The Columbus journal. (Columbus, Neb.) 1874-1911, December 11, 1895, Image 1

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Foreign Affairs Lightly Toached Ceo
Relations of United States With Other
Nations A History of tbe Treasury
DMcuIty and Efforts Put Forth to
Beaaedy It Other Subjects fader Dis
cussion. The President's Manage.
WAsniSGiox, i)ec. X The following
k. the President's message:
To Tnc Congress or the United States:
fba rrofont csscmblapo of tho legislative
brunch of our government Drears at a tiaa
wh?n tlic interests of our people asd tho heods
ths country giro tprcinl tro:ninen.o to the
tonriitionof our foreign relalioa) and tboexi
fencies of oar natianil financa. Ta wports
ef the peroral ndministrotiro departments of
till envercment fully nnil plainly exhibit what
basborn acomplifchol Within the scopO of their
espectire duties and pruent such rccnmtnttid-
tions for tho bettennc-nt of our country's con-
4iti:) as luitriotic aad into iisint labor and
ab-ervations suKt-st.
I therefore d cm my executivs duty adft-
jaatcly jjcrfonno J atthU time by presenting
, Vi tho Concre.-s tho important phases of our
tituation as rclato-J to oar intcrcoursa witli
oreign cations, and a statement cf thsfmiu
tial, problems Trhicli confront U, omittiu?,
xcept as they aio related to theso tap C3, any
rcfiMoric" t depnrtm'ntal operations.
.1 na mostly invito, howivir, not only th
"tarefnl cmsi leratiun, but tho severely critical
tcrutiny of tho Congress and my fellow coun
trym:i to tlm reports concsrniu; tlieso depart-
ncntal op;.-ntion- If justl-and fairly exem
ltil thry 'urni-h proof of ni-jiduou? and
pninstalinc caro for tho public welfare. 1
press the recommendations they contain upon
Uio respo-tful attention of thrMS chprsed Trith
tho duty of loj;itlatiin, becauso I baiicre their
tdoption oull prcmoto the people's ood.
ittisHiouary Kiots in China.
Tlio close of tlic momentous strussl blreeft
riiiti". and Japan. v.hi!o iplicvimr tho diplo
intic nsent'- of thL? KvTntr;nt from tha deli
ta:o duty tlicy un.Ie look at reqtwst of both
lountnes of rendorita?auli tcrriw to sabjots
f ritlicr bdlierent within tho territory limits
if tho other as our neutral position frmittcJ(
developed a dnas tic condition in tho CititeiO
tmpiro which ha raa:o.I mush anxiety and
toll(l for prompt : &d careful attcutian.
ithera a result of a weak control b, thocen-
tral cjverument over th- pn.visciat adminis-
t rat ioa. fo'ling a itimntuum of t-aditional
rovcrjmenta' aiithoritj undr tiic stress of an
orerwhclmisg national di?ater,ora manifesta
tion.i!SJti goad opporLiaity of lh-i aversion of
he Chinese population to all foreign ways and
Undertaking's hin liavo orcurnnl in widoly
separated provinces of ('hint serious outbreaks
of the old f.u 1 fpirit r.gain t foreicne.s,
which, unC'iucLo 1 liy tlm lo-al antho iti"s, it
r.ot a-tii.tUy coauti" 1 ut by them, have culmin
Moil in mob attacks on forei-ru missionary
notion-sea ringmush dottniMion of pro,r
ty , iitid uttrnde! with piMinal injuries a Wl!1
o!ot.sof hfo. Although but ono Am-ncin '
citi en was reportfi to havo Ix-en actually ,
uiu!el and tiltliou-h tlie ikstructioa of
property m y havo fallen moro heavily upou I
tho miMiionaries of other natioaali i-s than our '
own, it plniisl U!uwjvitl this govommtnt o i
take tho most promp and derided nctiou to
i uardagRiust similar or -o:li3s more dread i
ful calamities
Tho demands of tho United States and other
powers- for th? degrvdatiou and punishment of
tire ieMKnib!o otlicials of tho respective cities ,
and ppivin-e- who by neglect or otherwise La t
i minted upn-:ngs en.I lor tl.o adoption l
stern mea-ures by tho Empcror'n government
for the protection of the life and property of
foreigners, wero fo lowed by tho disgrac and
dis ir-al of certain provincial otEcials found
derelict in duty, and th punii-hment by death
if a rumb'r of those found l. uilty of actual
particiatiot in the outrages lllis govera-
tueit also ins stoI that a MKcial American
romniission should i-it tho proviu-o where
the first isturbanccs occurred for tho purpo.o
rl investigation. This ljtUr commission,
formidattir much opposition, ha gone over
land from Ti"u Ts;n accompanied bj a suitable
Chinrs.- iscort, aad by its demonstration of tho
teadiuess. and ability of our goicrnment to pr j
Ut its citizens, will act, it is believed, rs a most
Icflueatial ietorrcnt cf any similar outbreaks.
the Waller Case
The customary cordial relations between this
country nad 1 ranco bdve bn-n undisturbed,
mith the exception that a full explanation of
the trcatnunt of dohti I. Waller by tho expe
ditionary military authorities of Franco i-till
remain- to l given. Mr. Waller, foreierly (
X'nit'-d States ccnsul toTamntave, remained in i
MndngaM:nr cflir hi- t na of ofr'cc expired
nd 'was appHrcntlj srcceful in procuring
LuMness ccncissions fr-m the Hta-, of greater
crksalue. After thr CMrcupation of Tama
lave and the declaration of martial law by tho
Trench, he was amstid ujoii various charges,
among them, that of communicating military
information to the enemy of Tranci', was tried
.nd convicted by a military tribunal and
wnlenced to twtnty jears imprisonment. Fol
lowing the course justified by abundant prece
dents, tins government demanded from that,
tif the record of the proceedings of tho
Trench tribunal, which resulted ia Mr. Wal
ler's condemnation. This request has
been complied with to the estent
of suppljiug a copy of the beneficial
rri-nril from uhidi aurinr tle rrmeifTtin nnrl
rimrii7nt5on of thi t!ti;rt- thn rlnri n fi-r- I
tntuatcd and tho git.csl cours
so ana result or
. . i
the trial and by which it was
snown mat tna
accused wa tried in ipru court and was de
fenced by conn-el. But the ovidonco adduced
in upport of tho chaiges which was not re
ceived by the Reach minister of foioign affaits
Entil tho first week in October, has thub far
been withh-.d the Vrrncli govcmmcn taking i
megroaati iuat its pro:uctioii in response to l
o r demanil would etatil:sii a Ixid
The cuoits of our amba-s.idor to j)iocure it,
bower r, though irri3ll by recent changes in
fhe rrench m;nitij have not torn relaxed and
it i confidently expected that somo --.uisTac-tory
so.ution of the matter will j-hortly l
rcachel. Meanr-hilo it apjc-ars that Mr. al- '
lers confinement has ever, alleviation which
-s-ilitf state of hi- h-althaniall th" other ciicu .-
stances cf the cjis? demand ir ennit. I
Trade Comjdirations With Germany. I
Our relation with the states of th; derman .
emp.ienie in o-nr aspacts typical or acondi-
, thn of things r'scwh re found in a country
whost production and trade are sim lar to our I
own. The clo-c iiv.ilry of conpting indu-I
trt"-.; the intlucie ot tlu dclusivi? doctrine
that tho int -:n d deve'ojiaient of a nation is
prom ted and it- -nen'-h increase i by a policy
which, in uu.lertakii- to rose -re its own mar
kets for the csclu.iic tiso of its .wn producers,
necessarily obstruct their al;s in foreign mar
kets and i revents froa nece-ss to ma-kets cf tha
world; tfco desu-a to retain tradj in time-worn
ruts, rogaidlais of the inexorable law of new
ncdaarid chlrngv-ii. conditions of demand and
supply, aad oar owa hatting tardiness in invit
ing a Irec exchange of commodities and by this
meane imperil ing our footing in the external
milkers-naturally oj-entons. havo created a
tituatir.n s-omewhat iujcriou- to Amei ican ex--(ort
interest, not only in fiennanv, where they
arc perhaps mot cott -cable, but ia adjacent
Tho exports aftVctoi aie largely American
cattle and other food products, the icasoa
assigned for unfavorable discrtra-.aition being
that their consumption :s Ocletcrion to the
public health. This is all the more irritating
in v-ew or the f-ct that no Earjpcan State is
a? j -aloes of the -xc.'llcsc ani wholn-ome-xifes
of its expo; ted food supplies as tho United
thtcs. nor suca-il able on ac-cmnt ot iaher
eit jonnrJne. to gcarantei? these qna!itirs.
N r are'ttose difficult! confine 1 to on- fool
products desiined f r ciparati'en, Onr g-fst
Insurance companie , for rum 1 having
bcilt no a va-t bniae abroad and iuvestei a
large share of ttoir galas ia foreign countries
In compliance with the local laws an 1 regula
tions thea existing, now find then selves within
a narrowing eircla of oncroa. cad unforeseen
conditions and rre confroated by tie necessity
of retirement from a field heso made unprofit
able if indeel they ate nut summarilv cx
pelled. as sense of them have lately been in
Prussia. It is not to b forjot'en that infcer-
nati aaltradecan not be one-ide-J Its car
rents are alternating aad i's movemonts should
be hoaestly reciprocal Without thi. it almost
eec arilydeteaciates i-tto a devi e to gaja
'sdventagdor a coatrimnco to trcaro Leneats
with only the semblance or a leturn. In our
dealings with other nations we ought to be
vp-en-handei. -m 3 scrupcloasly fair.
This should be our pulicy as a producing ai
tion, and it plainly becomes us as a people wh
love generosity and tho moral aspect of na
tional goo I faith and reciprocal forbecFjnco.
These co-t-.ideraticns should not. however, cca
ctrain us 10 submit to unfair dcrimication
nor to silently acquiesce In r exatious hindtaucca
to the enTo -meat of cur 1 hare of tha legitimate
advantages of proper trails relations. If an
examinatioa of the situation eaasasU each
4 car art as woald iaveive'VTC. ...'. - -.--..
Mobs similar to faore from which we safer, the
way to each a cefcrae is easy; ltFhsoJd.bow
tbt, by bo Hjeani be lightlr enteral apon,
tiace the oeeeasitr for the insusnration of snch
feelicywoald be ccrcttd by the best senti
BBeat of our people, and becauss it naiarally
ad logically aucht lead to eonsepnescea of the
ttarcat character.
Th Behrhis; 8m Matter.
Oar relations with Groat Bitaia, always in
thnate and important, haro demandod, dorias
th" pist year, even a creator share of consider
ation than is csaal. SaTersl Tcxatioas ques
tion i were loft undetermined by the decision of
the Behrinc saa arbitration tribunal. The ap
plication of the principles laid down by the
august body has not been followed by the re
sults they were int;nd:d to accomplish, either
bxansa the principles themselves lacksd in
breadth and 8cfini:en;sj or borause their cxe
cuti in has ben mora cr lets imper.'e;t Ihe
understand in; by which t'ie Vn twl States was
to pay and Groat i ritaia to receivo a lump
sum of $ 2 i.O J) in fol. settlement of all Uriti-h
claim for dam ajj-s arising f root oar Seizura of
British seaHng ves bU unauthorized under the
award of tbo Paris tribunal of arbitration was
not confirms i by tho last Congress, which de
clined to make the ncco-ranr appropriat on I
am still of th? opinion that thi airanjjment
was a judicious and ndracta?:ous ono for tha
government, and I earnestly recomm:ni that
it bs again considered and sanctioned. If,
howcTer this docs n"t meet with the favor of
Congress, it certainly will hardly dissent from
the propositioa that tho ccvemment is bound
to every consideration of honor and gjod faith
toproviJe for the spsedy adjustment of these
claims by arbitration as th" enly other alterna
tivj Atraaty of arbitration has, therefore,
been agreed upon and will bo immediately laid
before the Senat so that, in ono of the moles
suggest 1, a nal settlement may bo reached
The VeheiBeU Issae-
It boing apparent that the boundary dispute
b-nweao Great Bri ain and the B-publis of
Venezuela, conrerning tha limits of Uritish
Guinea, was approachiug an a:u!o stags, a
definite statement of tho int Tt and policy of
tho Unite! fctates as rcparda thj controversy
teemed to bo rouircJ both on its own account
end in view of .ts relations with the friendly
powers directly c nceraod. In July last, therc
foia. a ilLTint?h was addrocim.i tn onr lnhwa.
dor at London for communication to tha British
government in which the attitudj of tha United
Sta es was fully and distinctly ect forth. Tho
general conclusions there reached ani forma
lated are in substance that the traditional and
B taWitheJ policy of this government is firmly
opposed to a foiciblo iucroaa by any European
power of its territorial possessions on this coatl
ticut; that thh policy is as well founded in
princlplo as it is strongly supported by nu
merous precedents; that as a coarqun:o the
United SutOi is boucd to protest ajajistthe
enargement oi tie ara oi uuiisn teuinoa n
i drr.mtir.n of ll, r?..hta and mr.t thawill nf
Venezuela; that, coniJcring tho disparity in
' ,trcngth of Great ilritiin and Venezuela, tha
territorial dispute bet-noon them can bo easily
Mttledonly by friendly and impartial arbitra
tion Mil that the lecort to such arbitration
thiull include tin whole controversy and is
nottati fj'd ifono of tho powers concerned is
I ermtttcd to draw an arbitrary lice through the
teiritoryin t'ebats and to rioclare that it will
subm:t to arbitration only the portion lying on
occ lido of it. In vic.v of tho-c conclusions the
; di-patch in questiou cd!l tip n tha British
J govoruiroat for n doiiniteonswc.- to tha question
j whether it would or would not submit the terri
torial controvor-y between itself and Venezuela
in its en i-rty In impartial arhitraticn. The
an'-wcrof ihi ltntifh government has not jet
Iren receivoi but is expected shortly when
further commuaicati'iu on the subject will prob
b'y bo made to congress.
The Hawaiian Matter.
Early in January last an uprising against the
government of liawaiia was promptly sup
pressed. Martial law was forthwith pro
claimed end numerous arrests were made if
persons suspected of being in sympathy with
xuo ioyaiisi iriy. .mong uieso were teterat
I citizens of tho United State?, who were either
convicted by a military court and sentenced to
death, imprisonment or fine, or wero deported
without trial. The United States, while deny
ing protection to those who had taken tho Ha
waiian oath of allegiance, insisted that martial
law, though altering the fonss'of justice, could
cot Mipcrccue jusiice iikcii, anu ucmanueu a
I stay of execution until tho proceedings had
been submitted to this government, and knowl
edge obtained therefrom that our citizens had
received fair trial. Tlic death sentences wero
subsequently commuted dr wero remitted oa
condition of leaving tho islands. Tho cases ol
certain Americans arrested and expelled by ar
bitrary order, without formal charge or trial,
have had attention, andin some instances havo
been found to justify remonstrance and a claim
for indemnity, which liawaiia has thus far not
conceded. Mr. Thurston, tho Hawaiian Minis
ter, having furnished this government abund
ant reason Tor asking that lie bo recalled, that
courso was pursued and his successor has
lately been received.
Lynching: or Italians in Colorado.
The deplorable lnchinr of several Italian
I laborers in Colorado wasnatur.illy followed by
international icprcsentatiou and I am happy
tosiy that the tort efforts of tho State in
which th -S3 outrages occurred havo been put
for:h to di-cover and punish the authors of this
atrocious crim Tha dependent famili s ot
some of the unfortunate victims invite by then
ccplorable condition gracious provision foi
their needs. The-e manifestations against
tolple3s aliens may be traced through succes
sive stages of the vicious padroni system which
un becked by oar immigration aad contract
labor statutes, coatro's ttoso workers from the
in mont of landing on our shore, and farms
them out in distant and often rudo regions
where their cheapening rompetion in the fields
of bread wioniu? toil brings them iu collision
with othc labor into est. While welcoming.
" --; "- - "J "-res ta ,
. ., , , .
"--." "" y v"u) i""" aaa Wla
per onal comr-otencj by honest effort, wo can
not regard sush assemblages as distinctively
alien laborers, hi-od out ia tho mats to tho
profit of alien speculators ani shipped hitbet
and thithor as ths nrcspo t of g tin may dic-
tate. as otherwise than repugnant to tho r ght
iiuuruiumiuu uriuiri-ii., u muinacai au-
vancment and hindrances to tho buidimrut.
or stable commun tis resting upon tho whole
some ambitions o! the citizen and constituting
tho prim factor in the prosperity and progress
of our nation If legislation can toach this
growing evil it certainly should to attempted.
Congratulations for Japan.
J i ran has furni-hed abundant evidence ot
lir vast gain in every trait and chiracteristic
that coiistitutesaaationVgr-atness. Wohavs
reason for congratulation in the fact that tho
government or tho Un.tcd Stater, 07 the ex
change of liboral treaty stipulations with the
ne x Japan, was the first to recognize her won
derful advancement and to extend to her the
cons: leration and conSdenco due to her nv
t tonal enlightenment and progressive char
acter. 6a moan Arrangement Unsatisfactory.
In my lat twoacnnrl messages I called the
attention or tho Congress to tho position we
occupied as one of th parties to a treaty or
cgre ment by which wo became ointly boun I
with England and Germany to so interfere with
the government and control of Samoa as ia
effect to assume the management of its affairs.
Cn tho 6th day of May, Ie9, 1 transmitted to
the senate a special message with accompany
ing documents giving information on the sub
jectand emphasizing the opinion I have at all
times entertained that cur situation on this
matter was inconsistent with the mission nnd
traditions of our government in violation of
the principle we profess and in all its phases
mis-hievous and vexatious. I again press this
subject upon the attention of Congress and nsV
for -nch legislative action or e egression as will
Iced the way to our relief from obligations both
irksome and unnaturaL
The Cabaa Rebelliea.
Cubt is again gravely disturbed, aa insurrec
tion in some respects more retire than the list
preceHlng revolt, which continued from 13C9
to 175. no- cxit- in a larrenart of th Enst- I
ern interior of the island, menacing even some !
populations on tha coast. , Beside-dangerins j
the commercial exchanges of the lslanJ, of
Which OUr COnntrr taLM th nrrwinrninnt I
share, this flagrant condition of hostilities by a
rousing se jtimental sympathy and inciting ad
venturous suppart amonc oar neorjhs has en-
taUcd earnest effort on thnnart of thic mmm. I
ment to enforce obed ence t our neutrality
laws and to prevent the trritnrr- nt th T7nir i
States from being abused a a nnt3r i-mnn.t
from which to aid three in arms aninar Smn- !
ish sovereignty Whatcm-msr h !. t-oi;. I
tional sympathy f our cocntrrmni -.;.,:!;.
vidaa!s with people who seem to to stmggling
foe larger autonomy and greater froedoai
aeepeaed as such sympathy naturallv ainst bo
ia behalf of oar neighbor. Yet the plain dsly
f their government is to observe in goodfiiib
the recognized obligations of international re
lationship. The rcrrormance of this duty
choaldnotbemads more difficult by a dif re
tard on part of our citizens -f tha obligations
growing out ct their allegiance to their coun
try which should restrain them from violating
u individuals the neutrality which theaatioa
of which they are members is bound to observe
ia its relations to frieadly sovereign States.
Though aeither the warmth ol oaraeonlea
rympathywkhthe Cabaa iasargeatt aeroar
Biaaslsaatarial dimage cont eqaeat aaam tha
a&d araer, er aay shock oar fcaauae iniUU.
tiei atay have receirsl from tha craaltiei
which appear to especially characterise this
sangninary aad fiercely condocted war, have is
the least shaken the determination of tha gov
ernment to honestly fulfill every international
ib'Jgatioa; yet, it fa to be earnestly hoped, oil
very grounds, that the devastation of armed
conflict may tp eiily be stayed and brder aad
qidet restored to tho distracted island, bring
bag in their train the actibility cmd thrift oi
paacefal pursaita,
Tha TarfclsM TreaMea,
Occnrreuces in Turkey have coatinoed to ai
:ite concern. The reported massacres of Chris
tia-s in Armenia and th developisent there;
and in otbsr districts, of the spirit of fanatic
hostility io Christian inflame?, naturally ex-iitr-d
apprehension for tho safety of the devoted
men and women who, as dependents of the for
eign missionary societies in tho United Statesj
and reside in Turkey under the guaraatee of
law and usage and in th legitimate perform
ttice of their educational and religious mission.
No efforts have been spared in their behalf and
their protection in person and property has
been earnestly and vigorously enforced by
every means within our power. I regret, how
ever, that aa attempt on our part to obtain
better information concerning the tn condi
tion of affairs in tho disturbed quarter of the
Ottoman crapiro by sending the United
states consul at Siuas ro make investigation
tnd repart was thwarted by tha objectibas of
tho Turkish government. This movement on
our part was in no sense meant as a gratuitous
entanglement of tho United States in tha so
tailed Eastern question, nor as an officious in
terference with the ri;ht cnl duty which to
long by treaty to certain great European
powers calling for their intervention in polit
ical matters affectingthe good government and
religious freedom of the non-Mussulman sub
I sets of tho Sultan, but it arose solely from our
desire to have an accurate knowledge of the
ond titions in our efforts to care for those en
titled to our protection.
Tho presence of our naval vessels which are
asw in the Vbinity of the disturbed localities
afford opportunities to acquire a measure of
familiarity with the condition of affairs and
will enable us to take suitable stem for tha
.twin. AM. .. .. M. .. t il II In . ... '
within reach of onr ships that might be found
The Ottoman
government has
lately issued an impe lal Irade exempting for
' ivcr from taxation an American college for
rirls at Scutari. Repeated assurances have
J slso been obtained by our envoy at Constan
tinople that similir institutions maintained
! end administered by our countrymen shall be
j tecum! in tho enjoyment of all rights and that
' our citizens throughout the empire shall bo
On the domand of our minister orders have
been issued by the Sultan that Turkish soldiers
shall guard and csrort to the coast American
, refugees and thoso orders havo been carried
But. aad our latest intelligence (jives assnranse
of tho present personal safety of our- citisecs
end missionaries. Though thus far no lives of
American citizeis havo been sacrificed, there
ran bo no doubt that serious loss and destruc
tion of mis-ion property havo resultei from
riotous conflicts and outrageous attacks.
By treaty several of tho most powerful
European powers havo sccurol a right and as
turned a duty not only in behalf of their own
citizens and in furtherance of their own inter
ests, but as agents of tho Christian world.
Their right is to enforce Fiich conJuct of tho
Turkish government as will restrain fanatical
brutality, and in fact, their duty ii to interfere
to as to insuro against such dreadful occur
rences in Turkey as lately shocked civilization.
Tha powers declare this right and this duty to
bo theirs alone, and it is earnestly hoped that
effective action on their part will not bo ds
4. Subject of the Greatest Importance to
the American People.
As we turn from a review of our foreign rela
tions to the contemplation of our national
financial situation wo are immediately aware
that we approach asjubject of domestic con
cern, moro important than any other that can
engage our attention, and ono at present in
such a perplexing and delicate predicament as
to require prompt and wise treatment.
Wc may well bo encouraged to earasst effort
in ibis di ect an wh?n we recall tha steps
sj-eady taken toward improving our economic
end financi d situation, and when to appreciate
how well tha way has been prepared for further
progress by an aroused aad intelligent popular
interest in theso subject. By command of tho
people, a customs revenue system, designed for
tho protection and benefit of favored classes a:
lheexpn e of the great majority of our coun
trymen and which, whi e inelficiont for the pur
pose of revenue, curtail d oar trade relations
ind imneded mct to the markets of
tho world, lias oe?n 6upcrcedol by a
tariff policy watch, in principle, is
based upon a denial ot the right
of tho government to obstru-t the avenues of
aur peoplo's cheap living or lessen tucir com
fort and contentment, fo the sake of according
?pcial advantages to favorites, and which,
whilo encouraging our intercaurt-s and trade
with other nations, recogniso the fact that
American self-reliance, thrift and enjenuity,
can build up our country's industries and de
velop its rcsour es more surely than enervating
paternalism. Tho compulsory porchasi and
toinago of silver b; tho government unchecked
nnd unregulated by bush-ess conditions and
heedless of our currenc needs, which for more
than fiftoen years dilute 1 our circulating med
ium, underminod confi den-c abroad in our finan
cial ability and at last culminated in distress and
panic at home has been recently stopped by tho
repeal of the laws whxh forced this reckless
'cheme. upon the conn try. The things thus ae
cornplishoi notwithstanding their extreme im
port ante and teneficient .-ij-cts foil far shore
of curing the -ronetary evilTirom whieh wo suf.
fer as a result of long indulgenco in ill advised
financial expedients. Tho currency denom
inated United States notes and commonly
kno n as green-backs was isined in large vol. during tho late civil war ani intended
oriicicallv to rrwt tho emergences of that
period. It will to seen by a reif.eJCM to tne
debates in congress at tho t mo laws worn
passed .authorizing tho issue of these notes
tint their advocates declared they wore in
tended for only temporay use and to meet the
emergency of war. In almosc, if not all, the
laws relating t them, some provision was
made contemplating their voluntary or com-
! pulsory retirement. A large quantity of them,
however, wore kept on foot and minglad with
the currency of tho coantrr. so that at tho
dose of the year 1ST they amounted to $3Sl.
f09.i74 Immediately aftr that date and in
January, 1S73. a law was pas'ed providing
the resumption of specia payment, by
which the Sera ary of tho fl'reasury
wa required, whenever additional circu
lation wa3 isued to National banks,
to retire United States notes in equal amount
to SO per cent of such additioaal National bank
I circulation until such notes wero reduced to
. S00,OJ0,0OJ. This law further provides that oa
and after the last day of January. 1S79, tho
I United States notes then outstanding, should
be redeemed in coin, and ia order to provido
and prepare for such redemption the secretary
of the treasury was authorized not only to use
any surplus revenues of the government, but to
issue bonds of the United States and dispose of
themforcoinandtouse the proceeds for tho
punoses contemplated by tho statute.
Iu May. ISi'3. ami before the date thus ap
pointed for tho redemption au I retirement of
these notes, another statute was passed for
biddingtheir further cancellation and retire
ment. Some of them ha I, however, been pre
viously redeemed end cancelled upon the issue
of additional national bankcirculattsu is per
mitted by tho law of 1575. so the amount
outstanding at the time of tho passage of tho
act forbidding tbir further retirement was
$ O.iSI.'ilS. The law of lr$ did not stop at dis
. tinct prohibition but contained in addition
1 tho following provision, 'And when any
. of said notes may to redeemed or
00 received into the treasury under
any law, from anr source whatever, and
shaU belong to the United State-, theys hall not
j De ie.ire.1. caccelled, or destroyed, but they
shall be re-issued an J paid oat agiin and kept
I in circulation." Thswas the condition of af
fairs an the 1st day cf January. !;.. which had
h , r iZ.t .1.. j. !
rZTJZ;- ?t' J ou iuj 3;ueir circulation should be reduced to one
noVA L2J?XZ !J Fof ono rer cent, which would andoabt-
meat of all
abundant means had toea provided
. . . . , -w. ..u.u uu ,
Tho cov-
in gold
Urel I
obligations dee tile government not cancaUnd by
actsnl pryaaent ia gold, it was forced to re
deem withost redemptluu and to pay without
'ihere has been issaed and said XaVffO of
f ho bands author sed by tho r.sumption act of
173, the proeeeds ot which, together with other
gold in the treasury, create I a gold fund deemed
aaHicieat to meet the demands which might be
mxde upon it for the redemption of the oat
eta tiding United stste notes. This fund, to
gether with sc 1 other gold ss might befrosa
time to time ia tha treasury available for the
same purpose, has been sines called oar gold
reserve aad $100 toOfiii has been regarded aa aa
adequate aatoaat ta accomplish its object.
Thisfaadaniosasedoothe 1st day of January.
e, iMi.iauaaa theegh theiasftsr
ta."r ifjstarfrafcit aidaoS fall half
V-a Tint in IiA ff,,m.1nn mmtniiin 9 I ... . -"-. .M.W(fc.
totto holder, of its mrr-.. d-bs. ,rr.W ' .- ": ." .auyca IO 6al -."te
j 1 !.-. ij r.t" l 1 "" "- "'J "onus now reauireJ
km urucuu fcmcj c luui cn-.BDcro- '-.,v.;. :i4r .1 - .- .
,r r.-oirin- enrh n.t Sr, .H,, f ' " r.u "'l,"alwa "" "-'
iaJalyilM in Anvil; MM. lor Uts irai
time siacw its aatahlishateaa this sasarvi
aaooatadtbless thaa tkXUMfOh cwatsisat
at that data oily !37jHivex
Tha Baaw tafctraefc
Tha ausaage revisws at great iaictii tha ibm
eriag of the g Id reicrvo. the aalaaisaa el goldj
tha issuing of bonds, the eateriaglatothe boad
ooatraet with capitalists, aad his at.isagea tei
Congreta for relief. Cdatiaaing, tha rusideat
Tha Congress having decliaed to grant tha
aeceatary authority to aaeara this savlactha'
coatract anmodined was carried out, resulting
ia a gold reserve amounting to $107,J7lij oa
the 6 th day of July, lS9i. Tho performance of
this contract not only restored tha reserve bat
Checked for a timo the withdrawal of gold aad
brought on a period of restore J confidence aad
such beace and auiet ia bosinesa circles as
wee of tho greatest posslbhj valae ia every ia-
the slightest misgiving concerning the wisdotsl
or propriety of this arrangement," aad am quite
willing to answer for my full share df responsi
bility for it - promotion.
1 believe it averted a disaster, tha imminence"
of which is fortunately not at this timo g?nr
ally understood by our people. Tnoagbtho
contra -t raeationed stayed for a time the tide
of gold withdrawal, its good resul's cculi not
be permanent. Recent withdrawals hare ro
duced the reserve from $lu.571;2U tie tho tth
day of July. UP), to S7M3,9. How long it
will remain largo enough to render its increase
unnecessary is only matter of ctinjecturej
though quite larga withdrawals for Shipment
in the immediate future ara pred cted ia well
informed quarters About Slu,003,400 hai
been withdrawn daring tho month of November.
The foregoing statement of events and condi
tions develop the fact that after increasing oar
interest bearing bonded indebtedness mora
than fioJ.ouu,uuu to save our gold reserve.
are nearly where wo started, having now ia
such rescrvoSTV.333,930. as against Si,l-9.37, ia
February lL when the first bonds were issued.
Though the amount of gold drawn from the
treasury appears to be very large, as gathered
from the facts and figures herein present it
actually was much larger, considerable sums
having been acquired by tha treasury within
the several periods stated without the issue of
On theTSth of Januarv. 1993. it was tnntrftnA
by the secretary of the treasury that more than
esdnnnniM . l.a I 1 1 . m
"" .-- -- -.r---v
$172,000,000 of gold had been withdrawn for
hoarding or shipment during the year pro
ceeding. He now reports that from January 1,
1S79, to July 11, 1590, a period of more than 10
years, only a littlo over 3,000.000 was with
drawn and that between July II, 1890. the data'
of tho passago ot the law for an increased pur
chase of silver, and tho first day of December;
163-, or within less than five and a half years,
there was withdrawn nearly $373,000,009,
making ".o total of moro than $103,000,000
drawn from tho treasury in gold since January
1st. 1S79. the d.ito fixed iu 1S7' for the retire
ment of the United States uotc.
Nearly S-'zi.'rtJ.OOO of the gold thus withdrawn
have been paid out on those United States
notes, and yet every one of the t6,'W,0)J is
a II .. II , S ., . , . ,
still uncancelled and ready to do service in fu
ture gold deplet-o a More than$7:,'Jd0) in
gold has since tlnlr creation in 18 0 been paid
out from the treasure upon the notes given on
tho purehaso of silver by the government;
and yet tho whole, amounting to $15.0J),')0J.
except a litt'8 moro than j1!,OJ,0-j0 which havo
been retiroJ by exchanges for silver at the re
quest of tho holders, remain outstanding and
prepared to join their older and more ex
perienced allies iu fntuio raids upon tho treas
ury's gold ro-erve.
On July 1. 19);, more than a year aad a halt
before the first bonds were issued to replenish
tho gold reserve, there was a net balance in the
treasury exclusive of such reserve of loss
than $::i.OJ0,Oj0, but ihe gold reservo
amounted to more than fIH,OX),00, which vrai
tho quieting feature of tho situation. It was
when tho stock of go'd began rapidly to fall
that fright supervened aad our securities held
abroad were returned for salo and debts owed
abroad were pressed for payment. In tho mean
time extensivo shipmonts of gold and ot icr unc
favorable indications earned restlessness and
fright among our peoplo at heme.
Tie act of July II. 18W, in a still bolder effort
increased the amount of silver tho Government
was compelled to purchase and forced it to
become tho buyer annually of 5t 0j0, M)
ounces, ot practically the entire pro
duct of eur mines Undor both laws
silver rapidly and steadily declined in value.
The prophecy and the expressed hope and ex
potation of thoso in the congress Who led in
the passage of tho last mentioned act tuat it
would re-establish and maintain tho former
parity between the two metals are still fresh in
our memory.
Retirement of Treasury Notes.
In other words, tho govenment has paid in
gold more than nine-tenths of its United States
notes and still owes them all It has paid in
goll about oce-hdf of its notes given for
silver purchases without extinguishing by such
payment one dollar of these notes. And added
to all this we are reminded that to carry on
this astonishing financi' 1 system tho govern
ment has incurred a bonded indebtedness of
19V-00, X.0 n establishing a gold reserve aad of
CSA313.400 m efforts to maintain it. that an an
nual interest chargo ot snch bonded In
debtedness U moro tlian $11,003,000, that
a continnacco in onr rresent course
may result in further bond Lsucs,
cnl that we have EufTcrcd or aro threatened
with all tiiis for the sake of supplj lag gold for
foreign shipment or facilitating its boarding at
home, a sanation is exhibited which certainly
ought to nriest attention and provoke immedi
te legislative relief. 1 am convinced the only
thorough and practieablo remedy for Our trou
bles is found in the retirement and cancellation
of cur Umtal States notes, commonly called
giecnbacks and tho outstanding treasury notes
tsccd by tho government in payment of silver
purchases under tLe act of i$J3.
I believe this could bo quite readily accom
plished by the e change of theso notes for U. S.
bonds of small as well as large denominations
bearing a low rate of interest. They should bo
long term bonds thus increasing their desir
ability as investments and because their pay
ment could to well postponed t a period far
removed fioaa present financial burdens and
perpl xitic3 when with increased pr-sperity
ina resources they would be moro cesdy met.
To further insure tho cancellation of theso
notes and also provile a way by which gold
may bo added to our currency in lieu f them,
I feature in the plan should be an aut ority
given to the Secretary of t:o Treau y
to dispose of tho bonds abroad for gold if
necessary, to complete the contemplated re"
iomptioa and cancellation pcrmittiag him use
of the proccoJa of such bonds to tako up and
eancel any of tho note that may bo in tho
treasury or that may be received by tho gov
ernment oa any account. J he increase of our
bonded debt involved in this plan would bo
imply compensated by renewed activity anS en
terprise in all business cire'es, t!ie restored
eonfi ienco at home, tho reinstated faith in our
nonetary strength abroad, and tho stimulation
of every interest and industry that
wcnld fo'Iow tho cancellation of tho
?o!d demand obligations now afflicting us.
la any event tho bonds proposed would stand
tor tho extinguishment of a tronblcsamo in
debtedness, while in the path wo now follow
there lurks the rnenaco ot unending bonds with
our indebteincss still undischarged and aggra
vated in every feature The obligation neces
sary to find this indebtedness would not eqaal
In amount tho? from whi-h we have been re
ieved since leiel by anticipation and payment
oeyondtho requirements of the sinking fund
out of our snrplus rerenucs. Tho currency
withdrawn by tho retirement of the
United States notc and tieasury note
tmounting to probably less than SeK-O.W)
night bo supplied by such gold as would bo
ased on their retirement or by an increase in
'.Regulation of our National banks. Tucugh
'heaggreza'e capital of these now in existence
imouuts to mare than JSVj.OWM). their out
standing circulation based on bond security
tmoantsto only about :SO.0iX,G0O. The.-are
luthorizel to issue nots amounting to ninety
aer cent of tho bonds deposited to secure thoir
iren atioa, bat in n- event toyoad the amount
ef their capital stock they are obliged to pay
one percent tax on tic cireu'ation they issue.
I think they ought to to allowel to issue cir
eulatioa rnual to tho dit value of the bond
rr-t ""- '.- ",K-"":l" obi mo six on
ney depo it
.A ..... 2. I .L-A. .1 A
trtlr moot nil Ih. -., .1
,, r .Aam bu
t wouia incur on their aceocnt.
In .addition
or deposit
314 Af"nntT
would be is- '
renting the United .
states notes and treasnrr r.ntm TV k..v.
ilready existing, if they desired to avail ihem
clvfsw of tho provisions of law
thus modified cculd issue circulation
a addition to that already outstanding,
tatountin? to $474,00 ?,0tl), which would nearly
arauite equal tha currency proposed to ba
eaceued. At any rate, I should coafldently ex
sect to seo th) existing national beaks or
ft8" to be orgasired avail themselves of the
resesad encouraaKnfBta tn .. -:-. :
sad promptly fill aay vacuum and supply every 1
J ua- it aaa Always seemed to aw
that the provisions of law regarding the eap-
Icf fL01!1,131 wfc!cB OP" Iha
'tation to their location fails to snake proper
nsapeasatioa for the sappresioa of state
?. whfch eaasa sear to the acesla mall aaa.
es tae
5 sum . iijo purpuso 01
mean j aaa rssain iiii
JWat .wkh
Whatever it attMHitad sheald to
fis fall 'apTreciatiaaUMfaet that by
, easy dsatcat, we have reached a da
Ispth aad that oar aaceat 01 ot
samplishedwithoat Uberieas toil aad atraggM.
We shall ba.wisa if we realia that wa an
taaacialiy HI ana. that aer rastoratiaa to
ealth may require heroic treatment.
laasmachastltewithdrajle aartfeldhat
vsaltaJ bugely froa fright, there ia aetata
tppareatUult will prevent its centiaaaace er
recurrance. with its aatuhtl coasaqBeacea, e
pt snch a chaage ia star fiaaaclal methods as
aillraaaaarathefrtghtaaed aad maketfledtf
tire for gold leas interne. It is sot clear how
ta increase iaievenue, unless it be ia gold aad
satisfactory to thoss whose only aazisty ia to
tain gold from the governments store. It can
ot, therefore, be iife to rely upon increased
wveaneM as a eare for oar present
! - nl.wZaK&ZUEZ5
nereased f-venae mt a remedy far the dtmcul-
'ieewearecoasiderhig'may hSvo originated ia
ta intimation or distinct al!egatiosltaattS
oonds which have been issaed ostensibly td
tepl Blsli otfr gold reserve wera really issued
to inefficient reveatu.. Nothing canto
(nrtharfrom the truth. Bonds wo.-eissuod to
obtain gold for the maintenance of out aatkraal
Free Silver.
While I have eadeavored to make a plaia
statement of the disordered condition of our
currency and the present dans rs men icing our
ttrospority and to suggest a Way Which
eals to ri safer financial system
( have constantly had in mind the fact ths.t
sany of my countryman, whoso sincerity I do
sot doubt, insist that tho cure for t..c ills now
threatening us miy be found in tho single and
limple lemody of tbo free cbinago of silver.
fhey contend that our mints shall be at once
'-hrjwnopento tae fr.o and unlimited and
--epe dent coiacge of both gold and silver
"- or iuu iesru wnaor quality, rcgaraiees
'' " nation of any ether government, aad in
I oU Tiew of tbe 'act -"- the ratio between
"Jl8 Bebls which they suggest calls for ono
Madrid cents worth of g li in the gold dollar
tt the present stafidard and only fifty cents in
ntmisic worth of silver n too silver dollar.
In the present sta :e of our difficulty it is dot
ea y t6 understand how the amount of our rev
' Jnn receipt" auccrs a. ioe imporun. que-
'iam is rkr vlua ntinlir v mAnat fn ml aa
'ion is not the quantity of money received ia
venue payments, but the kifid of money we
maintain and our ability to continue in sound
financial condition. We are considering the
mvs.-nment holding of gold as related to tho
waaduess of oar money and as affecting our na
tional credit and monetary stieagth. If our gold
re erve had never bean imp ured; if BO bonds
lad eve-been issuol to replenish if then had
l n no fear and timidity concerning otfrabil
ty to continue' gold payment: it aoy part
if our feveauos were' now paid id gold,
ind if wo could took to oti- gld receipts as a
neans of maintaining a safo reservo the
amount of our revenn s would to an influential
factor in the problem. But unfortunately all
thecircumstnnies that mght lend weight to
1... ..... ... . . ..... .. k mmt ml. I., .f..... .. ....
orcscnt predicament no gold is received by tho
joverument in payment of revenue chargoi
lor would there be if th revenues wsro in-
trca-ed. Tbo receipts of tho treasury when not
n silver certificates, consist of United
States notes and treasury note, issued
fdr silver purchase?. 1 heso forms of maney aro
)n!y useful to tho government in paying its
inrrcnt ordinary expenses' auj Its quantity
11 government pass essioi do s nit ia the least
contribute towirJ giving us that kind of safo
5nsn:ial standi lg or condition which is built
On god alon. It is sail that these
eotas if held by the government can be n-cd to
ob ain goll for bur rcscivo. Tho aaswer is
easy Tbe'peo'ple draw gold front tho treasury
on demand upon Unite I States notes aad treas
cry not'S, but the proposition that the treesury
can on demand draw gold from tHo people apon
them would bo regai ded in those days with
wander and amazement An I even if this
eou'.d be done, there i nothing t prevent
those thus parting withttoirgo'dfromregain-
I g it tbo next day or the next hour by tha
presenta!inof tho notes they received in ex-
chango for it.
Tlii srvrftarv of the treasury might use such
notes taken from n surplus to.euuti to on
gold in tho market. Of course, he could not do
this without paying a premium. Private hold
ers of gold, unliko tho government having no
parity to maintain. Would not bo restrained
from making the best bargain possible when
they furnished gold to tho treasary; but the
moment the Secretary of tho treasury bought
gold on any terms above par ho would estab
lish a general and universal premium upon it.
thus breaking down the parity between gold
and silver which tho government is plbged to
maintain, and opening tho way to now and
serious complications.
In the meantime the premium w mid not re-m-ia
stationaryanl the absurd spectacle might
be presented of a dealer selling gold to tho
Government and with United States note or
tr asury notes in his hands immediately clam
oring fo- its return and a ro aio at a higher
premium It may be claimed that a large rev
enue and reduced receipts might favorably af
fect the situation under disnssion by affording
an opportunity affecting these notes in tho
treasury When received, ani thus preventing
their pre.-entation for gold. Such retention to
be useful ought to bodt. east measurably per
manent, ani this is precisely what is prohib
ited so far as Unite I States notes o:c con
ccrncd b,- law of !973, forbidding their roj
tiroment That the statute in o many Words)
provides that tlio-o note when receive 1 into
the treasury and belonging to the United State.
shall be "Paid oat again and kept in circula
tion." It will moreover bo readily seen that
the government could not refasa to pay out
United States notes and trea-ury notes in cur
lent transactions -trhr-n demanded, and insist
on paying out silver alono and still maintain
the parity between that metal and the cur
rency representing gold Besides the acenmu
lationintho treasury of currency of any kind
exacted frcm the peo- le through taxation is
justly regarded as an evil and it cannot pro
ceed far without vigorous protest against an
unjustifiable retention of money.
Were thora infinitely stronger reasons than
canto adduce 1 for hop ng that such action
would seourc for us a bimetallic currency mov
ing on l'nes of pat It cn experiment so novol
and hazardous as tint proposed might well
stagger thoso who believe that stability is an
impel ativo condition of sound money. No gov
ernment, no hum n contrivance or act of legis
lation h s ever been able to hoi I tho two mctalt
together in frco coinage at a ratio appreciably
different from that which is etabltsho I in tho
markets of the wor'd.
In the light of theso experiences, which ac
cord with the experiences of other nations, '
there is certainly no secure ground for the bo- .
lief that an act of Congress could now bridgo
an equality of 50 per cent between gold and sil
ver at our present ratio, nor is there the least
possibility that our country, which has less
than one seventL of the silver money ia tbo
world, could by its action raiso not only our
own, but all silver, to its lost ratio with gold.
Our attempt to accomplish this by tho free
coinage of silver at a ratio differing from the
actual relative value would be tho signal for
complete departure of gold from onr circula
tion, and the collapse of our entire credit sys- '
Our country's indebtedness whether owing by '
the governm nt or existing between individuals
has been contracted with reference, to oar p e
ent standard To deereo b act of Congress
that theso deh's shall to payable in less valua
ble dolla-stlian those within tho contemplated
and intcntioh of tho parties when rontractol.
would operate to transfer h,- the fiat law pnd
without compensation, an amount of property
and a volume of rights and interests almost in
eaieulab'e. Thoso who ndvocato n blind and
headlong plnngo to fro- coinage in thi name of
bimetallism and pr.fs- i.g the belief, eoo
trar to all experience, ihtt wa could
thus establish a dou Io standard and .1
concurrent circulation of both metals in our
coinage are certainly reckoning from a cloudy
standpoint. Our present standard of value is
the standard of the civilized world, and per-;
tnits the only bi-metaliisaa now possible or at
least that within tha independent reach of any '
single nation, however powerful that nation i
may be. Whiio the value of gold
as a standard is steadied . by
almost universal commercial aal business it
does not despise silver nor seeV its banishment.
Wherever this standard is mainta'-ne I there ia its
aide in freoand timnesii-jiixl eirrenhitinn ami.
Urce of silver enrrenev sometinuii Mirnlinv. anrl
sometimes even excetlinr it in am-nni. boih
lTTTiiTit'ntfv'Wa rt a w ssnf a- nnrvratkin.tTn . -
precation or fluctuation in tho intrinsic valm at
Ther- is a vast difference between a standard
ef value aa I a currency for monetary use. Tha
sraaaara must necessarily bo fixed aad certata.
TaaeurTeaey may he ia diverse forms aad ot .
vaneaakiada, o silver standard country has !
sold currency ia circulation batTenU-ht.
svstem of flaanm inrw th
nnata of both gold aad silver sa ea
aad circular ia median by keepiai the
am stable aad all ether currency at par with
it. Sack a system aad such a standard alsa
gives free scope lor the use aad expansioa of
safe aad conservative credit so iadkpeasiale
to hroad aad growing- coatawceial transaetktaa
aadeowellsabstitateJcorthe actual aaa ef
Is fall
n of leasees, teaching aateahj
daasers. bat me haw
(cilews j the.
believe that the
dU after
tehnoardise tfcej- aatsaB
aaau'luai byeacouragiag aaaacaaaaa
lor that they will yield to the salsa ai
of cham moaer. vhea thsr Jsalaw
that It araetnealtia the weakening efthas
taaadrl tateaflty aad rtctkade which thaa tar
aa ear history has bei eoeavotajy it'isrishai
as one ef the traits of tree AaJoHwiism
IhaTeveatared to express rayse!f ea these
eahjeeta with earaeetaess aad pUinadaf ef
a heeaese I eaaaot rid myself of theheUaC
that there larks ia the prcacsitioa for the free
eoinaaa ef silver so strongly aaereved aad
go eathaiiartical y advocated by a araltitade
er say casaatrymea a seriov mesaee te ear arae
verity aad ttftdkrns temptation ef ear Maple
to wander f rosa the aHegianee thy ewe to
pablic aad pr vate iategrity. It Is baeaate I do
aot distrust the good faith aad sasserisf of
those' who press this scheme that I have
Imperfectly bat with seal sumbttted say
thoughts apon this moment us subject
I eanaet resraia from beggiag them
to re-examine their views and beliefs hi the
light of patriots reason and fimilar raperi
cace, astd fo wefeeb agaia aad agaia the sense
nueaees of inch legislation as their etTofta hare
iavited. Eveatae continued agiUUeq of the
subject adds greatly to the dlfficaltkes of a.
dangerows financial sitaatioa already fstaul
Ia eoaelusioB 1 espCe-ally entreat the people's
representatives in tho Coggrss who are
charged with tho responsibility or iaangurat
ing measures for the safety and prosperity cf
eur common country to promptly and effec
tively consider tho ills cf our critical financial
plight. 1 have suggested a remedy which my
Judgment approves I desire, to assure tho
t'oagress that I am prepare J to co-operate with
them ia perfecting any other measures promis
ing tnoroagh an 1 practical relief end that I
will gladly labor with them ia every patriotic
endeavor to further tho interests aad guard the
welfare Cf car country men whom in oar re-
epectire places o' duty wo have undertaken te
eerve. Gaoyga Ci.ara.AaB.
It Secaas lacredlelc.
Gazpin How old does a woman hava
to be before she can vole?
Hazbin Twenty-one. I believe.
Gaxpin Butascally she doesn't rote
sjMtil site's twice that age.
Hazbin I know it. Von see she has
to devote the intervening time tomak
iDjjtjp her mind how to vote. Roxbary
I!e!niU Offense.
Sirs. Fifrjr Tommy pat a bent pia
in the minister's chair when he was
calling this afternoon.
Mr.Fijrjr Gimme yourslipper.qniclc
A hay who will play snch a trick on a
man who dafsen't swear needs one of
the best licking1 that can be produced.
Indianapolis Journal.
Lids should always be pat over sauce
pans wherl in nse. The steam is usu
ally more beneficial to the dish being
prepared than to the kitchen walls.
The butterfly collection belonging tt)
Pof. Neamoegen, of Brooklyn, N. Y..
is worth 60,00.
The division of time into months and
weeks is so old that its origin caanet
possibly be ascertained.
The different countries of the world
aow use 13,400 different kinds of post
age stamps.
Ocean steamers of the first class each
consume from 190 to 220 tnos of coal a
The entomologists say that the gnat's
probocis la a combination of seven
needles and lances, besides a cupping
An authority on cats says
that blue-
eyed cats are always deaf, and that
pure white ones are afflicted in the same
Tobacco statistics prove that two
thirds of the grown male population
of the globe either smoke or chew the
The Bibliotheque National of Parle,
the reputed largest library in the world,
how has 1,400,000 bound books and 900,
000 pamphlets.
More than 185,000 persons committed
suicide in the different countries of
the world during the year ending Sep
tember 30, 1595. This is an Increase of
nearly 20,000 over 18M.
It has lately been ascertained that the
humming noise made by telegraph
wires Is not due to wind, as it can be
heard in time of dead calm. The most
tenable explanation is that it is caused
by a tightening of the wires, owing to
atmospheric changes.
A slab in the great palace of Nine
veh represents a lady fainting and an
attendant holding a smelling bottle,
probably of perfumes, to her nose to re
vive her.
At the court of Loui3 XIV. the use of
perfume was so general among both
gentlemen and ladies that throughout
Europe it was known as the "Scented
Perfumes are now extensively manu
factured in the United States, and the
native articles are said by experts to
compare favorably with foreign man
ufacture?. From the gastar, repulsive in its orig
inal condition, the art of chemistry has
developed an immense variety of es
sential oils and essences of fruits and
The use of perfumes became so ex
travagant in Athens during the time of
Solon that he issued an edict forbidding
Athenians to use them except in cer
tain specified cases.
Many perfumes are believed to be an
tiseptic in their qualities, and some
physicians entertain the opinion that a
more liberal use of them in the sick
room would be beneficial.
The perfumers of Rome lived in a
special quarter set apart for their use.
and whole streets were lined with their
shops, which were lounging places for
wealthy young noble?.
The fruits and flowers which attain
greatest perfection and the highest fra
grance in South Europe afford favora
ble facilities for the manufacture of
perfumes and essences.
The deepest gold mine in the world
Is at EureKa, Cal., depth, 2,200 feet.
The Pearl Lumber company of Warn
bega, Ont, has a whistle on its saw
mill that can be heard forty miles.
Green lake, Colorado, is said to be the
most elevated body of water in the
world, having an altitude of 10,252 feet
above sea level.
The longest word in the dictionary is
nalatonharinaeolarvneeal. Th nevt
longest is transubstantiaUonallst
r.. .. .... .. ...
Ballroad authorities say that the ay-
erage locomouve travels upwaras ox
20,00V miles in the coarse of a year.
The largest private house la Great
Britain is known as "Weatworth Man
or." It Is the property of Earl Fltx
wllllama. Mexico's largest gold nugget was
feud at Piaaehas Placers, Soaore, hi
the sariag af MM. It wtisaee 1444
- I
Talmage in Washington.
latereetrd ta
DeUen fee
ef Cersahe
ChavUlea What Me Thi
Everyeedy kaews that the Uloetrtea
ilrine, whe xna4e the Brooklyn Taber
nacle famous throagheat the world, has
recently beea called te a pasterate ia
Washington. His church is the First
PresbTteiiaa church ef that city, aad
while la
f er at er
years a
Tery proas-laeatiasU-tatloa.
aad beea
f (Tared
with but
aaiall aadi
eacea, com
posed prla
clpally of
men aad
women who
rem ained
loyal to the old church even
though aow surrounded largely by
business houses. A marvelous change,
however, has suddenly come over this
time-honored landmark, and to-day the
First Presbyterian church of Waahiag
ten, owing to the wondrous eloquence ot
IU newly installed pastor, is every San
day besieged by multitudes, many of
whom stand there frequently hours In
advance of the opening ef the service
in hopes of being able to wedge their
way in somehow or other, aad to listen
to the matchless eloquence of Ameri
ca's foremost pulpit orator.
People all over the country are won
dering; whether Dr. Talmage, in mov
ing to the National Capital, and la ex
changing his Brooklya residence for a
house ia Washington, has actually di
vorced himself from all connection with
the east Dr. Talmage was recently in
terviewed on this subject by a reporter
of this paper, and the reverend gentle
man said that aa long as his editorial
chair had two legs in New York and
two legs in Washington he could sever
be considered as having severed all his
connections with the metropolis. "The
Christian Herald," he said, "with its
wide circulation, is a tremendous power
for good." and as long as the Lord gave
him health and strength be would write
for that paper In fact, he would be In
his editorial chair at the Bible House
more frequently now than ever. Con
tinuing, the genial preacher said:
"There is no paper in America that
wields a more potential influence for
good than The Christian Herald, with a
circulation of nearly two hundred thou-
' sand copies weekly. Nothing but deata
shall separate me from it Dr. Klopsch,
Its proprietor, is a man of extraordinary
enterprise. This year besides printing
The Christian Herald every week in
beautiful colors, a veritable enchant
ment for the eye, he offers as a premium
a complete library, consisting of ten
' splendid volumes, full of interest and
fuir of entertainment, with an elegant
bookcase, delivered free of all expense.
.,-,. with th mmr ItRplf flftv-twa,
times, for the moderate sum of S3.
Hereafter let no home in America be
without a library.
I asked Dr. Talmage whether he could
recommend the library to people who
contemplated securing it, and he said
' unhesitatingly, "I know every book.
They were carefully and thoughtfully
prepared, either specially written er
compiled by most eminent literary men,
I and there is not a weakling among
"How are the people to secure this
' great library, and this wonderful paper
I of yours?"
"Simply by sending 3 to The Chris
tian Herald at 888 to 895 Bible House,
New York City, and by return mail they
will be delighted with the result. Ever
since my boyhood, I've had a passion
for books; I love them still couldn't
live unless surrounded by them. So
I'm something of a Judge of good litera
ture. And in my whole life I have never
seen a better selection in small compass
than these ten books which Dr. Klopsch
has had prepared for his subscribers.
It's a perfect library of information,
entertainment and amusement, and is
the climax of the wonderfully enter
prising and far-seeing management
that has placed The Christian Herald
ahead of all competitors as a Christian
home Journal. Do you know," con
tinued Dr. Talmage, "that this paper
has in less than six years expended
nearly $700,000 in various beneficences
at home and abroad?"
Just then Miss Talmage came in to
call her distinguished father to dinner,
and the Interview ended.
Remember the address, 883 to 895
Bible House, New York City.
There is nothing more serious than
what some people consider a Joke.
Bar er bad spots in de best men, Jest
az dar ah weeds in de best gahdens.
Romance has been elegantly defined
as the offspring of fiction and love.
The truly great man is as apt to for
give as his power is able to revenge.
A woman can look thoroughly satis
fied when she is not. A man can't do
Too many people In the church would
rather be comets than stars of Bethle
hem. Try to give pleasure, and you will receive
more than you give.
Flying frogs are numerous in Borneo.
Sunflower stocks are now, cos verted
into paper.
The cultivation of tobacco is prohib
ited in Egypt
Blotting paper is made of cotton rags
I boiled in soda.
Edison's laboratory costs $20,000 a
' year to maintain.
The pay of an admiral in the Brit
ish navy is $9425 a year.
Queen Maria Pia of Portugal Is a
clever billiard player.
A big; man groans most when he gets
sick because there is more of hint to
. suffer.
j Just aa you are pleased at ladiag
faults you are displeased at lading per
fections. I Trata will he uppermost eae time er
ether, like cork, though kept aader tae
Every maa loags to be a womaa Jast
long enough to shew what a good wife
he weald be.
Those whe have no meaey ara set
alwaye aeer aa these wae have tt art
VsaLaaaaaaaaaaaV .iaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaw
aj-vu- . SJLama ahaaamal
jht fJMf 1hI Pihit
LxAVDEa GsnjtABD, Pres't,
B. H. HamtT. Vice Pteat,
if. BarooK, Cashier.
Jobs SrAurrxn. ' Wm. Bucasa.
AiUHrizt Capi til if - $500,000
Pail ii Capital, 90,000
a . HCLDON. Pres't.
M. P. n. OEI1LRICH. Vice Free.
CLARK GRAY. Cashier.
H. M. WnisTOw, H. 1. Tl. OiBLKica.
V. II. Sbkldos. v. a. McAuaariB,
Jonas Waxca. CARLRiuaa.
S. C. Oaar.
OiMiro hotmaa.
Daxiui. 8cBaa.
J. Hesbt Wean
Geo. W. Gallbt.
a. F. II. Obblbick.
J. P. Bkcxkb Ebtatb.
KsasccA Bbckbr.
Baakef deposit; Interest allowed en tlae
deposits; buy and sell exchange on United
States aad Europe, and buy and sell avail
able securities. We shall bo pleased to re
ceive your business. Wo solicit your pat-
Columbus Journal!
A weekly newspaper de
rated, the be&tiaterestsef
The Slate of Nebraska
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aa v' ja e ts btbsi aaa
meemnSgSmSJ: , ,.. u ,, t - ,-. c ... -, r ,
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