among
other things, a maximum rate for com
mercial messages and that the company
should construct a line from the Philip
pine islands to China, there being at
present, as is well known, a British line
from Manila to Hong-Kong.
The representatives of the cable com
pany kept these conditions long under
consideration, continuing, in the mean
time, to prepare for laying the cable.
They have, however, at length acceded
to them, and an all-American line be
tween our Pacific coast and the Chinese
empire, by way of Honolulu and the
Philippine islands, is tHus provided for.
and is expected within a few months to
be ready for business.
Philippine Policy Vindicated.
On July 4 last, on the one hundred and
twenty-sixth anniversary of the declara
tion of our Independence, peace and am
nesty were promulgated In the Philip
pine islands. Some trouble has since
from time to time threatened with the
Mohammedan Moros, but with the late
insurrectionary Filipinos the war has en
tirely ceased. Civil government has now
been -'Introduced. Not only does each
Filipino enjoy such rights to life, liberty
and the pursuit of happiness as he has
never before known during the recorded
history of the Islands, i'but the people
taken as a whole now enjoy a measure
of self-government greater than that
granted to any- other- orientals by any
foreign power and greater than that en
Joyed by any other orientals under their
own governments, save the Japanese
alone. We have not gone too far in
granting these rights of liberty and self
government; but we have certainly gone
to the limit that In the interests of the
Philippine people themselves it was wise
or just to go. To hurry matters, to go
faster than we are now going, would en
tail calamity on the people of the Islands.
No policy ever entered into by the Amer
ican people has vindicated Itself in more
signal manner than the policy of holding
the Philippines. The triumph of our
arms, above all the triumph of our laws
and principles, has come sooner than we
had any right to expect Toa much
praise cannot be given to the army for
what Jt has done in the Philippines, both
in warfare and from an administrative
standpoint in preparing the way for civil
government: and similar credit belongs to
the civil authorities for the way ia which
they have planted the seeds of self-government
in the ground thus made ready
for them. The courage, the unflinching
endurance, the high soldierly efficiency,
and the general kind-heartedness and
humanity of our troops have been strik
ingly manifested. There now remain only
some 15,000 troops In the Islands. All
told, over 100.000 have been sent there.
Of course, there have been Individual in
stances of wrongdoing among them.
They warred under fearful difficulties of
climate and surroundings; and under the
strain of the terrible provocations which
they ccetlnually receive from their foes.,
occasional Instances of cruel retaliation
occurred. Every effort has been made
to prevent such cruelties, and finally
these' efforts have been completely suc
cessful. After making all allowance for
these misdeeds, it remains true that few
Indeed have been the instances In which
war has been waged by a. civilized power
against semi-civilized and barbarous
forces where there has been so little
wrongdoing by the victors as In the Phil
ippine islands. On the other hand, the
amount of difficult, important, and bene
flcient work which has been done Is
well-nigh incalculable.
Praise for Friendly Filipinos.
Taking the work of the army and the
civil authorities together, it may be ques
tioned whether anywhere else In modern
times the world has seen a better exam
ple of real constructive statesmanship
than our people have given In the Philip
pine Islands. High praise should also be
given those Filipinos, in the aggregate
very numerous, who have accepted the
new conditions and joined with our rep
resentatives to work with hearty good
will for the welfare of the Islands.
National Guard Reorganization.
The measure providing for the reor
ganization of the militia-system and for
securing the highest efficiency In the na
tional guard, which has" already passed
the House, should receive prompt atten
tion and action. It Is of great Impor
tance that the relation of the national
guard to the militia and volunteer forces
of the United States should be defined,
and that In place of our present obsolete
laws a practical and efficient system
should be adopted.
Irrigation in the West
Few subjects ef more Importance have been
taken up by the Congress is recent years than
the lnaocuratloa of the system of nationally
aided Irrigation for the arid regions of the far
West. A good beginning therein has been made.
Now that thla policy of national Irrigation has
been adopted, the need of thorough and sci
entlne forest protection win grow more rap
Idly than ever throughout the pcbUc-btsd
states.
So far as they are available for asriralture.
and to whatever extent they may be reclaimed
under the national Irrigation law. the remain
ing pubHc lands should ba held rigidly for the
home bonder, the settler who lives oa his
Issd. aad for no one else. Ia their actual
use the desert-land law. the timber and stose
law. asd the commutation clause ef the home
stead law have been so perverted from the In
tention with which they were enacted as to
permit the acquisition of lerge areas ef the
pr.UIe domain for others than actual settlers
scd the consequent prevention of settlement
The sound and steady development ef the West
depends cpoa the building ap of homes therein.
Sluch of oar prosperity as a satles has been
due to the operation of the homestead law.
On the ether band, we should recognise the fact
that In the grazing region the man whe cor
responds to the homesteader may be unable to
settle permanently If oaly allowed to ass the
same amount of pasture Jasd that his brother,
the homesteader. Is sRowed to see ef stable
land. Oae hundred aad sixty acres ef fairly
rich and well watered soil, or a math smaWrr
amonnt of. Irrigated land, saay keep a family
In plenty, whereas no one could get a living
from I0 acres of dry pasture' land capable of'
supporting at the outside only oae head of
cattle to every tea acres. Ia the past great
tracts of the public dorals have beta fenced
""-. -
"Aar . vcarr.'i
'g- lj JrLssaasssjwMtMssv.
w by SIMM harms as Htts taertte. at ewact I
own ae saw mssaaiaay ue aaaiBceaaaee
er cs traetlaa ef say seek aelawfid todeom
f ssbHe lead. Far variant teasaos than has
beta little taterttreaee with seek laclasaias
la the sast, bat 'aaple settee ass sow sees
gives the ttespassHS. sad all the tawaiecs at
the cwsnsiat ef tke gi manual wffl aenatter
be see to set a step te sack
Pressing Needs ef the Navy.
For the list tiaw la ear history aaval ata
taftrs ea a lame scale are being btls ameer
the laweetate easuaaad ef the aeaUral t the
sary. Casstaatly IscreastBg atteatlaa Is btisg
paid to the gasBery of the nary, bat K Is yet
far frost what It boeld be. I earnestly nr
that the laerease- asked for by tke secretary
of the Nary la the apfoeprUtlea far hsfcer
lag the SMtfctsfwhlp be graMed. Is battle
the only shots that coast are the shots that
ait It Is aeceaeaty to pravMe ample fans for
practice with the great game ta time of peace.
These fanes arast provide not only for the
perehase ef etoJectBce, bat for aUewasees for
prises to escoerage the gaa crews, and espe
cially the pouters, and for perfecttsg aa
.UtelUgeat aystesi seder which alose lt Is
possible te get goad practice.
There shoald be se halt Is the work of baud
lag ftpv the aavy. providing every year seat
ttosal aghtlag craft. We are a very rich coaa
try. vast la exteat ef territory aad great la
popalatloa; a coaetry. awreover, which has aa
amy dlauaatlve indeed when compared with
that ef any other arst-elass power. We have
deliberately made oar own certain foreign poli
cies which demand the poaseaaloa of a ant
clam aavy. The Uthmlaa canal will greatly
Increase the cadency of oar savy If the aavy
Is of saSelest stse; bat If we have aa Inade
quate sary, then the trelldiag of the canal
woaM be merely giving n hostage to any power
of anperior strength. The Monroe doctrine
ahoald be treated as the cardinal feature of
American foreign policy; bat It would be woM
than Idle to aatert It aniens we intended to
hack It op. and It can be backed ap only by
a thoroughly .good aavy. A good aavy la not
a provocative of war. It Is the surest guaranty
of peace.
Mors Sailors Called For.
I call year special attention to the need of
providing for the' manning of the ships. Se
rious trouble threatens as If we cannot do bet
ter than we are sow doing aa regards securing
the set i lees of a sufficient number of the high
est type of saUonaea. of sea mechanics. It ia
no more possible to Improvise a crew than It
la possible to Improvise a warship. To build
the finest ship, with the deadliest battery, and
to send lt afloat with a raw crew, no mutter
how brave they were ladlTldually, would be
to Insure disaster If a foe of average capacity
were encountered. Neither ships nor men can
be Improvised when war baa begun.
We seed a 'thousand additional oScera ta
order to properly man the ships sow provided
for and under construction. The classes at the
naval school at Annapolis should be greatly
enlarged. At the same time that we thus add
the oflcers where we seed them, we should
facilitate the retirement of those at the head of
the list whose usefulness haa become Impaired.
Promotion must be fostered If the service Is to
be kept efficient
There Is not s cloud oa the horizon at pres
ent. There seems not the slightest chance of
trouble with s foreign power. We moat ear
nestly hope that this state of thlncs bit con
tinue; and the way to insure its continuance
is to provide for thoroughly eflcleat savy.
The refusal to maintain sucn a savy would
Invite trouble, sad If trouble came would In
sure disaster. Fatuous self-complacency or
vanity, or ahort-alzhtcdneaa In refusing to pre
pare for danger. Is both foollab aad wicked
hi such a nation as oars; aad past experience
has ahown that sach fatuity la refuslnc to rec
ognise or prepare for any crisis la advance Is
anally succeeded by a mad paale of hysterical
.fear once the crisis has actually arrived.
Rural Free Delivery a Success.
The striking Increase la the reveanes ef the
postoaVe department shows clearly the pros
perity of oar people and the Increasing activ
ity of the bustness of the country.
The receipts of the poatofflce department for
the Sacal year ending Jnne 19 laat amounted to
fl21.Stf.M?.a. aa Increase of 10.21M53.S7 over
the preceding year, the largest Increase known
la the history of the postal service. The mag
nitude of this Increase will best appear from
the fact that the entire postal receipts for
the year IStO amounted to but f8.5U.0C7.
Rural free delivery service Is no longer in
the experimental stage; It has become a axed
policy. The results following its introduction
have folly Justified the Congress In the large
appropriations made for Its establishment and
extension. The average yearly Increase la post
ofike receipts la' the ' rural districts of the
country Is about two per cent. We are sow
able, by actual results, to show that where
rural free delivery service has beta established
to such aa extent aa to enable as to make
comparisons the yearly increase has been up
ward of tea per cent.
On Nov. 1. 1902, 11.650 rural free delivery
routes had been established and were in opera
tion, covering about one-third of the territory
of the United States available for rural free
delivery service. There are now awaiting the
action of the department petitions and appli
cations for the establishment of 10,748 addi
tional routes. This ahows conclusively the want
which the establishment of the service has
met and the need of further .extending It as
rapidly as possible. It Is Justified both by
the financial results and by the practical bene
fits to oar rural population; lt brings the mea.
who live on the soil Into close relations with
the active business world; it keeps the farmer
In dally touch with the markets; It la a po
tential educational force; it enhances the value
of farm property, makes farm life far pleas
anter and lesa isolated, and will do much to
check the undesirable current from country to
city-
It Is to be hoped that the Congress will make
liberal appropriation for the continuance of
the service already establtahed and for Its
further extension.
Need of Legislation for Alaska.
I especially urge upon the Congress the need
of wise legislation for Alaska. It la not to
our credit as a nation that Alaska, which
has been oars for thirty-five years, should still
have as poor a system of laws aa is the case.
Alaska needs a good land law and such pro
visions for homesteads and pre-emptions as will
encourage permanent settlement. We ahonld
shape legislation with a view not to the ex
ploiting and abandoning of tho territory, but
to the building op of homes therein. The land
laws should be liberal In type, so as to bold
out Inducements to the actual settler whonr
we moat desire to ace take possession of the
country. The forests of Alaaka should be pro
tected, and, as a secondary but still Impor
tant matter, the game also, and at the aame
time It Is Imperative that the settlers should
be allowed to cut timber, under proper regu
lations, for their own use. Alaaka should
nave a delegate In the Congress. It would
be well If a congressional committee could
visit Alaska and Investigate Its needs oa the
ground.
The Indian Problem.
In dealing with the Indians oar aim should
Be their ultimate absorption Into the body of
oar people. Bnt In many cases this absorption
must and' should be very alow. The first and
moat Important atep toward the absorption of
the Indian la to teach him to earn his living:
yet it ta sot necessarily to lie assumed that
In each community all Indiana must become
either tillers of the noil or stock raisers. Their
Industries may properly be dlTeraltled. and those
who - show special desire or adaptability for
industrial or even commercial pursuits should
be encouragrd so far aa practicable to follow
oat each his own bent.
Scientific Aid to Farmers.
In no department of governmental work In
recent years baa there been greater success
than In that of glrlng scientific aid to the
farming population, thereby showing them bow
most erBciently to help themselres. There la
no need of instating upon Its importance, for
the welfare of the fanner ia fundamentally
necessary to the welfare of the republic aa a
whole. Ia addition to such work as quaran
tine against animal and vegetable plague, and
warring against them when here Introduced,
much efficient help has been rendered to the
farmer by the introduction of new plants spe
cially fitted for cultivation. under the peculiar
conditions existing la different portions of the
country. In the Southwest the possibility of
te-grasslng overstocked" range lands has been
demonstrated: la the North many new forage
crops have bees Introduced, while tn the East
It- has been shown that some of onr rhoteest
fruits can be stored and shipped ta such a
'way as to And a proStablo market abroad.
Needs of Washington.
The District ef Colombia la J'jo only part
of our territory In which the na'tlnnsl govern
ment exercises local or municipal functions,
and where la consequence the government haa
a free hand la reference to certain types of
social and economic legislation which muat ba
essentially weal or municipal la their charac
ter. The government should see to It. for In
stance, that the 'hygienic and sanitary legis
lation affecting Washington Is of a high char
acter. The city should be n model Is every
respect for aU the cities of the country, afore
over, while Washington la not a great indus
trial city, there la some Industrialism here,
aad our labor legislation, while it would not
be Important la Itself, might be made a model
for the rest of the nation. We should pass,
tor Instance, a wise employer'e-llablllty set for
the District of Columbia, and wa need such aa
act la oar navy-yards. Railroad companies la
the district ought to be required by law to
block their frogs.
Protection for Railway Men.
The safety-appUasce law. for the better pro
tecthm of the Uvea sad limbs of railway em
ployes, which was passed la 1SS3. went Into
fun effect Aug. 1. lt It baa resulted tn
wrHn thousands of casualties. Experience
shews, however, the aeeesslty of additional leg
islation to perfect this law. A blU to pro
vide for this passed the Senate at the laat
session. It Is to be hoped that some such
measure may sow be enacted Into law.
Gratifying progress has been amade during
the year la the extension of the merit system
of making appointments In the government serv
Ice. It hi much to be desired that our cor
snlar system be eatsnutced by law oa a basis
providing for appointment snd promotion oaly
la consequence of proved fitness.
Restoration of the White House.
Through a wise provtslou of the Congress
at Its laat sesstos the white house, which haa
become dlaftgured by mcosgroous additions and
changes, has sow been restored to what It was
planned to he by Washington. The white house
Is the property ef the nation, asd so far as Is
compatible with Uvlng therein lt should ba kept
as It originally was. for the sasae reasons that
we keep Mount Vernon as It originally was.
It la s seed thins to preserve such buUdlngs
as historic monuments which keep alive our
sense of continuity with the nation's peat
The sepsrta of the several executive depart
ments are submitted to the Congress with this
commaakatloa.
- THEODORE ROOSEVELT.
White Bouse, Dec. 1. 1KZ.
It 'were better to be of no chare
than to ba bitter for any. Pens.
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The Battle of Gettysburg.
It was Just before the last fierce charge
When two soldiers, drew their rein.
For a touch of, the hand, and a parting
word
That they might never meet again.
Dne had blue eyes and sunny curls.
Nineteen but a. month ago.
Oown on his chin, red on his cheek.
He was only a boy. you know.
The other was tall, and dark and stern.
And his faith In tL world was dim.
He only trusted the more in those
Who were all the world to him.
rhcy had ridden together for many a
mile.
They had marched for many a day.
But now they looked in each other's eye
In an awful gastly way.
And the tall, dark man was the first to
speak,
"Charlie, my hour has come.
We shall ride together up the hill
But you'll ride back alone.
"Go, promise a little trouble to take for
me when I am gone:
You will find a face upon my breast,
I shall wear lt into the fight.
With soft blue eyes and sunny curls,
and a smile like morning light
"Like morning light was her love to me.
It gladdened a lonely life.
And little I cared for the frowns of fate
When she promised to be my wife.
"Write to her, Charlie, when I am gone,
And send back the fair, fond face.
Tell her tenderly how I died
And where Is my resting place..
"Tell her my soul will wait for hers.
In the border lands between
Earth and heaven, until she comes,
Twill not be long I ween."
Tears dimmed the blue eyes of the hoy.
His voice was low with pain,
"I'll do your bidding, comrade mine.
If I ride back alone.
"But If you ride back and I am dead,
Tou must do as much for me.
My mother at home must hear the news.
O, write to her tenderly.
"One after another, those she loved.
She has burled, husband and son.
I was the last when my country called,
She kissed me and sent me on.
"She has prayed at home like a waiting
saint, -
Her fond face white with woe.
Her heart will be broken when I am
srone,
I shall see her soon I know.'
Just then the order came to charge.
For an Instant hand touched hand.
"Aye" answered "Aye" and on they
rushed.
That brave, devoted band.
i
Straight' they went toward the crest or
the hill.
The rebels with shot and shell
Lowered ranks with death.
And cheered them as they fell.
They turned with a horrible dying yell
From the height they could not gain.
And few whom death had spared
Went slowly back again.
And among the dead whom they left be
hind Was a boy with curly hair.
And the tail, dark man that stood by his
side
Lay dead beside him there.
There is no one to write to the blue-eyed
girl
The word that her lover said.
And the mother who waits for her boy
at home
Will but hear that he is dead.
And never can know the last fond
thought.
Sent to soften her pain.
Until she crosses the river of death
And stands by his side again.
Gen. Smith Lost His Case.
Gen. William F. Smith, known to
the armies as "Baldy" Smith, for ten
years persistently contended that he
and not Gen. Rosecrans originated the
plan by which the army of the Cum
berland was reHeved in October, 1863,
by the opening of the river line of sup
plies from Chattanooga to Bridgeport
by way of Brown's Ferry. The Chica
mauga park commission, in the
legends accompanying its atlas of the
battles about Chattanooga, set forth
that the plan was devised by Gen.
Rosecrans. Gen. Smith took issue with
the commission, and finally asked Sec
retary Rcot to refer the whole sub
ject to a beard of army officers. This
was done, and Gen. Smith lost his
case.
Couldn't Go to the War.
A girl who didn't get to the war
lived in Baltimore. She fell in love
with a soldier of the Seventh Maine
regiment, while the regiment was en
camped near that city. She visited
the camp so often that the colonel
finally told the soldier that if he
wished to marry her he could do so.
He willingly jumped at the chance,
and after the ceremeny by the chap
Iain the young couple went to house
keeping in a tent set apart for them.
But that didn't last long. Under pre
text that the soldier was going aboard
'a vessel, she was sent back to the city.
Just before the regiment was ready to
move tho wife appeared at camp in
full regulation uniform and vowed she
was going to the front with hubby
She didn't go, but was sent to Wash
ington, and the regiment went away
without her.
Lincoln's Kindliness.
"My regiment, the 157th Pennsyl
vania," said a member of a Philadel
phia pest at Washington, "was en
campc'l near this city in the latter
part of 1862, preparatory' to moving
toward Richmond. From some un
known reason our salaries had been
delayed- for more than two months.
and a great many of us were on "hog
train
Among the members of company A
was a harum-scarum fellow from Lan
caster county, who came near going
wild because he could not get any to
bacco, and one day he said he was
going to tell the president about it if
't cost him his life: that be had en
lured the agony just as long as he
''ould, and he proposed to have relief.
"He got leave of absence one morn
ing, and started up G street in the di
rection of the White House. He saw
Mr. Lincoln walking along ia front of
the mansion, and made bold to walk
up to him and speak. 'Good morning.
Mr. President,' he said, touching hi3
"an. 'Gocd morning, my man.' replied
the president. 'What can I do for you?'
,,- - .-,-
- jmy "' " -l V e3y.WMH WiE,', ttVUL JH
Gem. Vl F. Snrms
1 ' i
it '
The soldier hesitated for a while, bnt
noticing Mr. Liacoln's kindly look,
finally said: "The fact of the matter
! is, Mr. President, I am nearly dead
for a chow of tobacco. We haven't
been paid for more than two months,
and I am dead broke I'm crazy, sir,
for a chew.'
"A smite lit up the countenance of
the good man, and then his hand
went down in his pecket Drawing
up a silver dollar, he handed it to the
volunteer and said: 'It shan't be said
that one of my soldiers died for the
want of some tobacco. His services are
needed too bad for that Buy tobac
co with this, and by the time you have
chewed that up your money will be
paid, and if not, come back to me if
ycu are near Washington. Good-by.
my man, and God bless you and keep
you in tobacco, too.' "
Praise for Gen. Torrance.
Past Commander-in-Chief Ell Tor
rance of the Grand Army of the Re
public, whose term of office Just has
expired, takes with him the best
wisaes and kindest feeling of every
member of the order. His adminis
tration has been carried on with the
greatest credit to himself and benefit
to the organization. From the first
to the last Comrade Torrance has
borne himself admirably.
He has been earnest, dignified, sin
cere, entirely devoted to the interests
or the veterans and the Grand Army
of the Republic and unsparing of his
time and abilities in promoting their
interests. He has made the best im
pression wherever he has gone, and
will leave the office with the proud
consciousness of duty well and ac
ceptably done, he inherited from pre
ceding administrations a very trouble
some question in regard to the Com
missioner of Pensions, and handled
this with the greatest firmness, tact
and understanding. All other ques
tions he met wit'a equal sucess, and
there is nothing but praise for all that
he has done. New York Press.
Example of Coolness.
"When we were near Bentonville a
squad from the Twentieth Illinois was
sent across the country carrying Im
portant dispatches," says a veteran.
"They met the enemy's cavalry and
the few men deployed at once as they
would have deployed had they been
supported by a full regiment. While
they engaged the enemy the officer in
command sat coolly on his horse strik
ing matches. In every minute of that
skirmish he held a lighted match in
cne hand and the dispatches in the
other. He wa3 perfectly cooL He
knew just what he was going to do
and he was not in danger of making a
mistake. If his men vere surrounded
or captured be proposed to burn the
dispatches, aad he bad a match ready
to burn them, but in the end the
Twentieth' boys drove the enemy and
the .dispatches were delivered. This
was only one example of the self-contained
levelheadedness that grew
upon the men with their experience in
an enemy's country in advance of the
army."
Omelet Cooked in a Hat.
Announce that you are about to
cook an omelet: then you break four
eggs in a hat, nlace the bat for a short
time over the flame of a candle, and
shortly afterward produce an omelet,
completely cooked and quite hot
Some persons will be credulous
enough to believe that by the help of
certain ingredients you have been en
abled to cook the omelet without fire,
but the secret of the trick is that the
omelet had been previously cooked
and placed in the hat, but could not
be seen, because the operator, when
breaking the eggs, placed it too high
for the spectators to observe the con
tents. The eggs were empty ies,
the contents having been previously
extracted by being drawn through a
small aperture; but to prevent the
company from suspecting this tho
operator should, as if by accident, let
a full egg fail upon the table, which,
breaking, induces a belief that the
others are also full.
Forty-eighth New York.
The members of the Veteran Asso
ciation of the Forty-eighth regiment.
New York volunteers (otherwise
known as Perry's Saints), held their
forty-first annual reunion last month,
at Cohen's Aibermarle hotel, Sheeps
head Bay, L. I. A large number of
the comrades was present and a very
enjoyable -time was had. A comrade
gives the following record of the
losses of the command from muster
in to muster-out: Two hundred and
thirty-six killed or died of wounds re
ceived in acticn. 62.1 wounded. 88
taken prisoners, 87 died of disease, 40
died in rebel prisons. 17 commissioned
officers were killed or died of wounds,
28 were wounded. The casualties in
battle were 947. Total casualties from
all causes, 1,074. The above are ex
tracts from carefully authenticated
records compiled by A. J. Palmer, and
embodied in the "History" of the Forty-eighth
n. y.'
Why He Wanted a Prayer.
"An order has been received at the
headquarters of the Second Pennsyl
vania Cavalry," said a Philadelphia
visitor, and member of one of the
posts at the recent Washington en
campment, 'to re-enlist men for three
years. The Colonel's quarters being
in town, the ordinary routine duties
developed upon Major L, who formed
the regiment into a hollow square,
and waited the Colonel's arrival to
read the order. Lieut. D was a min
ister as well as lieutenant of one of
the companies. The Major, becoming
very impatient at the. dilatoriness of
the Colonel, bethought himself of an
expedient to keep tlie men from grum
bling by calling out in a loud voice,
'Lieutenant u, will you lead in
prayer?' adding, sotto voce, 'Darn it,
we must do something to occupy the
time.' "
Brave Woman Rewarded.
Mrs. Reynolds, the wife of CapL
Reynolds of company A of the Seven
teenth Illinois regiment, accompanied
her husband through almost the entire
compaign. There never was a time
when she flinched or hesitated in time
cf battle or on long marches. On the
field after battle she went about min
istering to the sick, wounded and dy
ing. Her husband frequently begged
-r to return home, but she always re
Med that where duty called her sh6
'!d net fear to go. Gov. Yate3 of Iili
i ctj. hearing of her wonderful fidelity
and devotion, secured for her a com
mission as a major in the army.
When a man marries a grass widow
don't present him with a lawn mower
If you would retain his friendship.
I
.--V
aajgaaSsayjg. kWg- .JSc3i:
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Pratt er isHtmils FrwK.
Good fratt wees wt fcy -cwasKy al
ways mm prowtaWe fntt. In fact,
it to ealte saMosa that trait to of tot
good qmality and acolUMe Tkto to
certainly tke case west C tka Alto
gaaay atoaatalBS. East of tkat potot
there are regloas that crow tota geed
aad profitable trait la tkat great
region known aa Tto Went" tke
most nroitnMe apeJea are tkoeeet
only fair quality, bat long keepers and
good shippers. In all this region tke
igkt for and against the Ben Davis
apple kas keea on ever since tkat
apple was originated. Bat la spite of
the fact tkat lt U not of high eaallty
it kaa made headway against all op
position. It kas pushed iato all parts,
of the country, kas passed over the
Alleghany ntoantaias aad kaa Invaded
New England In force. How kaa tale
been possible, when it was so roundly
dispraised? It was becaase orchard
planters had foand lt to be a very
profitable apple. They were always
sure of getting a crop of apples wkea
tkey planted this variety. Moreover
it keeps so long that It can be ked
for a time of year when npplea are
scarce, and at that time will sell at a
good price. The apple trees being
planted now comprise a very large per
centage of Ben Davis apples, evea ia
the New England states.
The same to true of small traits.
The strawberry that to good for home
use Is not a shipper, Tke man that
plants must remember this. He may
plant oae variety for his own use be
cause that one Is of high quality. He
plants another to sell, because it will
bear packing, shipment and trans
shipment. It to impossible for the
strawberry grower to pat the best
quality berries on the ntarket. They
would be spoiled before reaching the
customer. It has been found tkat the
good shippers are not generally ber-t
lies of great flavor or even beautiful
appearance. Men have been looking
for fruit that would combine in itself
all the good and desired qualities. We
do not know of any fruit tkat. has
come up to the demand in this regard.
In fact, so far as' this quest to con
cerned, we seem to be as far from the
goal as ever.
Cold Storage Experiment in Iowa.
A communication from the Iowa Ag
ricultural College says: The Horticul-'
tural Department of the Iowa Expert-
ment Station has one hundred barrels
of standard varieties of Iowa apples in.
cold storage to determine the relative
keeping qualities of tke varieties the
length of time they may be held suc
cessfully, and the best temperature
for storing. The varieties included in
the test are Wealthy, Wolf River, Fa
meuse, McMahon, Jonathan, Domino,
Ben Davis, Seek-No-Further, Janet,
Roman Stem, Northern Spy, Willow
Twig and White Pippin. From three
to ten barrels of each variety have
been used, and the apples carefully se
lected and packed. The apples were
bought at Corning, Iowa, in the heart
of tne Adams County apple district, at
prevailing prices, and were packed by
a commercial packer under the direc
tion of the Experiment Station. The
results should be a fair guide both to
the commercial orchardist and dealer.
Tho work this year is but a beginning
and it is hoped that next year It may
be conducted on a more extensive
scale and that co-operative experi
ments may be arranged for in different
sections of the state. Cold storage of
fruits and vegetables is a subject of
vital importance to the live horticul
turist, and the Experiment Station at
Ames is receiving many inquiries from
those who contemplate building stor
age plants both for private and com
mercial use. It is a line along which
little experimenting has been done and
a subject of special importance to the
fruit growers of the Northwest since
we cannot raise successfully the long
keeping varieties of the East
Asparagus.
Asparagus is found growing in very
few gardens In Oklahoma. It is easily
grown and makes a very nice dish in
early spring when people are hungry
for fresh vegetables. The plants can
'be grown from seed, but lt Is best to
start the patch from clumps of roots
as it will be three or four years beforo
the seedlings are large enough to pro
duce good stems. The plants should
be set in rows five feet apart and the
plants four feet apart in the row.
The plants should be placed so the
crowns will be about six inches be- .
low the surface of the soil. The bed
should receive good clean cultivation
in the summer and a good coating of
manure In the winter. Tho old stems
snouid be removec in the fall. There
are several methods of forcing the
plants into early growth in the spring.
A simple method of forcing enough for
family use is to dig some large clomps
from the patch, retaining as much soil
as possible with the roots and place
on a hot bed. Keep the roots well
watered and growth will start In a few
days. Good clumps will furnish several
cuttings but are of little value after
being forced in this way. Another .
n.ethod is to spread fresh manure
deep enough over the ground to heat.
This method acts much slower than
the one just described but doesn't de
stroy the plants. Bulletin Oklahoma
Station.
A Dangerous "Friendly Buli."
William T. Orbeton was pursued by
what he had always supposed a friend
ly bull at his farm on the side of
Dodge's Mountain the other afternoon,
and had an experience which was per
ilous in the extreme. The animal was
one .which had been partially dehorned,
but Mr. Orbeton with great pres
ence of mind managed to grasp the -stumps
and held on for dear life. The
angry bull shook him about as though
he did not weigh considerably more ,
than the average man. and failing to
dislodge him started for a nearby
fence with the amiable purpose of Im
paling Mr. Orbeton' thereon. At this
critical struggle Mr. Orbeton's bull
dog appeared on the scene and jumped
at the bull's throat. The bull found
the dog a very worthy antagonist, and
with the 'fitter's teeth sinking more
deeply intp Lis throat every moment,
diverted kis ntttption from Mr. Or
bejon to the dog. In a very snort time -both
were safe and the bull was forced
to realize that ke had been check-. -mated.
In past years Mr. Orbeton -has
undergone considerable joking
aboat his love for dogs but he is now
firmly convinced that tke devotion he
haa spent npon his canine frieads kaa
been well repaid. Rockland Courier
Gazette.
There probably never w;
a 'time
when nil men were
wttk
tkeir share.
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