The Columbus journal. (Columbus, Neb.) 1874-1911, December 14, 1892, Image 1

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Columbus - State - Bank !
(Oldost Bask In tfas State.)
Pays Intel on Time Deposits
Mates Loans on Real Eslata
Oaaaha, Chicago, New York aad all
Foreiga Cosmtries.
Aad Help it Ccstomcre vrhen they Need II el p.
R. n. HENRY, Vice Pres't.
Anthorizcd Capital or $500,000
Paid in Capital - 90,00f
n. T. II. OHLRICn. Vice Pre
C. A. NEWMAN. Caahiev,
P. II. Sheldon. .1 P. BwVer,
Herman 1. H.Oehlnch, 1 arl llionke.
Jona Veleh.
W. A. McAllister,
J. Henry Wurdcman,
Georco V. Galley,
Frank Rorer.
Henry Loseke,
Ji. .tl. Wmslovr,
H. C. Groy.
Arnold F. H. Oehlrich,
(icrhnrd Loek.
Bank of deposit; interest allowed on tims
deposits; bny and sail exchange on United State
and Europe, and buy and sell arailableFecnritieiv
Ws shall be plr.isod to receivo yonr business. V
Gktistt your patronage. 2SdecS7
orALzn in
And til Kinds of Pumps.
Eleventh Street, one door 'west of
Hapel & Co's.
Planing ill.
We have Jnst opened a new mill oa M street,
opposite Schroenen' flntirinp mill and are pnv.
anch a
Store Fronts,
Stair Hailing,
Scroll Sawing,
tarAll order promptly attended to. Cell on
jnlJm ColambttB, Nebraska.
Caveat and Trado Marks obtained, and all Pat
ent business conducted for MODERATE FEES.
OFFICE. We have no snlxuwncies, all basine
direct, hence w ran tranirt ?wtnt business in
leea timo and at LESS COST than those remote
from Washington.
Send model, dratrics, or photo, -with descrii
tion. We advise if patentable cr not, free of
chare. Onr fee not one till iatent is secured.
A book,"'Hotr to Obtain Patents," vrith refer-rnr-cs
to actual clients in yonr state, county or
town, sent free. Address
Opposite Patent Office, Washington. D. C
The Journal for Job Work
Statistics ttnius: to Mioiv flint I'rotec
tlon Fosters Industry A Ilerlcw or
the Various Secretaries' Iteporit-.1
Recommendation in Reference lo
Tariff ICcvifcloti Itcveniic of the J
Fiscal Year I'lain Talk in Regard
to (ntiada tlie Farmer' Miare lu .
I'rosuerltr. j
WasMNotox. D. r.. Doc. 6. Immedi
ately after the reading of the brief journal
proceeding of yesterday Assistant Secre
tary I'rudcn was announced with r mes
sage from tlio president of the United
The secretary then entered on the read'
li.R n! it with considerable abatement of
tbo usual rapidity of utterance. There
tverc nearly Blxty Ecuators In attendance-.
Senator llill of New York, on? of the '
cromincnt absentee! yesterday, was In his j
eat at the opening of the session today.
Senator Ransom of North Carolina entered
the chamber during the reading of the inea- j
svgu. Sonator Vilas of Wisconsin and ocs
or two other senators Held pamphlet copies '
cf the message. President Harrison's mes
face reads as follows:
'l o the Senate and House of Representa
tives: In submitting my annual message
to congress I hare great satisfaction In b4 i
itiE able to sny that the peneral conditions j
nfTectlnj to the eomnicrcial n'.'.d industrial
Interests of the United States aro in the i
blithest denrrc favorable. A comparison j
of the existing conditions with those of the
most favored period in the history of the '
couutr will, 1 believe, show that such a '
decree of prosperity and so general a diffn
sion ot tLe comforts of life were never be
fore enjoyed by our people.
Some SlnllBl'cH.
Tho total wealth of the country In 1800
was ?K;.l&'.i,fliG,&. In lSIX) it amounted to
fGA,G10,0(.i0,ix0, an increase of 2S? per cent.
The total nillcaco or railways In tha
United States in l'-GO was :U).-'(5; In lb'.U i.
was 1;T,T41, and increase of -Its per cent;
and it is estimated that there will be about !
4,000 miles of track added by he close of j
the j oar 1WJ.
Tho official returns of the eleventh !
census and those of tlio tenth census for
Boveisly-fivo lcatliiiR ritic.'', furnished the
basis for the following companions;
Tn lSbatho cap.tat invested in manufact
uring: was ?l,2.:'.s:jJ,G70. In 18'JJ tho cap
ital invested in manufacturing was f2,H',
35,S$4. In lfk0 the number of employes
was lt801,:iv5. In ISiK) the number of em
ployes was 2,271, IS4. In lbSO the wages j
earned were S501.Wi.778. in IbOO the wages
earned were $1,221,170,454. In 1SS0 the
value of tne products was f2,711,."7U,W..
In 1S01 tho value of the produce was l
t4.fcdJ,::S6,7. I
I am informed by the superintendent or '
the census that the omission of certain in- .
dustries iu 1S?0, which were Included in
lb'.h), accounts in pari for tho remarkable
increase thus shown. Hut, after making
lull allowances for differences of method
anil deducting tlio returns for all indus
tries not included iu the census of lSi, '
there remain in the reports from these
seTC!it-fivo cities an increase in the capi
tal employed of fl,.ViI,745,G'J4; In the
vaiue of the products ot ?.!, 02 1.2:50,1 GO; in
wages earned of, and in the
number of wage-earners employed of 35G.
(f2'J. The waue-earnincs not onlj show an
increased aggregate, but an Increase per
capita ironi:T.i0 in l-0 to f547 in lbJO, or
41.71 percent.
The new industrial plants established
since October fi, lSKi, and up to October 22,
1K2. as partially reported in the American
Economist, numbei :u.". and the extension
of existing plants 108. The new capital
Invested amounts to ?40.44'J.O.V and the
number of additional employes to 37,2S..
iho Textile World for .July. 1S'J2, states
th-t during the first six months of tho
present calendar joar'i:i5 new factories
were built, of which forty are cotton mills,
torty-elght knitting mills, twenty-six
woolen mills, tilteen silk mills, forty plush
mills and two linen mills. Of the forty
cotton mills twenty-one have been built in
tho southern states. Mr. A. 11. bhepherd
son of tho New York cotton exchange esti
mates the number ot working spindles in
tho United btates on September 1, 1S?2, at
1S5.000.000, an increase of 0G0.O0O over tho
year lb'Jl.
TIm!nto Manufacture.
The report of Ira Aer. special agent of
the treasury department, shows that o:i
September 30. 1M12. there were thirty-tvo
companies mnimfnnturii: tin and tin
plato in the I nited States and fourteen
companies bin ding new woiks for such
manufacture. The estimated Investment
in buildine and plants at the close of the
fifcal year, Jui:e30.1S33,lf existing conditions
were to be continued, would be,
and the ethuated rato of production 200,
OJO.000 pound per annum. Tho actual
production for the quarter ending Septem
ber SO, 192, was 10.t'52,72o pounds.
ForelRii X'rade.
The total value of our forclcn trade,
(export and manufactures) during the last
fiscal j car was f l,s57,Gv0.r.l0, an Increase of
f 12t,2o3,04 over the previous fiscal year. '
The avenuro annual value of our imports'
andexpoils of merchandise for the ten ;
fiscal jear prior to lVJl, was fl,457,322,01i.
It will be observed that our foreign trade '
for ISM exceeded this annual aeragc I
value of bv f4W.:VS,3Jl. an increase of
27.17 per cent. The significance and valuo i
of this incrpp-se arc shown by tiio fact that
the excess iu that trade of ISM over 1S91 i
was wholly in the value of exports, for '
thorc was a decrease in the valuo of ex
ports, of $17,513,25 1. The value of our ox-
ports durinc tho fiscal year 1S02 reached ;
trie highest Cgurc in the'history of the gov-
ernmeut. amounting to $I,iO(i,273.14S, ex-,
ceedmc by $1 ,797.SK the exports of lS'Jl ,
and exceeding the value of the imports by '
202,t75,6SG. A comparison of the value
of our exports for 18S2, with
the annuat average for the ten '
j cars prior :to lb'.U. shows au excess of
fSfij. 142,671. or of S4.iw per cent. The
value of our imports of merchandise for
lb.r2. which was fS2,.'.4(i2.402. alo exceeded
the annual average value of the ten years
prior to lS'Jl by 5135.215.IM0. During the
fiscal year lM. the value ol imports, free
of duty, amounted to J457.yy.i,G5S. the
largest aggregate in the history of our
commerce. The value of Imports of
merchandise, entered free of duty in ISM.
wa6 $55.35 per cent of the total value of
imports as compared with 43.35 per cent in
1S91 and 13.70 per cent in ISM.
Our oast Trade.
Ill onr coastwise trade a most encourag
ing development is iu progress, there hav-'
. ing been iu the last four years an increase
J of 16 per cent. In internal commerce, the
, statistics show tnat no such period of pros- j
' perity has ever before existed. The freight
ratried in the coastwise tracrc of the great
lakes, in 1S', aggregated 2$2X.950 tons.
On the Mississippi, Missouri and Ohio
rivers end their tributaries in the same
year the traffic aggregated 29.404.406 tons,
and the total vessel tonnage pasting
throuzh the Detroit river during that vetr
was 21.GS4.0O0 tons. The aggregate tfaflic I
on our railroads for the year 1S91 amounted
to 704,303,009 tons of freight, compared
with 091,314.437 tons in 1S90, an increase of
13,054,172 tons.
Kaylnc Btuki Deposits.
Another indication of the general pros
perity of the country is found lu the fact
that the number of depositors in savings
banks increased from 693,870 in 1660, to
l.'25S,S93 in 1S90, an Increase of 513 per
cent, and the amount of deposits
from 1W,277,504 in 1SG0, to $1,524,
tH4.6CG in 1830, an increase of
Ml per cent. Iu 1S91 the amount
of deposits in savings oanxs
was l,tfy,07y,74J. It Is estimated!
that 90 per cent of these deposits
represent the saving of wage earners. The
bank clearances have for nine months end-1
ing September 30. 1S91, amouuted to 41.
J49.SK),S0 For the same months la IsM
they ainouuled to f45,lb9.t501,y47, an exczit .
(or the ciue months of 4(140 -Jil.isy. j
Tli Farmer's Share In I'rosperlty. j
There never has been a time In our his
tory when work was so abundant, or when
wages were as high, whether measured by
the currency in which they aro paidi ytf
their power to supply the necessaries and
comforts of life, ltts true that the mar
ket prices of cotton and wheat ha liSen
low. It is one of the unfavorable incidents
of agriculture that tho farmer cannot ortf
duce upon orders. Ho must sow .d Veap
In Ignorance of the aggrert production of
the year and U Jreullirly subject to the
depreciation Which follows oVerDrod0ctfoi;.
Hut while the fact I hav- Slated in
truo aa to the crops I litVe mentioned, tho ,
general average br prices h- & such as
!! fw fctfricult:;c a rair participation of
u '- ireorai prosperity. The value of
;-r total farm products has increased from
tl.303.4fl,SG6 in 1SG9 to 4.500,000,000 in
lS'Jl. as estimated by statisticians, an in
crease of 330 per cent. The number ot hogs
January 1, lh91. was 50,525,100 and their
value J210, 193,925; on January 1. 1B92, tho
nunb.T was 52,398,019, ami the Yalue
Fl41,u3I,4I5. Ou January 1, 1891, the num
ber of cattle was 3G S75.643 ami the Value
K44,127,90?; on January 1, ISM, the num-j
ber vras 37,651,239, nud ttie Value T0.749;
155. I
IT DlBcbnt'ontsti, l.ootc Abroad. ,
if any are discontented with their
state here; if any believe that
the wages or prices, the returns for honest
toil, are inadequate, they should not fail to
remember that there is no other country
in the world where the conditions tnat
seem to them hard would not be accepted
as highly prosperous. The English ngrl I
culturisi would be glad to exchange the re
turns of his labor for those of the American ,
farmer and tho Manchester workmen ,
their wages for those or their fellows at
Fall River ,
CI Intra td Protection.
1 believe that tho protective system,
which now for something Use thirty years
ha! prevailed in our legislation, has been a
inighty Instrument for the development of
our national wealth and a most powerful
agency in protecting the iiomcs of our I
workingmen from the invasion of want.
It is not my purpose to renew here the
argument in favor of a protective tariff.
The result of the recent election must be
accepted as having introduced n How
policy. We must assume that the present
lai ill, constructed upon tho lines of pro
tection, is to be repealed and that there is
to L-e substituted for it a tariff law con
structed solely to revenue; that nd duty
is to be hlzher becnuse the Increase will
keep opeh an American mill or keep up the
wages of an American worK man. but that I
In every case Mich a rate or duty Is to bo
imposed as will bring the treasury of tho
United States the largest leturns of rev
rnue. The contention has not been be- ,
tween schedules, but between principles,
and it would be otfer.sivo to suggest that
the prevailing part) will not carry into '
legislation the principles advocated bv it
anil the pledges given to the people. The
tariff bills passed by the house of repre
sentatives at the last session, were, as 1 '
supposed, even in tho opinion of their pro-
meters, inadequate nud justified only by
the fact that the senate and house of rep
resentatives were nut in accord and that a
general revision could not, therefore, be
;ivo t':o DcaioeratH n Turn.
I recommend that the wholo subject of
tariH revision be left to the incoming con
gress, it i3 a matter of regiet thai this
work must bo delayed for at least three
months, for the threat of great tariff
changes introduces so much uncertainty
that an amount not easily estimated ot
business inaction and of diminished pro
duction will necessarily result. It is pos
sible, also, that this uncertainly may result
in decreased revenues from cus'toms'duties,
for our merchants will make cautious
orders for foreign goods in view of the pros
pect of tariff reductions and the un
certainty as to when it will take effect.
Somewhat Sarcastic.
Those who have advocated a protective
tariff can well afford to have their
disastrous forecasts of a policy
disappointed If a system of customs
duties can bo framed that will set the idle
wheels and looms of Europe in motion and
crowd our warehouses with foreizn-made
goods, and at the samo time k? p our own
nulls busy; that will give in an increased
paiticipaiionin "the maikuts of the world"
of a greater valuo than tiic home market
that we surrender; that will give in
creased work to foreign woikmen upon
products to be consumed by our people
without diminishing the amount of work
to be done here; that will enable the
American manufacturer to pay to his
workmen from 50 to loo per cent" more in
wages than is paid in the foreign mill, and
yet to compete in our markets
and iu foreign markets with the
foreign producer; that will further reduce
the cost or articles ot wear aim food with
out reducing the wages of those who pro
duce them; that can be catenated after Its
effects have been realized, as its expecta
tion has been in Europe as well as in
American cities, the authors and promot
ers of it will be entitled to tne highest
praise. We have hr.d in our history sev
eral experiences of the contrasted effects of
a revenue and of a protective tariff; but
this generation has not felt them and the
experience of one generation is not highly
instructive to the next. Tho friends of the
protective system, with undiminished con
fidence iu the principles they have advo
cated.will await the results of the new ex
periment. The Laborer and tho Protective Sys
tem. The strained and too often disturbed re
lations existing between the employes and
the employers In our great mauuf.i'uturiuz
establishments liavo not been favorable to
a calm consideration by the wage earners
of the effect upon wages of tho protective
The fact that his wages were tho highest
paid In like callings in the world and that
a maintenance of this rate of vvazns in the
absence of protective duties upon the pro
duct of his labor, was impossible, were ob
scured bv the passion evoked by these con
tests, lie may now be able to review the
question iu the light of his personal ex
perience under the operation of a tariff for
revenue only. If that experience shall
demonstrate that the present rates of
wages are thereby maintained or increased
either absolutely cr in their purchasing
power, and that the agcregato volume of
work to be done Jn this country is in
creased or eveu maintained; that there are
more or as many days' work in a year at as
good or better wages lor the American
woikman as has been the case tinder the
protective system, every one will rejoice.
A general process of wage reduction
cannot be contemplated by any
patiiotic citizen without the gravest appre
hension. U may be, indeed, 1 believe it Is
possible for the American manufacturer to
compete successfully with historeign rival in
many branches of production without the
defense of protective duties, if the pay rolls
are equalized; but the conflict that stands
between the producer and that result and
the distress of our working people, when it
is attained, are not pleasant to contemplate.
The society cf the unemployed, now hold
ing Its frequent and threatening parade
In the streets of foreign cities, should not
be allowed to acquire an American dom
icile. Reciprocity.
(The president then referred to the system
of reciprocity established with various
countries, the bcuetits of which, he says,
cannot he realized Instantly. The total
increase in the value of exports to all the
countries with which we have reciprocitt
acreements have been $20,772,021. He re
fers to the arrangements to settle the '
Herlng sea dispute by arbitration, and '
then speaks of the overtures made by '
Canada to enlarge the commercial ex
changes or Canada anl the United State;.) t
Speaks l'ialniy About Canada.
If. as we must suppose, the political re
lations of Canada and the disposition of j
the Canadian government are to remain
unchanged, a somewhatr adica! revision of
our trade relations should, made.
Our relations must continue to be in-.
timate, and they should be friendly. I
regret to say, however, that in many of the
controversies, notably those as to the fish-1
eries on the Atlantic, the sealing interests '
on the Pacific andsthe canal tolls, your nc- .
gotiatious with Ureat Britain have con- ,
tinuously been thwarted or retarded by un
reasonable and unfriendly objections and
protests from Canada. In the matter of
the canal toils, our treaty rights were
flagrantly disregarded. It is hardly too
much to say that the Canadian
Pacific and other Hues which
parallel our northern bound
ary are sustained by commerce, having
either its origin or tho originators or both
lu the United States. The Canadian rail
roads couipets with those of tho United
States for out- traffic, and without thare
traitits Of our Interstate corriirierce act
Their cart bass almost. withHtU detention
In and oilt bf bUf territory. , There Is nd
deposition op the, part of tlio pedpltt Ur
government of tbti Unitdd Slates td Inter
fere iil ti Smallest dezree with the politi
cal relations of Canada. That aiinstlcc 19
wholly with her dw,i jidopio.. It Is time;
howevr,.to .consider whetherUf thepres
eiit.state or tolngs and trend of thing!
to continue, our interchanges upon lines
or land trpr::tation should be put upon a
lilfcient basis, and our entire Indepen
dence of Canadian canals and of the St.
Lawrenco as an outlot to the sea secured
by the construction of an American canal
around the falls of the Niagara and the
opening of ship communication between
the zreat lakes and one of our owu sea
Tha Chilean Affair.
Keterenec is then made by the presi
dent to the settlement of the difficulty with
Chile. Ho states that ho has endeavored
in every way to assure the republic? o?
Central and South America of tho friendli
ness ot the United States, but while hold
ing this sentiment In the greatest sincerity,
wu must Insist upon a just responsibility
tor any injuries inflicted upon our repre
sentatives or citizens.
Our relations with Hawaii have been
such as to attract an increased interest, and
must continue to do so. I deem it of great
importance that the projected submarine
cable, a survey for which has been made,
should be promoted, both for naval and
commercial uses.
Reference was made by the president tc
the settlement of the New Orleans Mafia
trouble, the Freuch protectorate lit West
Africa; the Mexican frontier troubles, In
anticipation of a satisfactory adjustment
with Spain of claims of American mission
aries lislng out of disorders in the Caroline
islands, Turkish Intolerance of local
American institutions, international copy
right, and the Nicaragua canal, which was
given esuecial impetus, after which the
monetary conference was led up to.J
'1 ho Monetary Conference. WW
The congress has been already advised
that the invitations of this government for
the assembling of an international raon
etary conference Id Consider thcijuestioti
of an enlarged Issue of sliver was accepted
by the nations to which they were Issued.
The conference assembled at Brussels on
the 22d of November, and ha3 entered
tipdn the consideration dt this great ques
tion. 1 have not doubted, and have taken
occasion to express that belief, as well in
tho invitations issued for the conference,
as in my public messages, that the free
coinage of silver, upon agreed international
ratio, would greatly promote the Interests
of our people, and equally those ot other
nations. It is too early to predict what re
sults may be accomplished by the confer
ence. If any temporary check or delay in
tervenes, l believe that very soon commer
cial conditions will compel tho now re
luctant governments to unite with us iu
this movement to secure the enlargement
of the volume or money needed for the
transaction of the business of the world:
The Treasury itoport
The report of the secretary of the treas
ury will attract special interest In view of
the many misleading statements that have
been made as to the state of the public
revenues. Three preliminary facts should
rot only be stated but emphasized before
looking into details: First, that the public
debt has been reduced since March 4, ISS'.t,
$259,074,0)0. and the annual interest
charges, $11,(V4,479; Second, that there
have been paid out for pensions during
this administration up to November 1, 1892,
M32,50 1,178.70, an excess of $114,406,306.09
over the sum expended during the period
from March 1, 1SS5, to March 1,
l."Mr9: and third, that under tho existing
tariff, up to December 1, about $93,000,000
of rovenue. which would have been col
lected upon Imported sugars if the duty
had been maintained, has gone into the
pockets of the people, and not into the pub
lic treasury as before. If there are any
who still think that the surplus should have
been kept out of circulation by hoarding it
in the treasury, or depositing It in banks
without interest, whilo thi government
continued to pay the very banks interest
upon the:bonds deposited as security for
tho deposits, or who think the extended
pension legislation was a public robbery,
or that the duties upon sugar should have
maintained, 1 am content to leave tho
argument where it now rests, while we
wait to sco wecther these criticisms take
the form of legislation.
Kovenues of the Fiscal Yoar.
The revenues for the Gscal year ending
Juue 30, ISM, from all sources, were $425,
S6S.2G0.22, and the expenditures for all
purposes were $415,953,80G.5G, leaving
a balance of $9,914,453.60. There
were paid during the jear upen the
public debt, $40,579,407 OS. The surplus in
the treasury and the bank redemption
fund passed by tho act or July 14. 1S90, to
the general fund, furnished, iu large part,
the cash available and used for the pay
ments made upon the public debt. Com
pared with the year 1891, our receipts from
customs dues fell off $42,009,241.08, while
our receipts from internal revenue in
creased $8,284,823.13, leaving the net los3of
revenue from those principal sources $33,
784,417.9'i. Tho net loss of revenue
from il sources was $32,675,072.81.
The revenues, estimated and actual, for the
fiscal year ending June 30. 1S93, are placed
by the secretary at $463,330,350.44, and the
expenditures at $461,330,350.44. showing a
surplus of receipts over expenditures of
$2,000,000. The cash balance in the treas
ury at tho end of the fiscal year, it Is esti
mated, will be $20,902,377.03.
Estimated ltecelpts.
The estimated receipts for the fiscal year
ending June 30. 1893, aro $490,121,365.88,
and the estimated appropriations $457,261,
835. 3, leaving an estimated surplus of re
ceipts over the expenditures of $32,800,030.
05. This docs not include any payment to
the sinking fund. In the recommendation
or the secretary that the sinking fund
law bo repealed, I concur. The redemp
tion of bonds since the passage of the law
to June 30, lbM, has already exceeded the
requirements by the sum or $990,510,081.49.
Tho retirement or bonds in tho future be
jore maturity should be a matter of con
venience, not or compulsion. We should
not collect revenue for tnat purpose, but
only uso any casual surplus. To the bal
ance or $32,N)0.030.05 or receipts over ex
penditures, for the. year 1S9I, should be
added the estimated surplus at the begin
ning of the year. $20,992,377.03. and from
tliis aggregate there must be deducted, as
slated by the secretary, about $44,000,000 of
estimated unexpired appropriations.
The public confidence in the purposes
and ability or the government to maiutain
tho parity of all our money issues, whether
coin or paper, must remain unshaken. The
demand for gold in Europe and the conse
quent calls upon us, are iu a considerable
degree the result of the effects of some of
the European governments to increase
their gold reserves, and these efforts should
be met by appropriations upon our part.
The conditions that have created this drain
of the treasury gold are in an important
degree political and not commercial. In
view of tho fact that a general revision of
our revenue laws in the near future seems
to be probable, it would be better that any
changes should bo a part or that revision
rather than or a temporary nature.
Purchase of Kulllon.
During the last fiscal year the secretarv
purchased under the act or July 14, 1890.
54.335,748 ounces or silver, and Issued in
payment thereof $81,106,098 in notes. The
total purchases since the passage of the
act have been $120,470,931 ounces, and the
aggregate of notes issued $110,783,599.
The average price paid for silver during
the year was 94 cents per ounce, the high
est price being $1.02;. July 1, 1S91. and ths
lowest 83 cents, March 21, 1892. In view
of the fact that the monetary conference
is now sitting, and tbatr.oconelusion has
as yet been reached, 1 withhold my rec
ommendation as to the 1 ( datlon upon
this subject.
The War Department.
Tho report sf the secretary of war brings
again to tne attention of congress some im
portant suggestions to congress as to the
reorganization of the infantry and artillery
arms of tno service, which his predecessors
have before urged that be paised. Our
army Is small, but its organization should
all the more be put upon the most approved
modern basis. The conditions upon what
we have called the "frontier," have nere
tofore required the maintenance of many
small posts, but now the policy of concen
tration is obviously the right one. The
new posts should liavo the proper strate
gic relations to the only "frontiers" we
now have, those of the west and the north,
aod part of our southern boundary. 1 do
not think that any question of advantage
in localities or states should deter
mine the location of the uew
posts. The organization and enlargement
of the bureau of military information
which tjie secretary, has v&tctf d l a worc
the hisfdltUf l of which will becomeevry
Vear rhore apparent The work of build
heavy guns and the construction of
coast , deforiH Has beeb well begun
and should be' tarried tin without check.
The report df the attorney general Is by
law tfibmitted directly to congress; but I
cannot refrain from saying that he has
conducted the' Increasing work of the ttej
pirtment bf justice with si eat professional
skill. He has in several directions secured
from the courts decisions making increased
protection to the officers of the United
States and bringing some classes of crime
that escaped to punishment In the tribun
als of the United States where they could
be tried with impartiality.
Department or Justice.
The numerous applications for executive
clemency, presented 111 behalf of pcrschJ
convicted iu the United States courts and
given penitentiary sentences, have called
ray attention to a fatt referred te by the at
torney general in his report; namely, that a
time allowance for good behavior for such
brlsdnors Is" presrrlbe'd by tho federal
ftatutes oqly where the state lit which the
penitentiary Is located bad made no sitcli
provision. Prisoners are given the benefit
of tho provisions of the state law regulating
the penitentiary to which they may bo sent.
These are various, some, perhaps, too Ilb
iral, and some, perhaps, too Illiberal. The
result Is a sentenco for five years means
one thing if the prisoner is sent to one state
for confinement, and It is quite a different
thing If he Is sent to another, 1 rcco-n
mend that a uuiforni credit for good be
havior be prescribed by cdngress. , I hav4
before expressed my concurrence In the"
recommendation of the attorney general
that degrees ot murder should bo recog
nized In the federal statutes, as they are. I
believe; lti all tlie states. These grade? aro
founded on correct distinctions in crime.'
The recognition of them. would enable the
courts to exercise sbnfe dis
cretion in apportioning punish
ment and would greatly relievo
the executive of what Is coming to bo a
very heavy burden the examination or
these cases on application for commuta
tion. The aggregate of claims pending
against the government In the court of
claims is eiibrnioiis: Claims to the amount
or nearly $40,000,OoC for taking of evidertcU
of injury to persons claiming td be loyal
during the war are now before that court
for examination. When Id these are' added
thb Indian depredation claims aud tho
French spoliation claims an aggregate is
reached that is indeed startling. Jn
the defense of these claims the'
government is at a great disadvantage.
The claimants have preserved their evi
dencc.whereas the government has to send
agents to rummage the field for what they
can find. This difficulty is peculiarly great
where the fact to be established is the dis
loyalty of tho claimant during the war. ir
this great threat against our revenues is to
have no other check its certain congiess
should supply the department of justice
With appropriations sufficiently liberal to
secure the best legal talent in tho defenso
or these claims and to pursue Its vague
search for evidence.
The Postotnce Department:
The postal revenues have Increased dur
ing the last year nearly $5,000,000. The
deficit for the year ending June 30, 1S92. is
1848,341 less than that deficiency of tha
preceding year. The deficiency of the
present fiscal year, it 1 estimated; will be
reduced to $1,752,423, which will not only
be extinguished during the next fiscal year,
but a surplus df nearly $1,000,000 should
there be shown. There have been added
1,590 nw mail routes during the year with
a mileage of 8,303 miles, and tho total numj
ber of miles of new mail trips added during
the year Is nearly 17.000,009. Tho number
of miles or mail journeys added during the
last four years Is about 70.000,000. this ad
dition being 21,000,000 miles more than
were in operation in the whole country in
1861. The number of postoffices has been
Increased by 2,790 during the year; and
during the past four years and up to Octo
ber 29 last, the total increase In the num
ber of free deliver offices has beed
nearly doubled in the past four years and
tho number of money order offices moro
than doubled in that time. For three years
ending June :'-0 1S92. the postage revenue
amounted to $197,444,359.
.Merchant nud Mall .Marine.
In ISM only 12.3 per cent of our Imports
were brought in American vessels. Under
the law of 1891 contracts haro been made
by the postmaster general for eleven mail
routes. The expenditure involved by
these contracts for the next fiscal year ap
proximated $954,123.33. As one of tho
good results reached sixteen American
ships of an aggregate tonnage of
57,400 tons, costing $7,400,000, have
been built or contracted to
be built in American ship yards,
and when the full service required by
these contracts Is established, there will
be forty-one mail steamers under tho
American Hag, with tho probability of
further necassary additions in tne Bra
zilian and Argentine service. Theconj
tracts made wltii the lines sailing to Cen
tral and South American ports, have In
creased tho frequency and shortened the
time of tlie trips, added uew ports of call,
and sustained some Hues that otherwiso
would almost certainly have been with
drawn. The service to Buenos Ayrei is
tlie first to the Argentine republic under
the American flag. The servico to South
ampton, Bologne and Antwerp is also new,
and Is to be begun with the steamship City
of New York and City or Paris in Febru
ary next.
No subject, I think, more nearly touches
tho power aud the prosperity of our coun
try than this of the development of our
merchant marine upon the sea. If we could
enter into conference with other competi
tors aud all would agree to withhold gov
ernment aid, wo could perhaps take our
chances with tho rest, but our great com
petitors have established and maintained
their lines by government subsidies until
now they liavo practically exeiuded us
from participating. In my opinion, no
choice is left to us but to put the issue,
moderately at least, on tho same lines.
Tlio Jfew fcvy.
The report or the secretary of thej navy
exhibits great progress in tho construction
or our new navy. When the present
secretary entered upon his duties only
three modern steel vessels were iu com
mission. The vessels since put in com
mission, and to be put in commission dur
ing the winter, will make a total of nine
teen duriug his administration or tlie de
partment. During tho current year, ten
war vessels and three navy tugs have been
launched. Two other large ships and a
torpedo boat are under contract,
and tho work upon them will
advance aud the four monitors are await
ing only the arrival of tholr armor, which
lias been unexpectedly delayed, or they
would hnve been before this in commission.
Contracts have been let during this ad
ministration under the appropriations for
the increase df the nvy, including new
vessels and their appurtenances, to the
amount of $35,000,000. and there have been
expended during the same period lor labor
at navy yards upon similar work $8,000.
000 'without the smallest scandal
or charge of fraud or partiality.
As the result of a new process in the con
struction of armor plato our later ships
will be clothed with defensive plates of
higher resistance than are found on any
war vessel afloat. We were without tor
pedoes. Tests have been made to ascer
tain the relative efficiency or different con
structions, a torpedo has been adopted and
the work of construction Is now being car
ried on successfuilv. viuatt without ar
mor piercing shells. We are now making
what is believed to be a projectile superior
to any before in use. A smokeless powder
has been adopted and a slow burn
ing powdor for guns of large calibre.
High explosives capable of use in shells
firea from heavy guns have been found,
and the manufacture of gun cotton has
been developed, and the question of supply
is no longer iu doubt.
The development of a naval militia,
which has been organized in eight states
and brought Into cordial and co-operative
relations with tho navy, is another im
portant achievement. There are now en
listed in these organizations 1,600 men, and
they are likely to bd greatly extended.
Tne Interior Department.
The work of the interior department, al
ways very burdensome, has been larger
than ever before duriug the administration
of Secretary Nobie. The disability pen
sion law, taking of the eleventh census,
the opening of vast areas of Indian land to
settlement, the organization of Oklahoma
and the negotiations for the cession of In
dian lands furnish some of tha particulars
of the increased work and the results
achieved testify to the ability, fidelity and
industry of the head of the department and
his efficient assistants.
Several important agreements for the
censiou of Indian lauds negotiated by the
Iowa mission, appointed uuder the act ot
March 2, 18S9, are awaiting he' se of f on- I
Perhaps the most important 01 tre
Is that for the cession of tho Cheroktd
trip. This lias been a source of great
vexation to the executive representative.
thd great friction Inured between the ,
era In their desire to occupy it and the i
Jndians who sstert title. The agreement
rhicli has been made by the coinmis
Mnn ii: firfhiDS.- the most sat'
I istactory that fcouitl hav been
I reached. It will bo noticed that ft i eon
ditloncd upou its ratification by congress
before March 4. 1893. i ne secretary or tne
interior who has given tho subject carciul
thought, recommends the ratification of the
agreement and 1 am inclined to follow this
recommendation. It is certain that some I will again appear, and a liberal appropr.n'
action by which this controversy shall be tion should be made at thi session itf ena-
brought 'to an eud and the lands opened to ' ble our quarantine and port officials to ex
settlement is Urgent elude the deadly plague. Hut the most
The form Of govemmeht provided by con careful and stringent quarantine rezuia
gress on May 17, 1881. for Alaska, Wa?, in ' tions may not be sufficient absolutely to
li r.irii -h,i mi num. tiirmornrr. Tho in- vehtilr Hi rl Incase. The prozruS Of
1 crease Cf population anil the development i
Of some important milling arid commercial
Internsts makd u imperative tuai in; law
shotild be' revised and better provision
made for tiiC arrest and punishmoul of
.' i--iJ Jm--
The report of the secretary shovvs- err
rratifrinr atatn of affairs as to the conul-
tion of the general land office. The work
of issuing agricultural patents, which
teemed to be hopelessly iu arrears when
the present accretary undertook the duties
Ot his office.- has been so expedited that tne
bureau te now upon current business. The
relief ihiii afforded V hdnesi and Worthy
settlers bpou tho ptilTIIc !rfrd; thus giving
to them au assured title to their Strtes,
has been of incalculable benefit ia develop
ing the new states and territories.
'I'liA .. nf trivitfl minima icta1i1ltieil
by congress for thettft:oti
y congress for thefttnloiiop of this policy
f speedily settling, cduteslcd latid t!l!s is
,lft.Cllll fcl. ., V .....l.tT, ... v.. ....
a'ulng satisfactory progfes u .its work";
and when tlin work l completed M great
impetus will be given to t,he development
or those regions where unsettled claims'
under Mexican grants have so long exerted
their repressive influence. When to these
results are added the formal cession of In
dian lands which have been opened to set
tlement, aggregating during this adminis
tration nearlV 2f),lJO,0(jn arres, that agree
ments negothtte'd and ndw jieridtng in eon
?res$ for ratification; by which alJoitl iO,
309.000 additional acres" will be' fapctled td
settlement, it will be seen how much has
been accomplished.
ItcmovlnK Indian Agents.
i have several times L'een called upon to
reinovo Indian agents appointed b'y mo;
and have done so promptly itpon every
sustained complaint ot unfitness or mis
conduct. I believe, however, that tho In
dian service at the agencies has beeu im
proved, and is now administered, on the
whole, with a good degree or efficiency, ir
any legislation is possible by which the se
lection or Indian agents can be wholly re
moved from all partisan suggestion or con
siderations, I am sure It Would be n great
relief to tbo executive aud A great benefit
to the service.
The appropriation for the subsistence
Of the Cheyennes and Arapahoe In
dians, made at the last session of congress
was inadequate. " This smaller appropria
tion was estimated for by the commissioner
upon the theory that the large fund be
longing to the trlbo iu tho public treasury
could, "and ought to, be used to their sup
port. In view, however; at the pending
depredation claims against tills fund, aifd
other considerations, the secretary of the
interior in April last submitted a supple
mental estimate for $50,000. This appro
C nation was not, as it should have
een. and tho oversight ought lo bo rem
edied at the earliest possible date.
The Pension Office.
The report of tho commissioner of pen
sions, to which oxtended notice is given
by tlio secretary of the Interior in his re
port, will attract great attention. Judged
by the aggregate amount of work done, the
last year has been the greatest In the his
tory of the office. 1 believe that the organ
ization of the office is efficient and that the
worK has beea done with fidelity. The
passage of what is known as the "dobll ty
Ia"v,"' has, r.s was foreseen, very larelv in
creased the annual disbursements to the
disabled veteran- of tho civil war. Tne
estimate for this fiscal year was $144,953.
009. and that amount was appropriate.!. A
deficiency amounting to $in,05S,62l must
be provided for at this session. The
estimates for pension-, for tho fiseal
year endiug Juno 30, foul. H $1 ('0.000.000.
The commissioner of pensions believes
that If the present legislation aud methods
are maintained and further additions to
the pensions aro not made, the maximum
expenditure for pensions will be reached
Juue 30, 1894 and will be at tho highest
point, $183,000,000 per annum.
Tho Inlon Iitc;flc Uitllwny.
In my last annual message 1 called at
tention to the fact that homo executive ac
tion .vas necessary in order to protect the
iuterests of the government in its relations
with tho Union Pacific railway. The com
missioner or railroads has submitted a very
full report, giving exa;t information as to
tho debt, the liens upon the company's
property and its resource.
Wo must deal with the question as we
find it and take that course which will, un
der existing conditions, best secure the in
terests of the United States. 1 recom
meuded in my last annual ui3sagc that a
ronun mission be appointed to deal with
this question and 1 renew that recommend
ation and suggest that the commission be
given full power.
Undo .lorry's department.
The report of the secretary of the agri
culture contains not only a most Interest
ing statement of tho progressive and valu
able work done under the administration
of Secretary Husk, but many suggestions
for the enlarged usefulness of this import
ant department. In the successful effort
to break down the restrictions to tho free
Introduction of our meat products in tho
countries or Europe, the secretary has been
untiring from the first, btimulating and
aiding all other government officials at
homo and abroad whoso official duties en
abled them to participate iu the work. The
total trade In hog products with Europe in
May, ISM, amounted to S2,0O-j,8O9 pounds
against 40,900.000 pounds in the same
mouth of 1891; In June, 18M, the ex
ports aggregated 85,009,000 pounds, against
40,009,000 pounds iu the same mouth
of tho previous year; in July there was an
increase or 41 per cent and in August or 55
per cent over tiie corresponding months or
1891. Over 40,000.000 pounds or inspected
pork have been exported since the law was
)iut into operation, and a comparison or
the four mouths of May. June. July and
August, 1892, with the saino mouths of
l'.U, shows an increase in the number of
pounds of our export or pork
products of 02 per cent and an in
crease in value of G6X ner cent. The
exports or dressed beer Increased
from. 137.900.CO0 pounds in 1W9 to 220,500.
OX) pounds in 1592. or about GO per cent.
During tho la-t year there have been ex
ported 3.H.G07 head of cattle, against 205,
7b0 exported in 1839.
Inspection of .Meats "
This increased exportation has been
largely promoted by the inspection author
ized by law and the faithful efforts of the
secretary and his official subordinate to
make tnat inspection thorough and to care
fully exclude trom all cargoes diseased or
suspected cattle. The requirement or the
English regulations that live cattle arriv
ing from the United States must be slaugh
tered at the docks had its origin in tlie
claim that pieuro-pnoumunia existed
among American cattle and the existence
of the disease could only certainly be de
termined by a post mortem inspection.
The department or agriculture has labored
with great energy and faithfulness to ex
tirpate this disease; and on tho 20th day of
September last a public announcement
was made by tho secretary, of
the disease, that it no longer
exited within the United States.
Agricultural products constitute 71.1 per
ecutof our unprecedented exports for the
fiseal year which closed June 30, ISM, tho
total exports being $1,030,237,030. and the
value of tho agricultural products 793,
717,676, which exceeds by more than $150,
300,000 the shipment or agricnltural
I products In any previous year,
j Corn tn Europe,
j An Interesting and promising work tor
I the benefit or thn American farmer has
I begun through agents of the agricultural
I department in Europe, and consists in ef
1 forts to introduce tne various products of
'Indian corn as articles of human food. The
high price ot rye offered a ravorabfe op
portunity for the experiment in Germauy
ar combining corn meal with rye to pro
duce a cheap bread. A fair degree of suc
cess has beeu attained, aud some mills for
grinding corn for food nave been mtro-
I 3ueed. Tne secretary is of the opinion
j that this new useful product of corn has
j ilreudy stimulated exportation, and tht
"diligently prosCoC?d. large and Ir-
nrtan markets can presenur UB open"
or this great Americau product
etbont Quarantine.
In rnv nnlfl'tW r9 Whohl subject should
be taken Into nations! r onlrol and adequate
power given to tne excehme to l,,r,J,,e.ct
utintii imint nla?ue invasion t"' m
1 1st of September last I approved reanla-
1 lions establishing a twenty day quarantine
for all vessels bringing immigrants from
foreign port?. This order will bo coiitin
ied irf force. Some loss and suffering hap
rearrlts'rf td tfasierigers, but a dim caro for
I the homes' fff tnir people Justifies in sucn
cases the umosJ pTeeautioti Tuero is
' damwr that with the coti.fn?orint cholera
medical atid sanitary science lias been
such, however, that if approved prccau-
ntms aro taiten now 10 pin mi i
arid (owns in tha best sanitary condition
j mtf a provision 1 made for isolating any
! sporadic t'Ase. and for a thorough d:sln-
ti.iinn. ti ii?iiinil can. I am sure, bo
! . J SSW .5iiS0.S
responsibility and
1 v "" " c"
1 e Prnf V"'1
bo flipalliiis It it is neg
lected or unduly dclayoJ.
ltcatrictlns Imirt! rntlorf.
We aro peculiarly" -vibject in our
position to the spread of infectlcnit dise.,-e
by reason of tho fact that un restrict.! Im
migration brings to U3 out or European
ities In tha overcrowded steerages or
?reat steamships a larso number of per
tons 3'htf .Mrrounalngs make theiu the
easy victims 61 IfcS !Hie. This consld-
j political, moral and industrial IntefMt" of
t,ir country, lead 11m to renew the sugzc-
n-al nn asl U'mM !
whII as lunsc sordini, mv:
linn iimt aiimlpsliiii to our country ami to
the lib!! privileges ot its citizenship shall
be more' fwttietcd and more careful.
We have,- 1 fiiluS a right and owe a
1uty to our own people1. anU especially to
3;tr working people, not only to keep out
the viciJkS; the ignorant, the ciVtl dl'
lurber, tho p.lrfrer and the contract
laborer, but to check tho" t great flow of
Immigration now coming by fa-tber lim
itations. Tha Car Coupler A train.
In fenwJhg the recommendation which
I have mad !f! three preceding annual
messages that congre'?r lo'(l legislate for
the protection of railroad cinp'ftfj gainst
the dangers incident to the old and ifcSd'
3uu methods of braking and coupling
where sill! If 03 upon freight business. I
do so' with the IWpe that this congresa may
take actiori on ilie subject. Statistics
furnished by the intefstdttf funimerce com
mission show that during the feat ending
June 30. 1890. there were forty-seven iitrfcr
ent styles of car couplers reported to
be in use. and that during
the same period there were 2,600
employes killed and 20.U0 injured. Nearly
lo per cent or the deaths occurred In tha
coupling acd uncoupling or cars, and over
W per Cent ot the injuries had tho same
origin. The civil servico Cu'Hinisj!o:i asks
for an appropriation tor needed clerical as
sistance, which. I think, should bs given.
1 extended the classified service, March 1,
189.', to include physicians, superintend
ents, assistant superintendents, school
teachers and teachers in the Indian
service, and have had under consideration
the subject et some fnrtiier extensions, but
have not as yet folly determined tho lines
upon which tlio extensions can most
propf rly and usefully be MaJe
Klectlon Methods and I'rrtetteed.
1 have in each of the three annua! mess
sages which it ha been my duty to sub
mit to congress called attention lotho evils
aud dangers connected with our election
methods and practices as they are related
to the choice of officers o the national gov
ernment. In my last aunual message)
i endeavored to lnvolto serious atten
tion to tho evils of unfair apportion
ments for congress. I cannot
close this message without again call
ing attention lo tn-se grjvo and
threatening evils. 1 had hoped that it was
possible to secure a hon-partlsmi Inquiry
by means of commission Into evils, the ex
istence or which is known to all. aud that
outer this might grow legislation from
which all thought of partisan advantage
should be cllmi'iated and only the higher
thought appear of maintaining the freedom
nnd purity of the ballot, aud the equality
or tho elector, without tho guaranty of
which the government .could never been
formed, and without tha continuance of
which it cannot continue to exist in peace
and prosperity. It h time that tho
mutual charges ot unfairness and fraud
between the great parlios should teise.aud
that the sincerity of those who profess a
desire for pure and honest elections,
should be brought to the test or their will
ingness to fret our legislation and our
"election methods from everything that
teuds to impair tho public confidence in
the announced result. The necessity for
an iuquiry and for legislation by congress
upon this subject Is emphasized by the fact
that the tendency of the legislation in
some states in recent years has,
in some important particulars, been
away from and not toward free and
fair elections and equal apportionments.
Is it not time that wo should come together
upon the high plane of patriotism while
we devisa methods that shall secure tho
right of any man qualified by law to rast a
free ballot and give to every such ballot an
equal value in choosing our public officers
and in directing tho policy of tho govern
ment? Lynching and Other Lawlessness.
Lawlessness is not less such, but mora so,
where It usurps tho functions of the peace
officer and of tho courts. Tho frequent
lynchi'Jgs of colored people accused ol
crime is without the excusu which haj
sometimes been urged by mobs foi
a failure to pursue the appointed
methods for the punishment of crime
tint the accused have an undus
influence over court and juries. Such acts
are a reproach to the community where
they occur, and so far as they can be inado
the subject of federal jurisdiction tha
strongest repressive legislation is de
manded. A public sentiment that will
sustain the officers of the law in resisting
mobs and protecting accused persons iu
their custody should be promoted by every
possible means. The officer whe
gives his life iu the brave
discharge of his duty I worthy of
special honor. No lesson needs bo more urg
ently impressed upon our people than this,
that'no worthy end or cause can be pro
moted by lawlessness. This exhibit of the
work or the executive departments is sub
mitted to congress and to the public in tho
hope that there will be round in it a due
sense of responsibility and an earnest pur
pose to maintain the national honor and tn
promote thn happiness and prosperity cf
all our people. And this brief exhibit o:
tho growth and prosperity of the country
will give us a level from which to note the
increase or decadunco that new
legislative p-diHes may bring U
us. There is no reason why tin
naiinnul ir.lltienec. power and proji:iiy ituia.
not otTve tbf rn'es ot increase tlisr have ehar
ncttrlt-d th- pat thlrtr vi-ari.. We inrry lit
rriat lmpiiNe-. and increa-f cf tht- ji-.,r. inw
the fniup There i. no rncn wily in man
line of production we uliould not urp.-:il
other nations a- we ha'ealrendj dniw- In aom1"
There are no ncr frontier to our r-u-ll!e le
lelopment. Retrafr'sMoTi woufii be a crrr.e.
ISrNJwiN llAi:i:isN
Executive Mnn'on. I)eemWC. 1-53,.
Ills Fate.
Some people learn in early child
hood what others aro half a lifetime
in discovering-. A novelist tells a trut
story of a littte boy. a relative of his
town: Jnecnilo-. a nnu little lenow
t of eight years, said something of which
i his mother airapprove.i. and she pro
1 ceeceo to reason with him.
1 -I do not lie to near you speak in
. that manner. Yon mean to he funny.
, but you are simply rude."
Tho little fellow burst into tears.
and said, amidst his sobs
1 "There mother, you have the secret
of my life. I am always meaning tc
' he funny, and I turn out rude.'
roor boy! He was not niona in
1 affliction Sat. Evening Pot.
Miss i'ert. at the museum Oh. I'm
afraid to iro near the snake s cage. He
initrht bite me.
Hie Keeper Oil. don't be alarmed,
mis? he never bite be Mva Sow h t
v.ittiea wf.oie. IhuvurJ. I ?.h.uqq.-
First National Bank
J. U. GALLEY. Vice Fres'l.
O.T.KOEN. Cashier.
C. U. EARLY, aas't Cash!
Statement ef, Condition at the Close of
Business Sept. :iO, 18U2.
f.o.iu anil Di-roinit-
l;-al KiatFuriiltiireauil Kit
Inrt- . ...... .....
Jfi.70t Kt CO
II. 6. ltond
Due Ir m Ir. S. Treasurer.
Die irom oilier banks....
L'a-h on haml
? r.;.vv
Capital Stock paid in.
iwrulii Fund
Uinli!ed profit
I'lrcuUtlon .. ........
If l)fcU
.1 ro.noo.oo
, 3.S.S 6i
ri .-on l
.. 232 71!1
gustttess $ntis.
OfiTiVJ r Colnmbns Slate Bank, Colnmbos.
Nebraska. -
OUice OTer
First National
Rank, Colnmbn.
cAlM.l 1 :K St CBK-LIU
Colnmlif Neb.
Cor. Eleventh A North St--.. COLUMBUS. NEIT.
gyCollcctlonsn specialty. Prom pt and care
ful attention giren to the ettlement of estates
in the county conrt br executor, administrators
and guardian. Will practice in all the courts
ot this -tate and of South Dakota. Refer, by
permission, to the Eirat National Bank.
E. T. ALLEN, M. D.,
Eye - and - Ear - Surgeon,
Secretary Nebraika Stats Board
of Haalth.
109 Raxqz Block,
Tin and Sheet-Iron Ware!
Job-Work, Hoofing and Gutter'
in; a Specialty.
Shop on Nebraska Avenue, two doors aorth
of Rasmoaeen's.
PBoratrzoa or thx
The Finest in The City.
IVTho only shop on the South Side. Colnnw
bus, Nebraska. HOct-y
HonnBopathic Physician
Office over poit office. Specialist in chronfo
diseaxea. Carnfal attention given to general
practic. MnovSm
All kinds of Repairing done on
Hbort notice. Huzzies
is. etc., made to
aid all work
Alao tell the world-famous Walter A
Wood Mowers, Reapers, Combin
ed Machines, Harvesters,
and Self-binders the
beet made.
Shop on Olivo Street. Columbus, Neb.,
four doors south of Corowiak'B.
Colli us : and : Metallic : Cast's !
"Repairing of all kind of Uphv
ttery Goods.
Tonsonal Pari
Blacksffliw Warner
- .