The Columbus journal. (Columbus, Neb.) 1874-1911, July 16, 1902, Image 4
X KS"" a r Ur1 it S5X .rv v I !v n- Banl.eBBB3BBBBBa?BBnK. Bbbb bBTb bbbBm BBBBBBBnBBTBBnBBBBBu. fiaST. BTPrTBBBBVBB'BBanCfS'BBStfnB" SBBBsa -GOOD ' He always said "Good raornln. Aa eaipfaaaUed the "good." . Aa If he'd make it happy For each one. If he could; "Good nornln!" Just "good raornln" To every one he met; .He aald It with a twinkle That so one could forget- He always aald "Good monln: ". Aa people used to aay .That one o hla "good moraine" i ritmr to viu all the day. Tragedy of the Sunken Road We arc back among the memories of the civil war. The year is 1862. The month Is December. Winter gives a keen edge to the winds. We are la a little city in Virginia. Fred ericksburg. Its historical buUding is a hoase in which lived George Wash ington's mother. It has three natural features of Im portance, the Rappahannock river, heights which are of very moderate elevation .three-quarters of a mile back from the river, and at the foot of these hills Is a narrow, depressed country way, a "sunken road," so called. In what is going to happen, aa awful tragedy, this cold month of December. 1862, the sunken road is of sore importance than river or hills. But look around you. On the other side of the Rappahannock, opposite Fredericksburg, is Falmouth. It salght have been thought worthy of a same om account of its heights rising ap aear the river. Population could sot have given It a name. In Virginia they have a way of naming a corner, hanging a title as a mantle on a few houses. Think now of Falmouth, of the aleepy, muddy river, of the sleepy lit tle city, of the hills, and especially of the sunken road. Have you a map of Virginia handy? Hunt uji Acquia Creek oa the Potomac, trace the rail road to Fredericksburg and then down to Richmond. How easy this plan looked in the campaigns of the great civil war! That "sunken road," though. Did oae think of that ghost hiding in that depression and having something to aay about plans and campaigns, asarches and attacks? The Union army was reputed to have 120,000 men. It had a good cause and plenty of equipments. It was under a brave general, Burnslde. He was not the greatest general that ever lived, but he bad much merit as a commander. He was a soldier of en ergy. Then all the North wanted him to be as energetic as possible, and Washington clamored for a forward movement So the huge army, like a mighty stream, poured across the country and took possession of Falmouth. It spread out on all those heights. It Boated its big batteries. It studied up a daring plan of attack upon the southern army over the river. It sent for the materials out of which to build pontoon bridges. When these were constructed, when across the river the army had been led, what opposition from an Inferior army could block this northern advance; Alas, that la ignorance they-Jaft oat of the problem' that element of the "sunken road," so closely Identi fied with the solution! Bat notice the movement on the hills rising up from the "sunken road." The southern army has stretched upon those hills a line of defence almost five miles long. They are reputed to have about 65,000 men. At their head is Robert Lee, a great soldier. One of his generals is "Stone wall" Jackson. He marches, he fights, he prays. The winning side in battle is likely to be the side he fights oa. However, of more consequence than Lee or Jackson is the "sunken road." The Union army will have no pic nic in getting across the Rappahan sock. In waiting for its opportunity the army feels the hard grip of the winter. An officer writes in his diary, under date of Dec 7: "Very cold, plenty of snow. Men suffering; cold outdoors, ice indoors, in my room." Something worse than the snow or the ice or the winter wind, sharp and cutting, is that "sunken road." What Union officer is thinking about that? Does any one ordering his men to clear the camp of snow and ice im agine that there is near the coming battlefield a trench-like way that will need clearing? la the division of this grand army Into corps, there are three, assigned to Gens. Franklin, Sumner and Hook er. They cover a stretch of three miles. Franklin is at the left. Sum aer commands the center, Hooker will lead the right la the story left behind by a con federate officer, it is graphically told how the grim battle-era opens. It is an early hour on the 11th of Decem ber. Lee's army is stretched along those Fredericksburg hills a distance of almost five miles. The lonely sen try is pacing his chilling beat. Among the sleepers how few are dreaming that they may be near the sleep that knows no waking. Suddenly the crash of a cannon goes echoing from hill to hill and up and down the icy Rappahannock. "Wake wp!" cries a southerner, springing out from -the folds of his blanket "Wake ap!" "What's that?" There are those la Lee's army who know. If a second gam bays out In .the dense night shad ows. It means a signal from the New Orleaas Washington artillery that the Federals are getting ready to cross the river. The signal comes at four Popular G. A. R. William Emsley was born January, 1841. He enlisted August 1862, Com pany F. One Hundred and Sixteenth Peansylvania Volunteers, Col. D. Hee naa, Irish Brigade, First Division, Second Corps, Army of the Potomac, tad eajeys the record of never hav ing had n day's sickness nor of hav ing aliased a doty during his service af three years; he was in every skir mish Bad battle In which the One Hundred and Sixteenth was engaged; was promoted to sergeant and com BUsafoBed lfeatenant Cosarade Emsley is oae of the best -J known men in the citizenship of Philadelphia and of Pennsylvania, and his continued membership in the Grand Army of the RepubMc and his derated attendance far many ears at aad national aacamp- J aim hosts of Mace I MORNINV an" raade you always cheerful . Just thinkin' o the sound It always was "good momlnV 'Long as he was around. He always said "Good mornta'." An' glad an happy-eyed. Those were the words he whispered. The mornin' that he died. Those were the words he whispered. As cheerful as he could An' I believe the angels They emphasized the "good." How Burne4des Men Were Shot Down at Fredericksburg o'clock. The Union army is moving toward the arena of battle. As said above, they are divided Into three corps, under three brave, experi enced officers. Gen. Franklin Is at the left Gen. Sumner commands the cen ner. Gen. Hooker, on the right, has before him a path bloodier than any he anticipated. The left of the army has little trouble in crossing the river. It is at Fredericksburg itself, in the street by the river, in the houses that line the unambitious way. that the Federals find a terrible wall of hostile fire confronting them. Gen. Barksdale and his MIsslssippians are behind that wall, and the Federals, trying to lay their pontoon bridge, drop before the Mississippi rifles hopelessly, as the leaves on the Fredericksburg forests, when October charges upon them. There is a fire from the formidable Union batteries, to force Barksdale and his men out of their hiding place, and they will stubbornly fall back, but not yet Meanwhile the 7th Michigan and the 19th Massachusetts rush for ward in their boats, poling from shore to shore, though the bullets rain down wounds and death. They land. They press into the town. Many are doomed to sacrifice. In the street, there In the hottest collision, is the Rev. Arthur B. Fuller of Watertown, Mass. He sought a chaplaincy, resigning from his parish to get it He resigns his chaplaincy this morning that be may get quick access to an altar. His soul feels the heat and sweep of a flame of devo tion consuming him. The chaplain's altar is in the very center of conflict He seizes a gun. He goes into the ranks as a private. He is one of the first to volunteer to dare the passage of the Rappahannock. He gains' the bloody street His rifle is ready. The crack of another rifle is heard, and Arthur B. Fuller of Watertown falls in the crimsoned way. The altar-flame has done its work. The 13th of December comes. It Is to be the saddest day of slaughter. On the left, in Franklin's corps, Gen. Meade almost pierces the Confeder ate line. Unsupported, he is forced to fall back. The dead lie in far-stretching, silent heaps. On the Federal right the light ning from the thunder of the Confed erate army is still more serious. The 13th is a foggy morning. There is a deep veil of mist between the town of Fredericksburg with the north ern army and that southern army on Marye's hill. Willis hill. Lee hill and kindred heights. The fog lifts, though, in the forenoon, and the Federals proudly advance in their march against the bitterness of death. ' The lifting of the fog is only the rising or the curtain on one of the most serious, disheartening, cruel tra gedies of the civil war. It should be said that the project of this advance has not been heartily welcomed among the officers of the army. There has been a strong blast from a wind called public opinion roaring "On to Rich mond," and the army is obedient to the controlling will at its head, re sponsive in its turn to that unreason ing pressure of public sentiment Let us keep this distinctly in mind. The northern regiments are now marching out to martyrdom. In long, clean, bright lines they come steaduy on. Their colors are proudly defiant Their attitude is a challenge to the grave. There is a flash along the frowning hills, there is a roar, and the southern balls make deep furrows in those ad vancing ranks. They will not turn, though. They press on, when suddenly, to their surprise, like specters spring ing up through the last of the morning mist like gnomes wriggling out of the ground, rises a long line of waiting rifles in the "sunken road." They hurl wave after wave of fire and ball, to which there can be no hopeful resistance. Broken, crippled, the bluecoats fall back in utter re pulse. As their lines fill up, they come again, only to be broken, crippled, de feated again. They keep coming, but up out of the sunken road flash the fires of the hidden rifles, and every time the charge is in vain. Finally in the sunken road are four lines of troops. The front rank, de livering its fire, falls back. The sec ond fires and other ranks follow. No matter how brave, what advance could withstand those repeated deadly fires? The sun has gone down on the crim son snow when the last charge is made. It is only an assault that is an invitation, and' the answer is a slaugh ter. The horrors of the battlefield that night, the sufferings of the wounded amid the wintry cold, the discomfort of troops bivouacked out under the chilling heavens, cannot be described. The Confederate losses reported are: Killed, 608; wounded, 4,116; Union killed, 1.284; wounded. 9,600. The desire of Gen. Burnside to re trieve, the next day, his sad losses, and to lead in person another charge, finds fortunately no encouragement and the Fredericksburg chapter of the war is closed. Comrade Soldier of Pennsylvania With Greavt War Record wherever members Army are known. or the Grand Valuable Civil War Document. Senator Clark of Montana has been given- the opportunity to purchase the original of a pass which President Lincoln wrote in his own hand per mitting Gen. Singleton to go through the Union lines to Richmond near the close of the war. Gen. Singleton lived in Quincy, 111., and was a sympathizer with the South during war times. He was a unique character who is well remembered by the older citizens of the Sucker State. Although an out spoken opponent of the war. Gen. Sin gleton was a warm friend of Lincoln, who had a high regard for him, and willingly gave him the pass to Rich Kwd. .notwithstanding his opposition, to the Union cause. ifeOTCdJK 9 1SSi gl 1iiii ' - The Crisis with Nursery T It is something of a science to trans plant trees that have been received u m a distant nursery and have them ive. It used to be thought that there nust always be a large percentage of jobs anyway even under the best coa litions. Both the nurserymen and the planters have now learned that trees jf all kinds can be handled In a way a insure their living when placed in eir new locations. A well-packed see has its roots kept moist by being rolled in damp moss and tied up in nagging. The old scheme of pulling trees out of the ground, exposing their roots and sending them away without any protection was the cause of many a tree proving a failure. When these trees arrived at the distant station they were thrown out on the platform and left there exposed to the heat of the sun and the drying effects of the wind. In the course of time the pur chaser drove around and got his con signment, perhaps a couple of days after their arrival. By that time their roots were good and dry. He drove home and set out his trees In any old way. Even had he set them In the best possible way it is altogether like ly that a good many trees would have perished owing to the drying out of the roots. When a large part of Ids trees failed to grow of course the nurseryman was to blame so the buy er said. He was right to some extent, in that the trees were sent away with roots not properly protected. In send ing trees long or short distances the roots and their moisture supply fur nish the key to the situation. Proper treatment of the tree from the time it comes out of the nursery row to the time it goes into the place assigned to it in the orchard will Insure a good healthy tree. In setting a hundred of these there need be no failures. Points on Asparague Culture. When the asparagus plants come up in the new bed they should be giv en every opportunity to grow and make leaf, for the leaves are what must be depended on to develop root The fact that the. roots depend on the top should not be forgotten. Con stant pruning of the top does not In crease the roots, as some might sup pose. All the material that goes to the extension of the roots first goes into the leaves and is elaborated, that is, changed into a form that can be used in cell construction. The ground must be kept free from weeds and from hard crusts. Every encourage ment should be given for the forma tion of top, and this should be con tinued till the berries form and turn red. Then the tops that have the red berries should be cut off or the ber ries picked off and thrown away. The berries should not be permitted to form seed, for that will take much substance from the roots. Moreover If the berries are permitted to stay on the plants they will fall to the ground when growth is done and the next year multitudes of little plants will start from them. This is the cause of many a bed running out or the stalks getting smaller. There will, however, be a good many other tops than those with berries and these may be permitted to remain. The water should sot be permitted to stand on the asparagus bed but should be drained away from it, as the asparagus plant is very suscepti ble to rust and other fungous dis eases. Spraying to Thin Fruit, Trees sprayed at the time they are in bloom will not set aa much fruit as' those sprayed either before or after blooming. The pollen that is struck with any sprays of common strength Is doomed practically. It may put out a feeble effort toward germination. When trees are sprayed in blossom of course the pollen in a good many flowers escape, for the reason that all flowers do not open at the same time and many will not have opened suffi ciently to receive the spray. It has been suggested that this is a good way to thin the fruit on trees. The suggestion has been entertained by scientists, and If it is ever put into practice it may result in the finding cf an easy method of thinning. At the present time thinnin? is not gen erally practiced on account of the im mense amount of work required and because at the end of the season the added value of the apples is almost offset by the cost of thinning. Men dislike to do work that gives them no gain. In tne case of peaches, thin ning pays even when men have to be employed to do the thinning. There is one advantage in attempting to thin by means of killing the pollen in some of the blossoms, and that Is the ir regularity with which the fruit would set Hand work does the business in the most approved fashion leaving tne fruit at regular intervals. No ex periments that we know of have at tempted to prove the value of spray as a thinner of fruit Fruit in Michigan. According to reports, the Michigan fruit crop Is going to be a good one, taking all things together. ' Some kinds will be short, but the aggregate will be good. Peaches promise less than any of the other fruits, and are estimated at two-thirds of a normal crop. This In reality is a good crop, for there are no years when all locali ties have normal crops. Cherries seem to lead the list In promise of yield. Apples come next and win without doubt be a very fine crop, a condition that will' be welcomed both by the ap ple growers and by the multitudes of consumers that have been going with out apples for several months. Pears also promise weU, as do plums and smaU fruits. Pasturage in Porto Rico. Shipments of 1,500 head of cattle are made yearly from Porto Rico to Trin idad, St Lucia and Barbadoes for the English government, and about 800 head to Martinique and Guadeloupe. Prices of 8 to 10 cents per pound on the hoof are obtained, less 42 per cent discount The grazing on the island is unsurpassed, there being 130,000 acres of blue grass of the finest growth, equal to the celebrated graz ing lands of Kentucky. Cattle raising as an industry can be largely In creased in Porto Rico, and to great pecuniary advantage, as the market is practically unlimited. The demand from the numerous adjacent Islands alone is far greater than the supply. Porto Rico Agricultural JouraaL Tht population of London increased during the last ceotury nearly- fivefold. Place for the Inouhator. Under most circumstances a bunding out of doors Is the beat place In which to locate the incubator dur ing the time it Is to be la operatka. This place is, necessary as a safe guard against fire. There aright he times when it would be more advan tageously located In the hoase were it not for the danger from fire. The objection to an outer building, how ever, Ues in the fact that the temper ature is very changeable unless the buUding Is exceptionally weU built Where a good many chicks are to be raised or where several incubators are to be kept in service for some months at a time a bunding construct ed partly below ground is best We have seen such houses that had been constructed at a moderate cost. The lower walls went five or six feet be low the surface of the ground, and consisted of concrete to the thick ness of a foot or more. In such cases the floor was of concrete and the sec ond floor of boards was only a short distance above the ground. The up per portion of such building can be used for the storage of food and the like. The lower part, in which are placed the incubators, can be kept at a very even temperature. The cellar of the residence is hardly the place for Incubators, on account of the dampness of the cellars as ordinarily constructed, and the danger of fires above mentioned. Cornish and Indian Games. The Indian Game has many flae quaUties to recommend it to the breed er, and for many years past has been one of the most popular of fowls. In plumage the male is green-black with out penciling; the wings, chestnut, with bay and metalUc black wing bar; the feathers of the neck hackle are short and hard, green-black, with del icate crimson-brown shafts. The plu mage of the hen Is very difficult to ob- Ceroiah Indiaa G; tain In accord with the standard, and should be a combination of nut-brown and green-black throughout, green predominating. Along the breastbone of both male and female the feathers part and allow the skin to show Just at or above the upper part of the keel bone. This is a distinctive feature t the breed, and shows from the time the chicks shed the down. Strength of Ancestry. To have a strong breed of fowls we must have birds bred up from strong ancestors. In our present knowledge of the different breeds we cannot tell just what the comparisons between the different breeds are in this re spect Doubtless as time goes on we will have tests to discover these rela tive facts. There is a strong impres sion that one breed is much stronger than another breed, but we have no definite data to back up these rather vague impressions. In a small way we can tell something about the strength of ancestry in individual strains. Thus, if we have had in out flocks rather weak birds and have permitted them to reproduce them selves and have seen the same weak ness In their progeny we know that the proper strength is lacking for the development of a proper strain of val uable birds. The best we can do is to watch these birds and weed them out of the flock. If we cure a sick bird, that bird should never again be permitted to lay eggs for hatching purposes. The very fact that she has been sick makes it probable that she lacks in hardiness. Turkeys with Cramped Feet. From Farmers' Review: My young turkeys have cramped feet Can you tell me the cause and remedy foi it? A Subscriber. Doubt less the cause is the cold and damp weather we have been having. Per haps the poults have been permitted to Ue in damp places and have thus become afflicted with something after the nature of rheumatism. We have had chicks affected that way by the causes named. In case of chicks we have found that taking them Into the house where it was warm and dry in Bured a cure in a few days. Doubtless the same wUl be true of the poults. Feeding Chicks. From Farmers' Review: After chicks are hatched I do not feed them anything for 36 hours nor do I give them any water. After that I feed and water them. I feed and water four times a day while they are under five and six weeks of age. After that I feed three times a day. I have used this method for the last two years and find it the best I ever tried. Mrs. E. L Reynolds, La Porte County, In diana. Japanese Bantams were Imported from Japan, where they have evidently been bred for a long time, as they breed very true to type. Only after long generations can a type be thus fixed. They are easily acclimated and hardy. Corn Culture. From Farmers' Review: In a re cent issue of the Farmers' Review I saw an article by Dr. L. M. Ayres, to which he said that the farmer shoulc give his corn crop shallow culture ir a wet season and deep cultivation In a dry season; but he does not give the reason for it I will say: Give deep culture in a wet season to lei the water down and warm the ground In a dry season, give shallow culture, to hold the moisture that is in the ground. That will create a dual mulch, which will draw the water tc the surface. Joseph Blagdea, Okla home. To those to whom tiome is a prison, virtae is a penance. i gfisBBBBB a! V BBBBBBBBm. oASk B .ryaBBBBBBBBBMvsawBBnBBBBBBBBnslcrCaam 39bbbb33bbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbv' bbbbbbxbbbbbbbbbbbbbbmR -"gv- rllisKaflEo i"""-" a Grave Maltsr. The Stom Experimeat Station has seen carrying oa for a aumber of rears some tests with cows known to 39 tuberculous. The results are glv m la hnuetia 23, which closes with Ae following auBtmary: The' development of tuberculosis la the condemned cows, although slow, sonttaaed gradually, antn at the ead af four years three of the four cows were practically worthless, either for milk production or for beef. The results of 'experiments with ;hese tuberculous cows and the use jf their milk for feeding calves coin cide with the general results of Eu ropean observations, and indicate that the danger of the spread of tuberculo sis through the mUk of diseased ani mals Is not so great as has often been supposed. In the earlier stages of the disease, and when the udder is not affected, the danger from the use of the mUk appears to be Umlted. But when the udder is affected, or when the disease is so far advanced aa to be indicated by outward signs or narked'physical symptoms, the infec tiousness of the milk is Increased, and the danger in using it is greater. It Is not to be understood, however, that the fanner may neglect any case of tuberculosis in hla herd that hap pens to be not in the advanced stages, or if the udder of the cow is not af fected. As a matter of fact, it la prac UcaUy Impossible for him to tell when any animal that reacts to tuberculin may acquire tuberculosis of the ud der. There is danger enough in the fact that the cows may acquire the disease from one another at all, no matter how likely or unlikely they may be to do so. Therefore, if the farmers do not want their dairy in dustry menaced and perhaps seriously injured by the wider spread of tuber culosis among their herds, it Is of the utmost importance that each one use every effort to free his herd from the disease. Cows should be examined carefully for physical symptoms of the disease and be tested with tuberculin, and any that respond at aU should be looked upon with suspicion. What ever disposition Is finally made of those that are diseased, they should be kept at all times completely sepa rated from those that are not, and the non-affected animals should be care fully watched and be tested with tuberculin at least once a year. Only in thia way can new cases be discov ered in their earlier stages. Unless the farmers can be brought individ ually to appreciate the gravity of the matter to themselves and the menace to their industry, and to take meas ures for destroying the disease In their own herds, the history of bovine tuberculosis in Europe, where in some regions the greater portion of the cows are infected, may easily be re peated in this country. A Move for Pure Milk. Pasteurized milk in sealed bottles, prepared and inspected under the di rection of the city health department, win be furnished during the summer In the congested districts of the Northwest side, Chicago, by the Northwestern University Settlement Five stations In the Sixteenth and Seventeenth wards will distribute the mUk to flat and tenement dwellers at a rate slightly exceeding the price paid for ordinary milk. The first de Uvery will be made within a week. By offering cleansed and tested milk to the residents of the crowded Polish district the workers in the university settlement hope to check the enormous death rate among chil dren on the Northwest side during the hot months. The blocks surrounding the settlement, Noble and Augusta streets, were found in the investiga tion of the City Homes Association two years ago to be among the most thick ly settled In the city, and the death rate is double the general Chicago rate of mortality. The mUk will be pasteurized in spe cially prepared quarters at the settle ment, and will be sent out to all the substations each day for distribution. The milk will be inspected twice a week by the city health department. At first the milk will be sold only at the stations. The health conditions in the Polish district have been such as to urge the workers in the Northwestern Univer sity settlement to Immediate action. In the crowded neighborhood of the upper Seventeenth ward and the low er Sixteenth, the residents are far from a park or a public playground. Lincoln, Humboldt and Union Parks are all blocks away from the district None of the new breathing spots are near the crowded quarters of the Poles, and there are no available pub lic baths. The children live in the streets and alleys where grass spots are few. The Northwestern Univer sity settlement looks for no financial reward In carrying out this plan, but wUl furnish good milk, thoroughly cleansed, at actual cost Chicago Milk Campaign. Again the milk inspectors of Chi cago have begun an active campaign against waterers and skimmers of milk. In the past the spasmodic ef forts of the milk inspection depart ment have resulted only in .spasmodic indications of virtue among the vend ers of milk. The present effort will doubtless result the same way. The trouble is not with the milk inspec tors but In the conditions that make it impossible to keep at work enough inspectors to thoroughly do the work belonging to their office. All kinds of tricks are worked against the inspec tors. One of the most common ones is to label all of the milk "skim" whether it be whole or skimmed milk. Then the dealers seU the milk that haa been robbed of a part of its cream as "good" milk, by which the custom ers understand "milk that has not been skimmed." When the inspector comes along he finds the cans all la beled "skim" milk and so the man that haa been really selling skimmed mUk for whole mUk Is beyond prose cution. To the present time no check seems to have been found on this trick. Some have proposed that a iaw be passed to prevent the sale of skim milk except in considerable quanti ties, but this would certainly militate against both the producers aad the consumers of milk. A considerable aumber of milk dealers are being pros- ecr.tea ana tneir names published in the papers, and thia la expected to have a salutary effect A tablespooaful of kerosene added to four or five quarts of starch win make the colored starched clothes iron TuBsreuleots w .JanawHBlBSsTBBBfisT aWfiflfiflfiflfiVJl JBBBBnwsf-i9mi PSSBk BBBBBBBBBP' .kv BLBBBnBBBBBBBB BBBSBntflBaBsTsT DllaVla - Points 'en Angoras. A raiser of Angora goats Goats have cattle diseases more than sheep uiseases. They sever have ia flarasutioa of the amcoas passages, aad seldom have foot rot They aever have scab, bat are frequently lousy. I have often read about putting a' few goats with a flock of sheep aa pro tection against dogs. Dogs kill goats but not so much as sheep. I have never had any old ones killed hat have had quite a number of alee kUled by dogs. Goats are sossewhat harder to fence thaa sheep, but aot so hard aa hogs. Goats do aot Jump, but climb and creep. I have 0& fashioned rail fences that tura goats perfectly. If a rail fence is made to lean from t&e goat he win irilmb It no matter how high It may be, but a well built rail fence three and a half feet high, will keep goats per fectly. A seven wire fence, properly spaced, will turn them perfectly. Two feet of woven wire and two wires aoove is perhaps the best Goata bear flocking much better than sheep. In the range countries they are generally kept In flocks of from one thousand to four thousand. I read often of the necessity of aa infusion of new blood into our Amer ican flocks by Importing from Asia. I have serious doubts If Asia haa aa good Angoras as the United States. The people of that country do act select and breed with any care. I be lieve that we have already In thia country Angoras from which a most superior animal may be produced by American ingenuity in selecting and mating, as has been done in the case of the American Merino sheep and the standard bred horse. WhUe I am not averse to the introduction of new blood, I do not want it of an Inferior quality. Little Things About Incubators. There are some things that seem lit tle in themselves that are of consid erable importance In the running of an incubator. The advice Is given not to buy second-hand incubators. Prob ably the advice is good, for a second hand incubator may have been so badly handled that It will give unsat isfactory results fn the hands of a new user, especially if the new user be a person that has had no experi ence with these machines. It is claimed that incubators, like other things, wear out Without doubt this apparent wearing out is due to the maladjustment of the parts or utensils in the parts. How much warping and shriklng has to do with the so called wearing out of Incubators we cannot tell. It is claimed that la the case of too much moisture being used the machines wiU warp. This use of too much moisture is a little thing, but ic must be looked after. It Is a mistake to use any but the best kind of oil in incubators. A few cents saved on on may mean the loss of an entire hatch. Least of all does it pay to buy cheap thermometers. There is little difference in cost between the good and poor thermometers. We have seen some of these articles sent out from houses for advertising pur poses that were entirely worthless. One thermometer that we knew of seemed to work all right for a few days, and then dropped down to 4C degrees below zero and staid there. A thermometer that registers a few degrees out of the way may result In large losses of eggs and time, to say nothing of the patience of the poultry man. Various Horse Feeds. At the North Dakota Experimeat Station tests with various feeds for horses led the experimenters to draw the following conclusions: L Brome hay gave as good results when fed to work horses as did tim othy hay. 2. Oat straw was satisfactorily used for feeding horses which did light work and for those which were idle. One-fourth more grain was re quired to support horses doing light work when they were fed straw. 3. Barley was not equal to oats in feeding value per pound, but was nearly as good. Mules did not relish barley. 4. Malted barley was not so valu able for work horses as oats and was not equal In value to the dry barley from which it came. 5. Corn fed in connection with oats in the proportion of 100 pounds ol corn to 125 pounds of oats, had great er value than cats; 77.5 pounds ol corn equaled 100 pounds of oats when fed to work horses. 6. Whole wheat fed alone was an unsatisfactory feed for horses. Wheat ground and mixed with bran in the nronortion of two parts of wheat to one part of bran by weight gave good results. 7. Bran and shorts mixed In equal parts by weight, was equal to oats In feeding value. Law Against False Brands. False brands of dairy products have always played a large part In frauds perpetrated in the sale of butter and cheese. It is of Interest to know that a bill to prevent such practices Is now before the National Congress and stands a good chance to become a law. It Is known as the "Shennar Bill" and is for the purpose of pre venting the branding of butter and cheese otherwise than from the ter ritory in which they are made. Thus, at the present time, "Elgin butter" comes from all parts of the country If any one section of country builds up a reputation xor gooa proaucut, other localities at once begin stealing that reputation and profiting by it This is a mean kind of robbery thai needs to be done away with. In the end it brings into disrepute the products from all localities, for it causes doubt as to the value of any kind of brand. In New York the state department has been trying foi years to execute laws relative to thlt matter, but haa always found the non existence of a national law In this re gard a great obstacle in Its path. Ventilation in the cow stable Is a lecessity If the health of the animals is to be conserved. Little is knowr. among the generality of cow ownen as to the scientific principles of ven tilatkm. The subject is worthy ol study, especially by the men that are to construct stables. The men thai have stables should investigate with the object of putting in a perfect sys tem of lentilation. The number of lepers in the Philip pine islands is estimated at about 12,-080. THE CUNNING MOSQUITO J WfHar laslsei U Shsttjtil RemriMa "The maa wao beUevea that the juito caaaot be educated ap to the poiat where he la capable of dodging some of the artifices of humaa Mad la simply a foot," said a man who has aeea paylag some attention to aaaph oie aad culex," aad whose devotton aaa been returned with quadrupled snraromsBese. "and I. know what I am taUdag about, for I have had occaaton to observe a few things within the week, la substantiation of which I make proffer of various red splotches on my face. Beck aad hands. Just outside of my door there is a cistern, aae of these uncovered cisterns about which so much has beea said aad writtea. It ia a great mosquito breeder and at night these humming despera does make a fierce charge Into my room. The door, window and transom are not screened, but I' have around my bed what ia supposed to be ample protection in a good mosquito bar.' For a while the bar was good enough. But it did not take any great leBgth of time for the mosquitoes to leant a few thlags. Oae Bight Just a few nights ago I was awakened by a humming sound aad had noticed that my sleep had not been as even aa usual. At first I thought the souad waa made by a street car some distance from my room oa the line which traverses the street oa which I live. The truth grad ually dawaed oa me that it waa the lWMMMWWWWWAWWWMWWWWWWWWWMWWWWWMW S THE OLDEST STOVE JUchmonsl. V.. Cladaas mioum Kavna According to a Philadelphia news paper the oldest stove in this country is at present on exhibition in Minneap olis, Minn. From the description this old stove is something after the fashion of the one which we have here in our state capitol. It stands' upon legs or end supports, similar to those of a sewing machine, only that they are about half as high and of much heavier casting. The total weight of the stove is 500 pounds. It is three feet long, thirty two inches high and one foot wide, with a hearth extending in front. There is no grate in the bottom, the fire being built directly on the bottom of the stove, the heat passing from below the oven, back of it and over the top of the pipe. The outside has scrolls and designs and crowns in re lief, much after the fashion of the stoves of to-day, and on both sides cast with the metal are the words, "Hereford Furnace, Thomas Maybury, Mfr.. 1767." We are assured that the stove is well preserved, in spite of its age. The surface has a finish which VVWWWIMVWVWWWNMMMMMVWWWVWMMWWMMWWMWWVMMVMMWVVM Traveling and Wandering L Jones was In peculiarly expansive humor the other evening. He was packed up for the summer, and was starting off in the morning on a cheap racket walking trip. To traverse the country districts of New England was his program, and an unfailing friend liness his method of getting about cheaply and well. "I have no use for traveling," he be gan. "That, of course, is why you are starting off on the morrow?" I asked. "That, dear friend, is not traveling. It is wandering, and I recommend the world in general to get back to it, as the Ideal manner of getting about. Traveling is a distinctly modern in vention. It alms at two things speed and the attainment of a definite locality. It is done for a purpose, and the means are always sacrificed to the end. The scenery through which the victims of the system may steam, is blurred. Cards and papers are found necessary to slay the time. yVWWWftWWWAMAMWWWwmMyvM HIS JOKE COST HIM DEAR. An Interesting Little Story About Han nibal Hamlin.. "Why don't you comb down that cowlick: said Senator Mallory. laugh ingly, to one of the pages, whose hair was standing straight. "Some of these days your wife will take hold of it and pull your hair." The boy glanced up at the senator's very bald pate. "Senator." he asked. Is that the way you lost your hair?" There are quite a number of sena tors with bald heads. Senator Stew art Is among the number. And Mr. Stewart says that it does not pay to make fun of a man who hasn't any hair on the top of his head, in the place where the hair ought to grow, as the old song says. In proof of which he tells an interesting story on how Hannibal Hamlin was defeat ed for the senate. "Up in Maine," said Mr. Stewart, "there was a man who was very bald. One day Mr. Hamlin came along anu tapped the man's smooth skull. 'I just want to tell you.' he said, 'that one of your two hairs is crossed with the other.' "The remark was made only in fun. but the bald-headed man never forgot it Long afterward he was a member of the upper branch of the Maine legislature and Hamlin was a candi date for the United States senate. Hamlin was defeated by one vote, and that one vote was cast by the man who was bald." Washington Post. NEW TRANSVAAL STAMPS. King's Head Replaces Boer Legend Orange River Coat of Arms. While peace negotiations were pending in South Africa, the new colonial government went ahead just as if the war was over and the terri tory already at peace. The Trans Vaal government issued a set of post age stamps, which are in great de tmand by collectors. There are ten va rieties, each of a different color, rang ing ia price from one cent to J2-50. 1 All of the stamps bear the head of King Edward, facing to the left in an oval within a finely beaded frame. In gray black. Above the head is a crowa and at the foot the word ("Traasvaal." The one-cent stamps, iare a bluish-green, and the colors of 'the ethers range from a scarlet to oraage, olive green aad purple. drone of moaqaitoes which had been la the hahR of allpptag oat of the ctstera sad Into my room at sight They were akiag a fierce attack oa the bar, aad I coacladed that I would get up aad make a little iaveetigatloB aa after midnight atady. as it were of thia wiaged aseassia. I did so. "I sever saw so maay mosquitoes before. They were mad. too. The fact that they had eacouatered the bar seems to have made them furious. They were buzziag like a aest of dis turbed hornets. Bat what surprised me more than aay other thug was the fact that several doaea had maaaged to get through and were actually on the laslde, aad had really begaa to chew me. On the outside ct the bar I foaad a perfect swarm. Some of them were fastened la the threads of the bar. They were trying to squeeze through the little holes of the bar. just aa the others had done. Their loag legs, or their wiags. or some part of the body, nad become tangled aad they were hopelessly tied. Now how did they know how to get through these little places by the squeezlag process? How did they know thia was the only possible way to reach the food they wanted? I tell you the mosquito Is capable of leaning a few things, aad he is being educated up to some of the artifices of human kind, and that's aU there is to it" New Orleans Times-Democrat s One Which Seemingly : witn me j is techincally known as "pebbled." The famous Virginia stove also stands upon legs, is about seven feet high and is handsomely ornamented. It Is "three stories" high and of pyra midal shape, and was made ia 1770 for the house of burgesses at Williams burg, whence it was removed to Rich mond when the seat of government was removed hither. The founder, one Buzaglo. whose place of business was in England, wrote of the "warm ing machine" that "the elegance of workmanship does honor to Great Britain. .It exceeds in grandeur any thing ever seen of the kind and is a masterpiece not to be equaled in all Europe. It has met with general ap plause and could not be sufficiently admired." So. notwithstanding its advantages of a few years in age. tho Minneapolis stove must pale its ineffectual fires when compared with our big. highly ornamental and aristocratically con nected (historically speaking) old warming machine. Richmond Dis patch. and when the travelers dismount from the deck or platform they breathe out a thankful 'Here at last.' as if that were the point. The ancients got about in a different spirit. They wan dered where 'sweet adventure called them.' They merely roamed, setting themselves no goal. They were not whirled in hot compartments from point to point. Under the wide and starry sky they tented; these fine old tramps, Arabs, gypsies and all no mads of the Ulysses type. The peri patetic hoboes should organize a great league to prove that scenery is better than speed, and that every foot of the open road is as good as the place named on the guide post, toward which the wanderer's face is set. "And no epitaph is more appropriato for the mundane wanderer than this: "'Under the wide and open sky. Where he loved to live, there let him lie; Home is the sailor, home from the sea. And the hunter is home from the hill.' The British Colonial Office, mean time, is considering a new coat of arms design by Lockwood Kipling, father of the poet and novelist, for the new Orange River Colony, which was formerly the Orange Free State. The coat of arms consists of a plain heraldic shield bearing an orange tree and above it a Tudor rose; on the ground are wared lines, the symbol of water, typifying the name Bloemfon tein. Two springboks support tho 'shield. Died on Devil's Island. Only the other day there died on Devil's Island, the French convict set tlement off Cayenne, the man who in vented and patented the telegraphic system now universally adopted in France, and known as the multiple transmission system. Victor Nimault, twenty years ago. was an electrical employe of the French telegraphic service. In 1871 he discovered and le gally protected a system of multiple transmission, on which he had been busied for years. Almost coincident ally a M. Baudot (not an official) in vented a somewhat similar apparatus. This M. Baudot, being a personal friend of M. Raynaud, the director of the telegraphic department, found favor with that gentleman, and the Baudot system was finally accepted and universally adopted as the better of the two. Victor Nimault brought action against M. Baudot and M. Ray naud, and, after losing lawsuit after lawsuit, fired at and mortally wounded M. Raynaud. The unhappy inventor was tried, sentenced to imprisonment for life, and in due course was sent out to Cayenne. Twenty years having elapsed, he was recently pardoned by President Loubet. A subscription made by his friends in France left by the same boat which took out his pardon. But it arrived too late, for Victor Ni mault who had been ill for some time, died the day before port was made. The irony of It all is that poor Ni mault's system has been in use in France for many years now; for, aftei he was sentenced, it was found to be preferable to the one adopted and ap proved by Raynaud, the then director of the telegraphic department A Lyaa (Mass.) firm made a shoe in thirteen minutes. The course of true love never runs smooth and in aiter years the bach elor ia often glad of it i 'a Y f - - ! ) ft A I : J' . . ? ;i. . ::a", ,. r -4? Vi-, "$, -t ft - -V r'fegaisgafta'y! t&sra .