The Columbus journal. (Columbus, Neb.) 1874-1911, January 19, 1898, Image 1

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ud la CaUea the Coartets Xew Ter
ror A rrisoa of Steel Which la as
Intricate as a Haze, DefjlaE;
Mmt Tldoea to Escape.
N ingenious plam
for a eteel trap
prison from vrhicn
it will be impossi
ble for a prisoner
to escape has re
cently beea pub
lished. In appear
ance this proposed
new prison will be
like a great rat
trap, in that once
3aside the prisoner cannot get out by
any Irregular way, but must be re
.Jteassd. bythe man in charge, and is
"also like a squirrel-cage, inasmuch as
-. is rotary. A prison of this sort is
composed of three principal parts, the
building consisting of four walTs and
a roof, in which it is contained, and
the center revolving cylinder of cells.
Every part of this cylinder is made of
the best iron obtainable, and the whole
is mounted on ball-bearings in" such
a way that it may revolve at the will
of the official in charge. So accurate
ly Is the cylinder balanced and so
well are the bearings adjusted, that it
-Is quite easy to move it by means of
-a hand crank, though in actual prac
tice the power of a motor, either wa
iter or electric, is generally used. In
shape each cell exactly resembles a
hollow wedge, the big end of which
is formed by a segment of the cylin
der's outside shell, while the smaller
end touches the cylinder's core. The
roof, floor and sides of each cell are
made of chilled boiler iron, so hard
that the finest tempered chisel or the
keenest file would hardly make an im-
pression upon it. None of these cells
has a door, though each one has an
opening for going in and out. This
opening, however, cannot be used for
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this purpose, except when it is exactly
opposite a corresponding opening in
the entrance, and no two cells on the
same tier or story may be entered at
the same time. Outside the cylinder
of cells, but entirely disconnected with j
it, is the wire cage, and this looks j
j&L ";r tots giss liSSiii iiin mmA
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r Stn hPIl bi I-3Sd3sIIIBg-Sgpi i&
jy Up tf Iwmmm
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- ;"-tti m a mtm: ..m-i-i-ri i"-s5i.niiiw--sfi'.
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somewhat like a gigantic stationary in the first place, a fleet of six or eight mucQ more extensively grown, espe-smiin-pl
carp wheel set on end. It is freight steamers which will make the ' cialiy in a country like this, where our
made of thick steel bars, chilled to a
hardness fully equal to that of the
cylinder, but separated from the cyl
inder and cells just enough to be out
of reach, even should a prisoner get
possession of tools for cutting his way
out Connecting with it are the cage
like entrance galleries, one for each
tier, each containing a double set of
floors. When the prisoners are to be !
taken out for exercise, or to enter t cultivators and overseers, with farm
upon their duties in the shops, they J tools and buildings of all kinds, and an
must pass cut singly, ths oige being abundance of facilities for transport
revolved just far enough, as each jVing the produce swifdy from the fields
leaves his cell, to bring the opening ' to the ports. Altogether the prelimin
of the next cell into line with the en- i "7 and working expenses would be
trance cage, and they must enter in f ery large, bui the returns would be
similar fashion. When the last pris- ' so large that in two average years the
oner has gone in. the doors cf the en- 0utl27 uld have ben rePaiu and a
trance cage are locked by one move- cIear annual gam of millions could be
ment of the hand, while a second depended on. I often discussed this
movement fastens the cage in place, , ixiL tbe governor of Jamaica, Sir
so that it cannot be shifted. I Henry Blake, and he saw as much in
The buildins indesine such a Drison I it as I did and proffered the good of-
npprt h nniv .i Tnpre fcPu of brirk nr !
stone, and the prisoners may be
watched in their cells at all times from
galleries or balconies on the inside
of the shell's walls. While this- form
of jail may not be adapted to great
penal etablishments, it possesses un
doubted advantages for jails in which
only a few prisoners are to be con
fined. It is an English idea.
A narroTTlnr; Custom.
"It is strange that with the common
sense ideas that are being developed in
so many of our customs," said a wom
an the other day, "the custom of going
to the grave should net be given up
by the mourners at a funeral. It is a
harrowing experience. The associa
tions are all unpleasant, and the sight
of the earth around the newly dug
grave gives us the feeling that we are
cut off from our friends forever. Ev
ery creak of the cords as the coffin is
lowered is like a stab wound. The
only comfort is that we feel that we
are going as far as possible with cur
dear ones. In the west they have a
pleasant custom of lining the grave
wit flowers, or, at least, with vinss,
evergreens, or something of that kind.
To see our friends laid away in beds of
flowers is not so horribly significant
New York Times.
What Xeah Saw.
Europeans may brag cf their andent
history, but this country can trace its
history back to the flood. We read
in Genesis that Noah looked out cf the
Ark-an(d)saw land. This is supposed
to he the first mention of any state 2a
Tie Feasibilities t TV later Vegetable
When I lived in the island of Jamai
ea, a British possession, I was greatly
impressed with the. commercial possi
bilities of the winter vegetable growing
industry, says Collier's "Weekly. Dur
ing these months when winter frail
and vegetables are practically an im
possibility in the "markets of our north
ern and Semi-northern cities, they
flourish best In Jamaica and.of course,
injthe other islands of the archipelago
as well. Jamaica is about 140 miles
long and from twenly to fifty mile3
wide; its surface is mountainous, with
many valleys and few plains of moder
ate extent. Oranges and coffee are
the chief products of the mountainous
parts, sugar and bananas of the tower
levels and valleys. Vegetables art
scarcely cultivated at all; the negro
population, numbering over 700.0C0, is
lazy and worthless, and can not be de
pended upon as laborers; rthey grow a
few yams on their Uttte-clefxtags,.JMLi
are then content to lie in the shade of
their cocoas and mangoes and let the
year go by. The coffee industry lan
guishes; there is hardly any sugar
making worth talking of now going
on; there Is not on the whole island a
single orange grove, recognizable cs
such by an American cultivator; all
Jamaica oranges are practically wild,
and of numerous varieties, some poor,
some of the best in the world, but all
alike jumbled together for export; so
that Jamacia oranges have a bad name.
There is an American company in con
trol of the banana trade, and the ex
port is as large as the consumption
warrants; but no vegetables are ex
ported at all. The steady work on the
plantations is done by coolies brought
under contract from India, and re
garded with disfavor by the negroes.
Now, if 10.000 acres only were set
apart for the cultivation of vegetables
during the months from December to
April, and the produce placed for sale
I in our seaboard citie
the profits over
and above all expenses and accidents
would be so enormous that I shall not
state them: the balance sheet has been
carefully worked out and revised; they
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; iniini iBincti iuis iuih m
-t mn.iiin'? taw.-. XBUHP?&jaHMi ,vivir.wi::i:
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would amount to many millions of dol
lars every season. Why has the en
terprise never been attempted? Be
cause the cost of the plant required
Tenders it impossible for any ordinary
individual or aggregation $f individu-
als to undertake it. You must have, j
trip to Xew York inside of three days
(the distance is a little over 1,000
miles). Then you must have wharves
and warehouses in the principal cities
to receive the cargoes and men to han-
die them promptly and skillfully, and !
shops in the cities where the best cf
produce can be sold directly to private
buyers. Meanwhile, in Jamaica, there
must be a large and trained force of
Sees cf the government in case a corn-
fices cf V
' pany were organized to work the in-
dustry. Jamaica is, at present, the
best of the islands for the purpose sim
ply because it is under English gov
ernment and you are assured of peace
and quiet But when Cuba achieves
her independence and has quieted down
she will serve better than Jamaica, be
cause she is so much larger and more
tfcn 100 miles nearer us.
When Xiagara Will Ran Dry.
Dr. G. K. Gilbert, cf the Geological
Survey, says that a comparison of gage
records for a period of twenty years
shows that the land surrounding the
great lakes is being gradually tilted
from northeast to southwest at such
a rate that, of two points one hundred
miles apart the northern rises five
inches with reference to the southern
in one hundred years. At Chicago the
lake level rises about one inch in ten
years. Dr. Gilbert predicts that, if
this movement continues, in about
three thousand years all the upper
lakes will discharge into the Illinois
river, the Detroit and St Clair rivers
will flow backward, carrying the water
of Lake Erie into Lake Huron, and the
Niagara river will run dry.
Aa Electric Tea.
Among the many curious inventions
in which electrldty plays the principal
role is mentioned a pen, provided near
the point with a minute incandescent
lamp intended to illumine a small
space onthe paper, and prevented
from shining into the eyes of the
writer by a little reflector placed just
above it
feme Fp-te-batto Hints Akeat Caiuta
tloa br ike SoU aaa TtefaU Thenar
HovtttaUare. Tttlcaltare aa He
c si Mrs.
lted bloTer la the Semth.
Farmers' Bulletin 18: Until recent
ly it has been thought that red clover
could not be grown in the Sonthern
states, but our experience has been
that on suitable soils and with, proper
management It will grow fully as well
here as in any of the Northern states,
and that, while it does ndt last as
long here, its yield is heavier, and on
account of its more rapid growth, the
quality of hay is better, in Nortfc
Carolina it has succeeded well arid has
maintained a full stand longer than in
mostoiher.iectioaa; while 6m the
sandy white soil of the Florida station
It has done bnt little. At the Louis
iana station It has made a vigorous
growth, affording two large cuttings
during the first season, but It soon suc
cumbs to the encroachments of native
grasses. At the Mississippi station on
rich creek bottom and on black prairie
soils it has given excellent results,
making 2 tons of hay per acre in May,
another ton in June, and In favorable
seasons another ton in September,
though the last cutting has been unre
liable on account of summer drouths.
Where such yields can be made it is
one of the best crops which can be
grown, but there are many localities in
the South where it has not been found
profitable. It requires a soil which is
rich and in faisly good condition to
secure a "catch" of the seed, and on
many soils where it makes a promis
ing start and yields two or three cut
tings it soon becomes overrun with the
native grasses and is 'choked out. Or
dinarily it will not pay to grow It more
than two years on the same ground,
i as by the end of that time it will have
done its best work in fertilizing the
, soil, and the land will give better re
turns If the last crop of clover Is
plowed under and the field planted to
some other crop. As the plants pro
duce seed abundantly here and are
not Infested with the insects which
have recently done so much damage to
the crop in the Northern states, there
seems to be no reason why the seed
crop should not become of considerable
Red clover Is a universally recog
nized standard in estimating the values
of all other crops, when grown either
for hay or as a green manure, and we
hsve made special efforts to test it on
as great a variety of soils as possible,
and do not hesitate to recommend it
for all rich soils which are in good me
chanical condition; but it is useless to
sow it on barren fields, or on rough
and poorly prepared lands of any kind.
It seems best suited for growth on al
luvial and black prairie soils, and has
never been satisfactory on sandy or
white lime lands. August sowings have
given the best satisfaction, as the
plants from such sowings are sufficient
ly strong to keep down any growth of
wild grasses and weeds the next spring,
and will give a heavy cutting of hay
in May. Jf sown in February, the
more common time, the first cutting
will be principally of volunteer grasses,
but the clover will give two good cut
tings later. Sowing with oats in Feb
ruary i3 often successful, but the clov
er is often injured by cutting the oats,
thU3 removing the shade just at the
beginning of the hot weather. Sow 1
bushel of the seed to each 5 acres.
ris riant In ths Garden.
No vegetable responds more readily
to a minimum amount of cultivation
than rhubarb, and as it makes a first-
clas3 substitute for fruit, it should be
fruit resources are extremely limited.
say3 Northwestern Farmer. Two meth
ods of starting a bed of rhubarb may
be adopted, either by sowing the seed
or planting roots, but the latter is much
Preferable, for, except in rare in
stances, rnuoaro win not come true to
type from seed; in fact, retrogression
in every feature is very apparent in
seedling rhubarb. If a few old roots
cm be obtained so much the better,
and these may be divided with a sharp
spade into as many pieces as there are
ey-s. Care must be taken to ensure
the- fact of there being an eye or bud
to each root, as they will not grow if
this is missing, no matter how large
thn root may be. Rhubarb is a par
ticularly heavy feeder, and this fact
must be taken into consideration when
preparing the land for planting. An
old piece cf garden, which has been
manured for a few years, will make an
excellent situation. If plowed deeply
and heavily manured before planting.
Do not be afraid of putting on too
much manure, for in this point lies the
main secret of successful rhubarb
growing. The plants should be set out
in rows five feet apart each way, care
being taken not to nury the crowns,
which should be about level with the
surface. Fall planting gives the most
satisfactory results, and a coating of
well rotted manure spread on the bed
to the depth of six inches every fall
will materially assist development If
the above Instructions are followed out
you will be surprised at the marvelous
growth of your plot of rhubarb. Never
allow the plants to run to seed, but on
the first appearance of flower spikes
remove them, as they greatly tend to
lessen the rigor, besides causing the
whole plant to become tough and in
sipid. Victoria and Linnaeus are pop
ular varieties on account of their bright
color and excellent quality.
Salicylic la Food.
It Is well known to-day that salicylic
add is a powerful antiseptic, says the
Sanitarian. As such it retards the ac
tion of organized ferments like the
yeast plant and putrefactive bacteria.
It hinders and prevents fermentation,
the souring of milk and the putrefac
tion of milk. Its action upon unorgan
ized ferments is even more powerfuL
It completely arrests the conversion of
starch into grape sugar by disease and
pancreatic extracts. This action is di
rectly opposed to the process of diges
tion, and. were there no other reason,
the use cf salicylic-add should be uni
versally condemned. These facts In
connection with salicylic add hare
beea recognized very thoroughly In
legislation. The use of the add has
been condemned by most of the Euro- j
pean errantries trriig pire food laws.
In France it Is JTefbidden by law. la
Austrfa, Italy .and Spain it cannot M
tsed without the danger of incurring
heavy penalty, and all South Aaer
ican.ttates feAirinK pare food laws kari
absolutely forbidden its sale. The laws
of many of the states forbid its use. By
a decision of Mr. Wells, the dairy and
food .commissioner, the use of salicylic
add in food Is prohibited in Pennsyl
vania. I wish to call attention here to
another fact in connection with the use
of salicylic add which is of extreme
importance, viz., the sale of preserra
lines, preservatives, etc, under various
high-sounding names, intended for use
In private families. A number of these,
claimed to be perfectly harmless, art
oh the market, hut actually contain
salicylic add as the main ingredient;
The conscientious and careful house
keeper should put ah absolute veto up
on the use of any such compounds.
There is rarely any. need for them,
since-, when pure fruits and vegetables
are used and the proper directions for
sterilizing by heat, etc are carried out
canned or preserved goods of all de
scriptions can be prepared that will re
main in good condition for years with'
out the aid of any preservative.
Abatlar the Do Nalsaaee
During November, December and
January more sows are bred than any
other three months in the year, so it
is very important that the breeding
boar should' receive the best of care
and attention, as he is counted one
half of the herd, a fact that every
breeder knows, writes J. L. Van Doren
in National Stockman. The boar should
be kept by himself in a clean, warm
pen and have exercise every day that
it is suitable for him to be out. His
feed should consist of a mixture of
corn, ground oats, mill feed and milk,
only given in quantities sufficient to
keep up a strong, healthy growth and
retain vigor. Never overfeed or get
the animal too fat if you want large,
strong litters. If a pig seven to eight
months old allow him one service a
day, but turn the sow away imme
diately after service, and keep her in
a close pen for a coup.e of days, as
she is more apt to catch than if turn
ed in with other sows. Should the boar
be a large hog, one that has matured,
and business is crowding, he can be al
lowed two services a day, one in the
morning and again in the evening.
Never turn the boar out with the sow
and allow them to run together, for It
has ruined many a good animal. An
instance was related to me a short time
ago where a boar that was known to
be a breeder was allowed to run with
a sow all day, and he never sired a
litter of pigs afterward. Many others
of a similar character could be men
tioned. Should the breeder or farmer
want to raise good, strong littera of
healthy pigs he must not turn the boar
with a lot of sows "root hog or die"
fashion or he will be disappointed
when farrowing time comes, and
either the sow or the boar will be
blamed when it Is the owners' fault
Far better to watch the boar, and after
service remove him to his own quar
ters. Cotton Seed as Cattle Food.
The Texas experiment station has
been making some tests with the above
food, and gives the following sum
mary: First Roasted cotton seed do not
have the laxative qualities of raw seed,
and are more palatable.
Second Faster gains are made by
feeding the boiled seed, but at a greater
cost per pound gain.
Third The advantages to be gained
in the use of roasted seed hardly jus
tifies its general use.
Fourth Boiled seed are more pal
atable than raw seed, Ies3 laxative and
make faster gains. May continue to be
used with profit
Fifth Steers fed on raw seed, eating
a less quantity of seed, ate slightly
more hay in consequence.
Sixth Cotton seed, at usual prices,
is a good and cheap addition to a corn
and hay ration.
Seventh The best beef ration found
by previous experiments cotton seed,
meal, hulls and silage is not here prov
en the best, when calculated at former
prices raw seed, corn and hay being
Eighth When value of raw seed i3
raised to near market present prices,
S10 per ton, the meal, hulls and silage
Is again the best ration, raw seed, corn
and hay being next best
Ninth The average cost of gain per
pound in all lots at present price of
foods was 3.64 cents.
Tenth The cheapest feed per pound
gained for all steers fed, when raw
cotton seed is valued at $10 per ton,
was raw seed, corn and hay.
A Mistake.
Farmers frequently make the mistake
of buying land adjoining and loading
themselves with a debt which burdens
them all the best years of their lives,
says Drainage Journal. When the pur
chase was made they had a few hun
dred dollars at command to make the
first payment, and from the day of the
purchase the deferred payments draw
interest and, like an eating moth,
night and day it draws upon the Ufa
and energy of those who burden them
selves in this way. If they had taken
the money with which they made the
first payment and applied it in the un
derdrainage of the land which they
owned, the result would have been far
more gratifying. By tile draining the
crop product could have been incresed
from 50 to 100 per cent, which would
have added much each year to their in
come, so that in a few yeara they
might have had the money in hand to
buy the land desired, and at the sam9
time been free from the burdens of
debt, and in every way better off.
Flavor Demanded. It is my impres
sion that butter making is on the verge
of a great change, for it is our duty to
study the wants of the American people
and those abroad, and there is no ques
tion but what they are very rapidly cul
tivating a taste for fine flavored butter
and are looking upon it more and more
as a necessary artide of food. To be
come able to make such a fine flavored
artide and overcome the defects which
our conventions and state fairs point us
to by returning our score cards marked
perfect on everything but flavor, and
that scored off front one to five points,
should be our study and must event
ually be our accomplishment Tns
most difficult task in making butter is
to get a perfect flavor. F. C. Oltiogge.
Popcorn contains more nitrogen and
phosphates than the regular Indian
BaeeeMfli itmrmit ftaerate Tale
eat mt the ram A Fett
as to ihe Cat of late Steclt
Btaaslag aad Shipping- Fealtry.
Pflc Keith, commission mer
Caants; send us the following article
on dressing and shipping poultry for
the Chicago market:
In the first place, poultry should be
kept without .food twentyfour houts;
full crops injure the appearance and
are ftobl to sour, and when this does
occmy correspondingly lower prices
must he accepted than taimable for
choice stock; Never kill poultry by
wringing the neck.
To Dr Chickens. Kill by bleeding
JUcfa asewtk' or a'pValsg tna jeiaa of
the neck; hang by the feet until prop
erly bled. Leave head and feet on,
and do not remove intestines nor crop.
Scalded chickens sell best to home
trade, and dry picked best to shippers,
so that either manner of dressing will
do if properly executed, but as there
are but ter few outside orders re
ceived for chickens until after the first
of the year, we would advise shippers
to scald their chickens until after the
holidays. For scalding chickens, the
water should be as near boiling point
as possible, without boiling; pick the
legs dry before scalding; hold by the
head and legs and immerse and lift
up and down three times; if the head
Is immersed it turns the color of the
comb and gives the eyes a shrunken ap
pearance, which leads buyers to think
the fowl has been sick: the feathers
and pin feathers should then be re
moved very cleanly, and without
breaking the skin; then "plump," by
dipping ten seconds in water nearly or
quite boiling hot, and then immediate
ly into cold water; hang in a cool
place until the animal heat is entirely
out cf the body. To dry pick chick
ens properly, the work should be done
while the chickens are bleeding; do
not wait and let the bodies get cold.
Dry picking is much more easily done
while the bodies are warm. Be care
ful and do not break and tear the skin.
To Dress Turkeys. Observe the same
instructions as given for picking
chickens, but always dry pick. Dressed
turkeys, when dry picked, always sell
best and command better prices than
scalded lots, as the appearance is
brighter and more attractive. En
deavor to market all old and heavy
gobblers before January 1, as after the
holidays the demand is for small fat
hen turkeys only, old toms being sold
at a discount to canners.
Ducks and Geese, should be scalded
in the same temparature of water as
for other kinds of poultry, but it re
quires more time for the water to pen
etrate and loosen the feathers. Some
parties advise, after scalding, to wrap
them in a blanket for the purpose of
steaming, but they must not be left in
this condition long enough to cook
the flesh. Do not undertake to dry
pick geese and ducks just before kill
ing, for the purpose of saving the
feathers, as it causes them to become
very much inflamed, and is a great in
jury to the sale. Do not pick the
feathers off the head; leave the feath
ers on for two or three inches on the
neck. Do not singe the bodies for
the purpose of removing any down or
hair, as the heat from the flame will
give them an oily and unsightly ap
pearance. After they are picked clean
they should be held in scalding water
about ten seconds for the purpose of
plumping, and then rinsed off in clean
cold water. Fat heavy stock is al
ways preferred.
Before packing and shipping, poul
try should be thoroughly dry and cold,
but not frozen; the animal heat should
be entirely out cf the body; pack in
boxes or barrels; boxes holding 100 to
200 pounds- are preferable, and pack
snugly; straighten out the body and
legs, so that they will not arrive very
mush bent and twisted out of shape;
fill the packages full as possible to
prevent moving about on the way;
barrels answer better for chickens and
ducks than for turkeys or geese; when
convenient, avoid putting more than
one kind in a package; mark kind and
weight of each description on the
package and mark shipping directions
plainly on the cover. Farmers Re
Farmers Bulletin on Dairying.
The department of agriculture at
Washington will send free to farmers
upon application the following bulle
tins: Facts About Milk. (Farmera' Bulle
tin No. 42, 29 pages. This bulletin Is
intended especially for milk consum
ers and those who purchase and have
the care cf milk in small quantities. It
treats of the composition, changes and
care of milk and cream; the difficulties
of obtaining pure milk; changes of
milk by adulteration and preserva
tives; the detection of impure milk by
various methods; and the handling of
milk for town and city supply. Im
provements in the present system of
selling milk are suggested, and the
grading of milk according to its rich
ness is recommended. Illustrations
show the appearance of different grades
of milk under the microscope, propor
tions of the component parts, a dairy
thermometer, creamometer. lactometer,
pasteurizing apparatus, glassware for
the Babcock fat test, and milk jar for
retail trade.
The Dairy Herd; Its Formation and
Management (Farmers' Bulletin No.
55, 24 pages.) The dairymen's stock in
trade, that upon which his success de
pends, is considered in this bulletin.
Some of the most important things to
observe in the formation of a dairy
herd are given. The cow that Is best
adapted to the dairy is described and
the differences between pure bred and
grade cattle are noted. Under the
management of the herd the following
subjects are discussed, viz.: The bull
and his treatment, individuality and
culling the herd by its record, accom
modations for the herd, health of the
herd, fall-fresh cows most profitable,
drying off cows and calving time, abor
tion and milk fever, care of calves and
young stock, attendance and milking,
the pasture season and soiling, the
stabling season, feeding the herd, and
general notes.
Butter-Making on the Farm. (Farm
ers Bulletin No. 57, 15 pages.) Most
of the butter of this country is made
on farms. In comparatively small quan
tities. It Is susceptible of great im-
I STSSi? 4!"f bLSfoTS
j ... w& ohuc rcraiouou mw
making; much waste can saved ana
turned to profit Farmers Bulletin No.
57 describes the stoat approved aet&oel
of making btttr In the farm dairy,
under the following fieada: Creaming
the milk, deep cold-setting, tn lam
separator, ripening cream, the churn,
churning, wfilte pecks lm butter, col
bring butter, salting afi4 wVkiaaT but
ter to suit the customer.
Care of Milk on the FarmHFarmer
Bulletin No. 63, 39 pages.) This bul
letin has been prepared In answer to
many requests for a publication oa the
production of milk and its care While
on the farm. A few pages are given to
the explanation of the causes of
enanges in milk; these are followed by
references id the chief ways in which
milk is contaminated and a description
of the methods by whicfi such e6ntan
ination may be avoided. The herd, tfe
employes, the stable and its disinfec
tion; the dairy house, utensils, and
i water are diacaesed. Different atepi
aalry-work milking, straining, aera
ing, cooling, storing, hauling are dis
cussed in turn. Fifty rules for the dairy
are given, arranged under the follow
ing heads: The owner and his helpers,
the stable, the cows, milking, care of
milk, and the utensils. Illustrations
show the appearance of bacteria in
milk, some objectionable features and
some model features of dairy barns, and
improved strainers and coolers.
In a note to the editor the secretary
says: These bulletins present the sub
jects in a practical, popular way, and
will be easily understood by any inter
ested reader. As long as the supply
lasts they will be sent free to ail ad
dresses forwarded for them. Managers
of creameries and cheese factories and
milk buyers desiring their patrons to
receive the publications named should
forward a list of the patrons addresses
and state which bulletins they wish to
be sent to them.
Address Dairy Division, Bureau of
Animal Industry, U. S. Department of
Agriculture, Washington, D. C.
Write plainly the name and address
of your creamery, cheese factory dr
place of business, and the name of the
person in charge.
ik Fowls.
A farm paper advises having a sick
room in connection with every hen
nery. It is the belief of the Farmers
Review that the place for the sick
hen is under the sod, her head having
been carefully removed previously.
Whoever gained anything by doctor
ing fowls, except it be for indigestion,
which can be cured by proper feeding?
If the hen has indigestion merely she
does not need to be separated from
the rest of the flock. But even with
bad cases of that trouble the cheapest
thing to do will be to terminate the
existence of the fowl. Doctoring sick
fowls puts the whole flock in jeopardy.
We have known cases when a whole
large flock was practically lost by the
owner attempting to doctor the roup.
More than that, if the room suggest
ed be used for bad diseases it will
sooner or later act as a point of con
tagion for the whole flock. It will be
a pest house to scatter the seeds of its
inmates far and wide. Fowls are too
cheap to be made the subject of ex
tensive operations in the doctoring
Preventlas Koap.
To prevent roup is something not
very easily done, as the fowls are af
fected by the weather. In cold, dry
seasons, the roup does not prevail as
much as In the fall, when the rains are
frequent, the ground wet, and discom
fort exists In thft poultry house. To
guard against the disease, the windows
should be so arranged as to permit
plenty of sunshine In order that the
floors and walls may be warmed, and
moisture evaporated. While the pure
air may be admitted when desired
through the doors and windows, it
should not be overlooked that draughts
of air on the birds are liable to hasten
an outbreak of the disease. By keep
ing the floor well dusted with fine air
slaked lime, the disease may be check
ed in the beginning and the room made
dry. Poultry Keeper.
Selection of Sheep.
At shearing time and during the
lambing period observations can be
made for a wise culling of your flock
that will steadily improve its grade.
Defects In weight and quality of clip
should be noted age, condition of ud
der, color and general condition in
short, everything that affects value for
wool production, breeding or the mut
ton market When these observations
are made the sheep at all objectionable
for any reason may be marked in such
a way as the owner or manager will
understand and when sales are made
let these go. By this means you pre
serve the animals most valuable for all
the purposes of the owner, and by dis
carding all the inferior animals you
breed up to a far higher grade the
average of your flock. Wool Record.
Good Drivers. Kentucky Stock
Farm says that the best type of high
stepping carriage horses in the coun
try is trotting-bred, having In almost
every Instance outshown and at auc
tion sales has out-sold horses of the J
English type. Yet such a horse is rare
simply because the country is deficient
In trotting-bred animals that combine
size and speed, lofty carriage, sym
metry in form and stylish, graceful
movement Such horses, because of
their rarity and splendid qualities,
have always commanded high prices,
frequently having been sold for 35,000.
The American trotter of the perfect
type is indeed a valuable horse.
Preserving Eggs. The principle in
volved in preserving eggs is, to close
the pores of the shell so as to prevent
the entrance of air. This may be ac
complished by smearing the eggs with
lard, or coating them with linseed or
cottonseed oil, or other materials. The
most common method is to lime them;
that is, to place the eggs In milk of
lime or whitewash. In either case the
eggs must be perfectly fresh when
packed, and must be kept in a cool
place. Ex.
Keep the Good Mares. Teamsters
and trucksters generally do not care to
buy mares if they can obtain geldings
of an equal quality; they will even pay
more for the latter. It is wise manage
ment to hold back from the market
such mares as are at all above the
average, and retain them for dams. In
this way they will pay you much the
best Ex.
Everrthlas the "Lordly Flaa t
Tee ha Qaeea Tleteria'e TUttle lataad
TtaM WIU Went Woatlera, It la
derbllt has given
direction to contin
ue the development
cf the model vil
lage at Biltmora
along new lines,
but in details that
have been long
cherlihed. Work
will immediately
begin upon the in
teresting issprevement.' The squares
the villa ar m he adorned with
nuflrefucs wwelllng3 of sradern efaJ
ment, and tftfcer edifices planned for
erection are a new rectory, a residence
for Caryl Florio, the stdslcal director
of All Souls cUurcb, and a school
house for the accomodation of white
pupils. The village will be lighted by
elecricity, and the water supply WlH he
had from, the system traversing the
The construction of the residences
will show two designs one class in
tended for lease to annual holders,
while another ait will be furnished,
and offered for tenancy to those who
prefer to occupy the dwellings for only
a portion of the year. The residences,
of both kinds, will be rented according
a3 applications are made, the earliest
desirable applicants securing the choice
of the apartments at rates ranging from
510 to ?35 per month.
In the new school building it is the
intention to establish a school for the
children of residents on the estate and
of the neighborhood that will afford
the opportunity of a thorough evoca
tion, including courses of manual
training for boys and the kitchen gar-;
den for girls. The building is to have
a number of classrooms, an assembly
hall and rooms for the exemplification
of the practical studies above spoken
of, with all accessories of tools and
cookery equipment. A school for the
colored children of the neighborhood
will also be opened in Biltmore as soon
as suitable arrangements can be made
for a building and a teacher. It is con
templated to open a reading-room
shortly, in temporary quarters near
the church, where all the attractions of
good literature and pleasant surround
ings may be enjoyed during the ap
proaching winter erening3.
Since Mr. Vanderbilt'.i return to
Biltmore house the architects have
been busily engaged with him in locat
ing the improvements, and the plans
of the rectory and the school have al
ready been submitted to Rev. Dr. R.
R. Swope, who is in charge of the edu
cational features connected with the
estate. With the completion of the im
portant and handsome improvements
noted Biltmore will be provided with
metropolitan advantages of churches,
schools, residences of modern conveni
ences, stores, rapid transit, electric
lighting and water and sewer systems.
Rockefeller V. Watherworaaa.
Mrs. Mary Yessen is a poor Swedish
woman of Greenwich, Conn., who
for ten years has support
ed two daughters by going out and
doing washing. William Rockefeller
is a member of the Standard Oil Trust
and is worth probably 540,000,000.
When Nicholas Cassidy fell ill Mrs.
Yessen nursed him, and when he died
he bequeathed to her a horse and $1,
500 in money. The latter was to hare
beea paid to the poor workwoman Dec.
15. But Mrs. Yessen'3 horse ate grass
In William Rockefeller's pasture, and
William Rockefeller's agent demanded
$17.50 in payment for the same.
"I'll pay you when I get the money,"
said Mrs. Yesson.
"That won't do at all," said William
Rockefeller's agent "You must pay
now or suit will be brought against
In pursuance of this threat papers
were served on Jeremiah Tierney, ad
ministrator of the Nicholas Cassidy es
tate, prohibiting him from paying to
Mr3. Yesson her little legacy until
further orders. A suit has been begun
in the name of William Rockefeller
against the widowed washerwoman to
compel her to pay the $17.30 demanded.
By the time that it is decided the
costs will about double the claim.
JTot Another Like nia.
Contrary to existing belief and the
newspaper paragraphers, neither Ar
kansas nor Georgia has a corner on all
the rustic simplicity and blissful ig
norance in Uncle Sam's domain. Squire
James Higgins cf Brooklyn township,
Schuyler county, is 63 years of age.
He lives on the farm on which he was
born and has never been farther than
thirty miles from his own hearthstone.
He never rode on a railroad train,
never saw a steamboat, a theatrical
performance nor a game of baseball.
Mr. Higgins has been a Justice of the
peace for Brooklyn township without
a break in the consecutive link3 cf
time since 1861. No decision handed
down from his bench has ever be?n
reversed by a higher court. He has
married more than SCO couples, an I
points with pride to the fact that none
of them ever appealed to a divorce j
court for a severance of the matrimo-
nial bond. Squire Higgins is a bache
lor and says that he cannot rememoer
that he ever paid court to any youig
woman. He also says that he is one
of the few "Andrew Jackson Demo
crats" In the country. Blandinsville
(I1L) Star.
Twice a Lunatic
Henry Orander of Steele, Ind., be
came insane eight years ago over a
love affair. He was recently dis
charged from the asylum as cured, bat
saw his former sweetheart with anoth
er man and is raving crazy again.
Tailed Slaueir lata Consumption.
Newton Bailey, a young man of Dills
boro, Ind., has died of consumption,
brought on by too much yelling at
campaign meetings last year. He at
tended by actual count 101 political
ColumbusSlate Bank
Efytttf iTIallepol:
Omaha, Ckftcagt), New Trk Mrs
Aad helpa its eustoaen whea they atd aekp
omcrs a3td srnxcToaK
Leasdtex QEnsAKD, Pres't
B. H. H-unr, Vke Pres't..
U. BnceoxR, CaaaUr. v
Jobs Stactfxb, Wit Brcnxn,
as ax
Aititfriztf Capital if -Pari
ii Capital, - -
a H. SHELDON. Pres't.
1L P. II. OF.HLKICrT. Vice Pre.
C. ff. Shkldojt. II. P. H. Onxascw.
J ox. is Welch. Vf. A. McAuatu,
Carl Rizxke. 9. C. Grav.
Sarclda Ellis, J. Hesrv Wcr
Clark Grat.
A. F. H. Oehlrics.
Rebecca Becker.
11e3rt loseke.
Geo. . Gallkv.
J. I'. Becker Estats;
U. M. Wisslow.
Bank of Deposit: Interest allowed oa tlsse
deposits: bay and tell exehanse oa United
States and Europe, and buy aad sell avail
able securities. We shall he pleased te re
celve your business. We solicit jour pav
Columbus loud!
A weekly
voted the beatintercstaof
The State of NeDraska
The unit of i
$1.50 A
Bnt onr lia!t of mafulaeaa
k not prescribed by dollars
and cents. Eamplo coptan
sent free to any address.
Cofflms : and : Metallic : Cases !
OT&patrtng of all kinds of Uphoi
Goiuiius Journal
raxPARTD to remii asttuvso
required o a
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