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About The Columbus journal. (Columbus, Neb.) 1874-1911 | View Entire Issue (Aug. 14, 1889)
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VOL. XX.-NO. 17-
COLUMBUS, NEB, WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 14, 1889.
WHOLE NO. 1,005.
x . -
Cash Capital - $100,000.
LKANDEK GEBRAJID, PWt.
GEO. W. HDLST, Vice PreVt.
JULIUS A. BEED.
R. H. HENRY.
J. K. TASKER, Cashier.
aptly 98 al
y latere Ti
Authorize Capital of $500,000
PaM in Capital - 90,000
"C H. SHELDON, Pn't
- . H. P. H. OBLR1CH. Vice Pre.
C. A. NEWMAN, Cashier.
DANIEL SCHRAM, Asa't Cash.
V, H. Sheldon. J- P. Becker.
Herman P. H. Oohlrirh, Carl Rienke.
JnoM Welch. W. A. McAllister.
J. Henry Wanteman, H. M. Wioalow,
(teurpe W. Galley. S. C. Grey
'rank Roivr. Arnold F. H. Oehlnch.
ITBmnk of ilepowit; interest allowed on time
t depoaitw; bay and sell exclionKB on United State
mad Europe, and buy and sell available securities.
W ahall be pleaaed to receive your basineaa. We
solicit your natroaaite. 2Sdee97
WESTEBM GOtTABE ORBAM
A. & M.TURNER
grat-rla ia ererypar
ttokaya Mowtr, conbiMrf, Sf
WmiM, wirt or twin.
Repaired slwrt Btiee
door weat oC Heiatz'a Dra Store, llta
Colsmbea. Neb. l7aov4X
WkamX aar Cns I da aotaMaaaMnlyt
- taaai tar atuae. aad taem aave tteat re-
ef mU kirn of Upket-
taealar, aad as aaaraataed.
JH1, EPPailPair T
AMa-taaaraCBT- I wmat ij nawT
ajaavM waaKaataa. Baaaaaa atkaca aava
a ajpalaVaLtOaiB awaaPT. jpwajaay
aaa- aaa j ? 1 ?
Laaaaaaaaaaaaaaakw - bBBBbW
THE LOVELY VIOLET.
FACTS AND FANCIES ABOUT THE
BEAUTIFUL UTTLE FLOWER.
According to the acton tiara, who 'are a
doll sort of folk, however, and who love
to hide their ignorance behind loag
nimw of learaed aoasd, the violet a a
genus of czogenoue harfaa of the order
Violaco and ia native of the northern
temperate zone. Bat the poets know a
great deal more than the acientieta, for
they were born before them and will
survive them, and the poets tell as all
about the creation of this fragrant flower.
When Jupiter was in love with Io and
changed her into a heifer, deeming that
common grass and flowers were no fit
diet for a sweetheart of the king of gods,
be created the violet that she might feed
upon its dainty petals. And, it is added,
when Io died violets sprang from her
body. Shakespeare alludes to this old
tradition when he says:
Lay her T the earth
Asd from her fair aad unpolluted fleaa
May violets aprisff-
The Greek name for violet was Ion, and
possibly because that suggested Ionia,
whence the Athenians were fabled to
have sprung, the flower was a great fa
vorite with the Athenians, who adopted
it as their badge and loved to weave it
into the chaplets which they wore at
banquets, thinking, indeed, that it was a
guardian against drunkenness.
Alciniades went to Agathos crowned
with ivy and violets. The only lines
that have survived from Alcans ode to
Sappho begin by addressing her as
"Violet crowned, pure, sweetly smiling
Sappho." The Athenian orators, when
striving to win the favor and attention
of the people, were wont to address them
as "Athenians, crowned with violets!"
Among the Romans also the violet was
highly esteemed. Ovid, in speaking of
the ancient sacrifices and contrasting
their noble simplicity with the garish
display of more degenerate tunes, says
that "if there was any one who could
add violets to the chaplets wrought from
flowers of the meadow be was a rich
man." And Virgil, to emphasise the
desolation of nature mourning the death
of Daphnis, speaks of the violet as re
placed by the thistle.
THE VIOLET DT THE EAST.
In the east the violet had a great repu
tation among those races whose religions
were rather emotional than mystical.
The Arabian poets, like their brother
bards of other climes, bade the wealthy
and haughty learn humility from this
lowly wayside preacher. It was a favor
ite flower with Mohammed, and hence
has acquired a peculiar sanctity in Mos
lem countries. "As my religion is above
others," quoth the prophet, "so is the ex
cellence of the odor of violets above
odors. It is as warmth in winter
and coolness in midsummer."
It is likely that it was from some long
foreground of popular homage that the
violet became the badge of the medieval
minstrels, as in the poetical contests of
Toulouse, where the prize was a golden
violet. Clemence Isaure places the vio
let among the flowers with which victors
in the gai science were crowned.
The superstition still survives in widely
scattered countries that to dream of the
violet is good luck. In Brandenburg
and Silesia it is held a specific against
the ague. In Thuringia it is a charm
against the black art. In many parts of
rural Germany the custom is still ob
served of decking the bridal bed and the
cradles of young girls with this flower,
scBstom known to have been in use
among the Kelts as wall as among the
No one, indeed, names the flower but
to praise it; no one uses it bat for some
pretty, useful or poetical purpose. Its
popularity is highly creditable to human
nature. Except that in some regions of
the east it has been used to flavor sher
bets, and that in Scotland it has been
mistakenly used as a cosmetic, it has
been universally cherished only for its
modesty and its beauty and its delicate
CORPORAL LA YIOLETTB.
In modern France the flower has been
adopted as the emblem of the Bonaparte
family. "Corporal Ia VideOe" or "Papa
la Viotette" was the title bestowed by his
partisans upon the first Napoleon after
his henishment to Elba significative of
their confidence that he would return
again in the spring.
Early in January, 1815, a number of
colored engravings made their appear
ance in Paris representing a violet in
foil bloom, with the leaves so arranged
as to form the profile of Napoleon. Un
derneath was this .igadficant motto, -II
reviendraaveatoprintsmps." The phrase
became an imperial toast, and the flower
and color were worn as a party distinc
tion. And, in fact, the sentiment was
realised. When March 90, 1815, saw Na
poleon enter the TuiHeriesfter hie escape
from Elba, he f band the grand staircase
filled with hriifw. who nearly smothered
him with violets.
On the death of tine king of Rome very
pretty devices in violets were made,
showing on the edge of the petals pro
files of the members of the Bonaparte
family, each profile forming- the onter
edge of the petal looking at the flower
and leaving the face white.
On the death of Napoleon HI, also, the
visitors to Chiselkurst wore or csrried
there benches of violets. New -York
that the laws of hygiene
entirely neglected. There is no
ef mf ecOone dasases, and no
paid to causes of death unless there is
supposition of violence. According; to
to be habeas of liiawssw. stmjected regn
lariy to terrible epidemics which, with
as, are invariably associated with, the
neglect of sessmry laws. Strange to say
sack si not the case. Epidemics come
and go without any apparent reason, ap
pearing; perhaps, suddenly.
heavy mortality for a short
then as suddenly i rja ring
lntioa to the foreign mi
H-. ? alaaaaA s9 a a I aaaaaaaMaa
XObT CBuIB sbsDMOCVOC asessUi&ssVTj eKZesttssKK
BBsaaVsmnaB) tsa sfmsaaassam SBMnasaaa evsaUxT' WlBBesSBi
are utterly and
sag generally, Chmem
The fact fa. afl.the
affect of which
niiniwafn over and o'
heavy mortality which
prevkms to the adoption of
enjoined by modern sanitary science.
The healthiness of fliinem cities has
been ingeniously attributed by some
people to tike universal habit of fanning,
a practice which fa said to keep the at
mosphere in msMfiiit circulation How
far this explanation can be deemed to
enftli in we must wave to eapeits to de
cide, bat, so far as contaminated water
supply fa concerned, we believe the real
secret of immunity from fas evil effects
to Ifem the universal custom of boiling
all water intended for drinkmg. Am a
matter of fact, the Chinese never drink
cold water. The national beverage,
which, ia a tme sense, may bs said to
cheer bat not inebriate, fa tea, and tikis
is always "oa mp," eram in the
of tike very pose The native
to cold water fa undoubtedly carried to'
extremes, and certainly induces diseases
which might easily be avoided by a
judicious system of outward applica
tion. In the matter of ablations i: must,
however, be admitted that the Chinese
enjoy facilities which, however little
they are taken advantage of, are far in
advance of anything within tike reach ot
the poorer clamw of oar own favored
land. Every little hamlet in China has
a shop where hot water can be bought
for a trifling sum at any hoar of the day
or night. Even in a small fishing vil
lage on a remote island in'thegulf of
Pechili, where the writer spent six
weeLs under very unpleasant circum
stances during a severe winter, this was
the case,' and a great convenience it
proved. The National Review.
"There are 18,060,000,000 invested in
the dairying business in this country,"
said a citizen wkh a predilection for
fftatifftiT. "That s"10"" t almost drrsMr
the money invested in hanking and com
mercial industries. It fa estimated that
it requires 15,000,000 cows to supply the
AnmnA for milk and its products in the
United States. To feed these cows 00,
000,000 acres of land are under cultiva
tion. The agriculture and dairy ma
chinery and implements in use are worth
over $200,000,000. The men employed
in the business number 750,000 and the
horses over 1,000,000. The cows and
horses consume annually 10,000,000 tons
of hay, nearly 0,000,000 bushels of corn
meal, about tike same amount of oat
meal, 275,000,000 bushels of oats, 2,000,
000 bushels of bran and 30,000.000 bash
els of corn, to my nothing of the brew
ery grains, sprouts and other questiona
ble feed of various kinds that are used
to a great extent. It costs $450,000,000
to feed them cows and horses. The av
erage price paid to the laborer necessary
in the dairy business is probably $20 a
month, amounting to $180,000,000 a year.
"The average cow yields about 450
gallons of milk a year, which gives a
total product of s,750,0,ett gnllons
Twelve cents a gallon fa a fair price to
estimate the value of this milk at, a total
return to the dairy farmers of $810,
000,000, if they sold all their milk as
milk-. But 50 per cent, of the milk is
made into cheese and butter. It takes
27 pounds of milk to make 1 pound of
butter, and about 10 pounds to make one
of cheese. There is the same amount of
nutrition in Si pounds of milk that then'
is in 1 pound of beef, A fat steer fur
nishes 50 per cent, of bonelem beef, but
it would require about 24,000,000 steers,
weighing 1,500 pounds each, to produce
the same amount of nutrition as the an
nual milk product does." Philadelphia
One night, long since, H. TL Huff, a
well known coal dealer of Atlanta, while
cutting down a bee tree on his farm, five
miles from Atlanta, on the Sandsown
road, made a strange discovery. The
bees were in a hollow tree, and Felix
Jackson (colored) was put to work with
an ax to hew it down. "Lawdamercy,"
exclaimed the negro, as he dropped his
ax and peered into the opening he bad
made by the light of a torch. The negro
had discovered an arsenal whose imple
ments of war were like the gun of Hip
Van Winkle after his sleep of twenty
years. In the hollow tree were eintold
army muskets and two bayonets, which
had been stored away by soldiers twenty
five years ago. The stocks of the guns
had nearly rotted away and the barrels
were rusted. The tree had grown about
one of the bayonets and made it immova
ble. Atlanta (Ga.) Special.
The timidity of people when in the
presence of death fa fraqnsavtly shown at
coroners' inquests, When a witness k
ushered into the presence of the jury the
coroner recites the formal oath, which
concludes with the words, "the
whose body hen here
and tuoro especially ladies, who frequent
ly look about in a startled manner, with
a view of locating the subject of -the in
the same room with the jury. St Paul
which has already wasted thxresaJnutef
for her. Lmsureiyaha walks along one
and, not lading one to bar liking, goaf
tijwnnti irnrdsnil amlwiinTgiL Bs
any of tike sansaasjees nmajCmt impa-
yon can essjsndon fa they are new
wind whistles, the thunder rolls, the
enow flies, the waves leap, and the fields
smile. Even the trees sbuot and the rivers
and streams run. Scranton Truth.
cook got angry thfa morning and left,
bag and baggage. What are we going
Mr. YneagsuBBBBil Why, my lave, 1
thought y on attended eenkmc aehoal for
I did. dear,
merely to learn cooking as
. nurnngtOB Free
Europeans has been
anoroaches a street ear
ainerments, The hschtninc saava. the
Mrs. Yrmnghnshnnd So
but that wai
A GREAT GAME OF CHESS.
THE YOUNG MAN WHO BEAT THE
PASHA FIFTY YEARS AGO.
On a summer afternoon, almost fifty
years ago, Sulejmann Pasha, commander-in-chief
of the Egyptian artillery, sat
at coffee in a cafe on the Nile terrace in
Cairo. At tables near him were many
soldiers who had helped him fight the
armies of Sultan Mahmud not many
months before. Several of them had
been with him in the battle of Nbno,
when he routed the Turkish army under
Hafis Pasha and CoL von Moltke, then
in the sultan's service. But Sulejmann
Pasha was not thinking of the- soldi en
about him, nor of Hafiz Pasha, nor CoL
von Moltke, nor the great battle of Nizib.
Bjs whole attention was concentrated
on a chessboard before him.
Sulejmann Pasha was a famous chess
player. In the first few weeks after his
return to Cairo he had beaten dozens of
times Ulema Rescind Aga, formerly the
champion chess player of northern
Egypt He regarded his reputation as a
chess player as somewhat akin to his
reputation as a warrior. He considered
chess to be pre-eminently a soldier's
game, and never tired of making elabor
ate comparisons between strategy on the
chess board and strategy on the field of
battle. Every afternoon lie met Ulema
Rpwrhid Aga at the cafe on the Nile ter
race and beat him two or three games.
On this particular afternoon, almost
fifty years ago. Ulema Rescind Aga was
a little late in coming to bis Waterloo,
and Sulejmann Pasha was having a pre
liminary skirmish with himself while
awaiting his opponents amvaL His
diversion was interrupted by the appear
ance on the terrace of .a long, gaunt
bony young stranger. The stranger
strode right up to the pasha's table, and
after making a half military salute, said
so loudly that every one on the terrace
"Pasha, I challenge you to a game of
All the officers on the terrace sat quite
still and stared at the thin, pale young
man who stood before their great com
mander. The pasha looked him over
"I am at your service," was his answer,
after a long pause. "How high do you
"Sometimes for nothing, sometimes for
a great deal. You fix the stakes, pasha."
"Well, a hundred ducats will not be
The stranger nodded and sat down.
The lots were cast The game was be
gun. All the officers in the cafe left their
coffee to crowd around the players. The
first few moves convinced them that the
long, bony fingers of the stranger had
moved cheat men many times before. At
the end of twenty minutes the pasha's
eyes suddenly brightened and he smiled.
He had an invincible combination. He
placed his queen before his opponent's
queen. The officers began to grumble,
for they thought their commander had
lost his head. Only Rescind Aga, who
had in the meantime joined the crowd of
spectators, looked happy. He had guessed
his friend's combination, and he, too, was
sure that it was invincible.
"He will take the quean," commented
the spectators, anxiously.
"Then he will be checkmated in eight
moves," whispered back Reschid Aga.
"And if he doesn't take herr
"He will lose his own," said the ex
The stranger moved a pawn. Sulej
manxLtook his queen. The officers thought
it was all up with the gaunt young man,
and started back to their coffee. They
were called back, however, by the first
words the pasha's opponent had spoken
since he sat down to the table.
"Pasha, in twelve moves you will be
The interest of the pasha's friends be
came intense. They counted each move
aloud. One two three four and the
panhs was already hard pressed. Five
six seven eight nine and his men
were hemmed in on all sides. Ten the
pasha tried in vain to break the blockade
by aaCTifiTig bis queen. Eleven he
drew back bis king into a corner. Twelve
and the stranger cried out: "Check
mate." There wasa dead silence, andallstared
at the pasha. He thought bard for sev
eral minutes, without uttering a word.
Then he looked searchingly into the
stranger's face and said:
"Once before I have seen chess played
ss you play it Your strategy is not new
to me, although I cannot cope with it
The game that your playing reminds me
of was much finer than this. It was
played with cavalry and infantry and
heavy artillery, till the ground shook
under our feet The great chess player
from the north who was then against me
had 150,000 men. In his hands they were
invincible. The mad and envious inter
ference of Hafiz Pasha ruined his combi
nations, however, and gave us the game."
The pasha stopped a moment to scru
tinise the stranger's face. It was expres
sionless. Then he continued:
"Young man, you remind me of that
great chess player from the north who
all but routed us at Nizib, as you have
routed me here. Young man, only one
man in the world can play chess like
that He fa CoL von Moltke."
"You have it" answered the stranger,
reachuur the panha hi hand. "I m
Moltke." New York Sun.
It would seem that women ought to
save guiding strings hanging from their
to assist in discovery when the
are needed. How often a poor
stands scarlet and miserable,
hunting for her pocket, wfafle a car con-
stolidly awaits his fare. The
mw a variation on this. A con
ductor wanted change for a dollar bifl.
Agirifniilr iMTahajidfnlnf amalTiiMWMgr;
tune taring to be put off at
street Itwss thenTweniy-
thirdstreet Tne conductor returned the
hoi and the surplus change. The girl
stuffed the bill in her glove and after
seme hunting seemed to find her pocket
and dropped therein the coins. AtTwen
tfath street a suddm wild look came mto
her eyes, and she began fumbling for tike
to anxiety and fear to
A nickel rolled
on to the
sttitaiiil taa Tarttaf Aairfcir aa sM
hnat Kted mt Caeaaaft Than Waa he
ot rigid and
maaiserent direction, we'
tonoticeit and she looked
share miserable. You see, she had put
the coins through tike placket hole of her
dress, and not in her pocket at alL The
conductor motioned. A cent rolled to
the floor. The girl would see neither the
coin nor the conductor. Then the 'con
ductor shouted, while the car waited:
"But this is Eighteenth street," re
turned the conductor.
Down went a dime.
"I don't want to get out," the girl an
swered, tears of rage rising in her eyes.
"Didn't you my Eighteenth?' be said.
"I have changed my mind," the girl
answered desperately, a tear and a three
cent piece rolling to the floor together.
Well, the writergotoutat Ninth street
and she hadn't found either her pocket
or the placket hole yet. and the floor was
-t all1 ever small change. She may be rid
ing yet New York Sun.
I saw the smallest newsboy in New
York in City Hall park yesterday. He
was a little 4-year-old, chubby in face
and still a baby; yet he had an armful
of papers, includinga bundle of Graphics.
It was the little fellow's debut as a news
boy and he was surrounded by a dozen
or more lads, all older than himself, who
were shrieking snd yelling like so many
Comanches. The wee fat legs waddled
past the court house into Chambers
street at the head of the queer procession
and the childish voice piped: "Era's ee
Noo-ees an' ee Grafeek." "Hey! hey!
bully for Petey!" screamed the delighted
news boys in chorus. Forgetting their
sales for the moment, they were all bent
on giving the little chap a start in the
business under the best auspices. I
stopped and bought a paper.
The big brown eyes looked up into
mine and the baby voice chirped: "Tan
kee." "Giv' 'im de change, Petey," yell
ed the mob of urchins. "No, my boy;
keep it for luck." "Hey! hey!" broke
out the storm again, and Petey and the
barefooted crowd swept past the fat lit
tle legs just ahead of the others. "We're
breakin' him in, boss," explained one of
the bigger boys. "He's got nobody ter
home, 'cept a gal as is sick, kinder, and
Petey's agoin' ter sell papers ter keep de
house." "Will he make enough?" I ask
ed. "Bet yer life be will," was the
sturdy answer. "Der fellies won't see
Petey left He's in tralnin' f er de mas
cot of our baseball club, Petey is, and
he'll make big money dis season an' don't
yer ferget it" And the good hearted
lad skipped after the procession which,
with Petey still at its head, was now dis
appearing down Park row. New York
of taa fatax.
The best of all pavements, as has oeen
shown by experience in our own and
foreign cities, is made of asphalt When
asphalt pavements first came into use in
this rriMBliy they were largely made
with'coar- lax, and proved defective hr
many ways; afterward the methods and
materials used in the Old World were
imported and gave excellent results.
The result of the experience of
the last ten years has clearly shown that
the pavement made with the Trinidad
asphalt is equal to any in the world and
superior to any other kind of pavement in
use. Its excellencies, cleanliness, silence
and salubrity are so apparent that no ar
gument is now needed to enforce them,
and to these may be added, and placed
first on the list economy; for it costs as
little and lasts as long as any other good
pavement, and is much less trying tc
horses, vehicles and human nerves. It
is rapidly growing in favor, and it is not
too much to say that it is the pavement
of the future, and is destined in most
localities to supersede all other kinds.
Professor Newberry in School of Mines
TargcaiaTa Sick Seeker.
Since my reference the other day to
the experience of the physician here in
Boston who was called upon to attend a
sick monkey in the Italian quarter in the
North End, I have come across an anec
dote in the advance sheets of a new book
which illustrates a similar pathetic im
pression which the sufferings of a sensi
tive monkey made on a great Russian
novelist In the "Impressions of Rus
sia," by Edmund Brandes, there fa a
touching story of the tenderhearted Tur
genief riding all the way on a solitary
journey by rail from Hamburg to Lon
don holding the paw of a timid monkey
who was terrified by the fearful motion
and roar of the train. "With a poor,
cowed, fettered little monkey's hand in
his," says Brandes, "the genius whose
spirit had ransacked the universe, hand
in hand with the little anthropoid ani
mal, like two kindred mortals, two chil
dren of the same mother there fa here
more true devotion than in any book of
devotion." There was certainly a noble
spirit of sympathy in this act of Turge
nief, and it helps to account for the hold
he has on the human heart that his own
'should have throbbed so tenderly for the
poor little monkey. Boston Post
Civil Serrie gxaatinatioaa.
Chief Clerk Webster, a man of great
zeal and usefulness in lib work, denies
that school girls and boys iiave a better
chance in these examinations than man
and women of more mature years. That
the competitors are not school children
ia shown by the average age of candi
dates, which is about 30 years. It is
noteworthy, however, that the average
age of those who fail fa always greater
than that of those who succeed. Of
common school graduates 98 out of 100
fail, as against only 17 of 100 of high
school graduates. Among candidates
who Haim academic or collegiate educa
tion the percentage of failure fa nearly
90, and the business college graduates
do but 2 or 3 per cent better.
Not many of the problems are difficult
A majority are in simple addition, mul
tiplication and subtraction. Few fail on
those, but may do on such inmtione as
"Express in figures tike following num
bers: One bjasdred and nineteen billion,
one hundred and twenty-one nuUion.
eleven thousand snd forty-one onehsnv
dred thousandths and also on sack as
this "Express in words the following
aaniberat M44S7l,4sl.0t." Washing
They have a new way of p1anting out
orange trees down near San Diego. They
bore a small hole and drop in a dynamite
cartridge, thnarnaMion of which makes
the hc4 big enough fnrstren indlnnes.
tog the soil form vera! feet enables the
- - turn runt easier flail
RAILROADS IN INDIA.
SIXTEEN THOUSAND MILES OF
TRUNK LINES IN HINDOSTAN.
India has now
of railroad. It tam far from Calcutta to
Bombay as it fa from New York to
ver, and several
Hindnetan from one city to the other.
There are branches from these which go
up tike Himalaya mountains almost to
the borders of Thibet, and others which
shoot off totheKhyber Pass at the en
trance to I fghaatsmw and notagreat
distance from the new Irranesn railway.
which has bea
cand. The day win
though this presupposes the cutting of a
tnnrul nniioTthe FiHgliflh channel. South
India has many long miles of railroads,
and the whole of Hindnetan, which fa
half theaiseof the United States, has a
railroad net covering it The construc
tion of these railroads has included en
gineering works fully as grand as the
railroad nmkingof the United States,
and the keeping of them in order ia more
WOOD KATISO ATTS.
One of the great plagues of Indian rail
road makers fa the white ant These in
sects eat every dead thing ia wood form
above ground. If a pile of wooden ties
Is left out over night an attack of ants
will have carried it away by morning,
and there is no possible storage of wooden
ties. Such ties as are in the roads are
laved from destruction by the vibration
suised by the running trains, which
icares the snts away. It b the same
svith telegraph poles and fences, and the
result is that the ties of most of tbe rail
roads are made of iron. I have traveled
about three thousand miles over all kinds
of railways in India. The telegraph
poles on many of the lines are hollow
tubes of galvanized iron, about as big
around as the average man's calf, so
made that they fit into one another and
form a pole about ten feet high. To these
poles the lines are strung, and many of
the roads use such poles throughout their
On other lines the telegraph poles are
r iron rails, the same as those on which
the car travels. Two of these rails are
fastened together by bars about afoot
wide and then this iron lattice work is
set deep in the ground and the wire strung
upon it About some of the stations the
fences are made of such iron rails, and
through hundreds of miles along one of
the rajah's railroads in Western India I
found fences of barbed wire with sand
stone posts. These stones are a foot wide
and about four inches thick, and they
stood about three feet above the ground.
The wires ran through holes in them and
the railroad men tell me that they are
much cheaper than wood.
THE HAGM1KICEXT DEPOTS.
I am surprised at the magnificence of the
depots in India. Here at Bombay there
is a finer railroad station than any we
have in the United States. It cost about
$1,000,000, and architecturally it is tbe
peer of any building at Washington, At
Calcutta there are small depots and even
at the smallest of the towns you find
well, made stone hnildings surrounded
by beautiful gardens, in which bloom all
kinds of tropical flowers. Nothing about
these stations fa made of wood. The
platforms are of stone filled in with ce
ment and the oars run into the stations
on a plane about two feet below the floor,
and so that the floor of tbe cars is just
even with that of the depot Each sta
tion has its first second and third claw
waiting room, and everything in India
goes by classes.
The cars are first second, third and
fourth class, and they are aU on'the Eng
lish plan. They are about two-thirds
the length of our cars and a trifle wider.
They are not so heavy as the American
passenger coach and they look mora like
wide, long boxes than anything else.
Each of these cars fa divided into com
partmenta la the first and second clam
there are only two compartments to the
car, and the chief difference in these two
dniapa fa in the number allowed in the
compartment If you wiU imagine a
little room about 10 feet long by 5 wide,
with a roof 7 feet high, in the center of
which there fa a glees globe for a light
you may have some idea of the Indian
first class car. You must, however, put
two long, leather covered, cushioned
benches along each aide of tikis room
and at the ends of these have doors with
glass windows in them, opening inward.
Over the cushioned backs of the benches
there are windows which let up and down
like those of the American -stiett car,
and which are of tbe same size. The car
has none of the finish of the Amawaa,
Pullman, and though you are expected
to sleep within it there are no signs of
bedding or curtains. At the back of it
there is a lavatory, without towels, soap
or brushes, and there is barely room
enough for you to turn around in it
wlien you are washing. Tbe second
class cars are much the same, and there
may be one second clam car and one first
in tbe same coach. Frank G. Carpenter.
IN DISMAL RUSSIA.
Everything baa stood stfll under the
present czar; the bribery and corruption
of theoflcfafa, the ignorance of tike
peassnts, tike intei ft n nee with all private
liberty, continue as under Peter the
Great Men sre eent off by hundreds to
Siberia, while it fa never known by whom
they were denounced, or what are tike
crimes imputed to them. The petty in
terferences in common life are almost in
credible; no man can even alter the front
of his. house in St retenlmig without
special permfaakm from the csar. For
eign newspapers are received wkh broad
splotches of .pristine; mk over any pas
sages objected to by the
which fa stricter than evm
follies go on as of old. A
described ss "moving freelyf the
gerous word was scratched oat
volutions" of a wheel
The theory ef
carried out to i
rectiy with the
what we call a cabinet. In
the aaajorityaf the
apposed tocciwii sledi-
caar,and to take orders
aleaw, so that there can he so
chief who cannot be
wtocfrnr, and by a aumberof
hie petty omefafa with
ef doing eviL
The peasants still conceive that the
czar can do no wrong, and believe in
him as ia a godr this forme; indeed, one
of the chief points in their religion.
which consists hi prostration,
ions, and crossings during a service
ducted m old Slavonic, which fa a dead
language both topric sta and people, at the
keeping of fasts and festivals during 185'
days in the year, and in a fetich wor
ship of the holy icons (or images) as de
grading as any to be found in Central
Africa. There fa an utter divorce among
tbe peasants between the ideas of mo
rality and religion. In the upper class,
as described by Count Tolstoi, it fa the
'fashion to prof em complete unbelief in
everything, and Stepniak glories in the
nihilism of the middle classes as includ
ing every subject: "We are mora ad
vanced than ether nations, as we have
disposed of religion, the next world, and
all such rubbish." The small remains of
free institutions still left in the local
boards of' the country have been lately
attacked by the czar; everything, in
fact, instead of advancing, is retrograd
ing in measures for self government and
liberty of any kind. F. P. Verney in
The spectacle of a trim, shapely, weU
bred looking young woman walking
down Fifth avenue behind an over
dressed child of perhaps twelve years of
age and carrying the youngster's school
books, has been observed by social stu
dents on several occasions lately. It
seems to be the proper thing with chil
dren of the smart set, but it is not an
altogether cheerful and encouraging
sign of the times. These young women
axe not governesses, unless they come
under the English designation of nursery
governesses, for the children go to school
and presumably are taught something
when they get there; nor are the young
women maid servants, and they are very
rarely, it would appear, of foreign ex
traction. In a country like England,
where poor girls of good family consent
to accept positions which, if not menial,
are given menial suggestiveness,. there is
the inborn British respect for rank and
money to condone what seems to be rath
er unworthy service. But in this glori
ous republic of independence and equal
ity the sight is not a pleasant one. Times
must be bard when American girls sell
their birthright and self respect for a
mess of pottage. New York Star.
Stolen by Mice.
In Mr. Davin's "Irishmen in Canada"
is told a very good bear and mouse story,
which is better than the average inven
tion in that line. A settler had gone into
'the bush" and worked one season be
fore bringing bis family to their new
home. Having built bis house and cleared
some land, he thought of returning for
his wife and children.
He-had. wish other money, $150 in sil
ver. Tins, on account of its weight be
determined not to take with him, but to
hide it in the hollow of a tree. He put
it in a stocking and hung it up in a hol
When the settler and his family came
home the next summer, they found that
an old bear had made the house his abode
during the winter, and on going to the
tree for his money, the man was not a
little disappointed to find it gone!
His mind hovered round his money,
and he haunted the tree. At last he de
termined to cut it down. At the base
hope revived when he saw portions of
the paper and the stocking cut up fine,
forming, together with grass and leaves,
a wood mouse s nest Beneath the nest
was the $150 in the midst of mold and
The vast majority of city dwellers rent
their houses and never have a permanent
home. This constitutes a sort of respect
able vagabondage including our repu
table people of tbe middle classes, The
need of this sort of life is of. late coming
under dinrnnnion That it involves vast
waste and loss, and is seriously detrimen
tal to family character, is beyond ques
tion. Building and loan associations have
grown into prominence as a remedy, and
the subject should be considerately stud
ied by all men of moderate means.
Mrs. Sanbury, of the Social Science as
sociation, estimates the number of such
amnt-iitinnfi at present at nearly 5,000,
with an investment of $300,000,000,
while the savings during the forty years
past have been over $500,000,000. There
are 600 associations in Ohio. 430 in Illi
nois, 52 in Michigan, and other states in
proportion. St Louis Globe-Deiuucrat.
A Maw Clear Horror.
Among the latest imitations which
have been successfully introduced into
the tobacco trade of this city and other
cities are cigars, the wrappers of which
are made out of a specially perfumed
paper. A gentleman well known in the
iron manufacturing circles of this vi
cinity was the first to inform a Com
mercial Gazette reporter that smoking
material of this kind was new in the
market He has recently returned from
a visit to Norfolk. Va.. where he met a
drummer for a large tobacco factory of
New York state. This gentleman in
formed the Pittsburger that he was then
introducing an imitation cigar wrapper
which was so deceiving in its character
that experts coui scarcely distinguish
it from the genuine.
This preparation was made, from rye
straw, and one portion of the process
was to steep the material in a strong
solution made from tobacco stems. The
grain of tbe straw, together with the
manner in which the material wae
dressed, would lead any person to sup
pose that it was a sample of the leaf
used in making wrappers for cigars of a
more than ordinary quality The flavor
of tobacco was also present, owiny to
the paper having been immersed in the
solution made from the genufre article.
According to the latest educational re
pert of 1884, only 1.488.913 or the 15.000,
008 children in the Russian empire at
tended schools. About 90 per cent.
therefore, of young Russia receive no in-
atalL In sixty governments
fa ajauy one school for secondary
to every 18.000 boys aad S2.-
888girfa. Only 83 percent of the boys
of an aga to attend a public high school
aumberof ancn schools fa even mora in-
First rtalM Ink
lath ansa of
Cuijraat expgama aad
Ckceka aad other cam ii
Bills or otbr Beaks
Michala aad casta.
KeUeaiDtiea (aad with U.S.
er (S acr ceat of eirealatiea)
"-- -artiaa- amn
lodtvidaal daaoaiU aa&jwt to caeek. SM73 M
Deauad ovrtiacatoa of ilraoait 7S.SaK sa
aowa asu Duia nsOMcoaaMf
A. ANDERSON. Piaa't
J. H; QAIJJCY. Vk PteaX
G. ANDERSON, P. ANDOBCW.
JACOB GKU8KN. BKNftT JBAGATZ.
OWca over Coloabaa State Beak. Cotaataea,
OKLUrAJ BatKaMCsK. .
ATTORNEYS AT LAW,
Office over Vint Natioaal
iy Parties tlMairing- Barrniaa- doaa can aa
... .. -""""ms rut, nr can ac aw oa
ia ( wrt H.HUM. "Tijttff j
CO. SUF"T PUBLIC SCHOOLS.
. ? THJ Ih my "Sc in tim Coart Hoaar. the
tioaof applicant for teachers' ci
Tor Um traaaactioB of other achool
j at. CtjmaiXM,
'DRAV and EXPRESSJTAX.
Liht and heavy haalinr. Good handled with
-.Mi-. JiciMuantrs ai J. r. UrcaWiZl.oi.aoei
Telephone. St and IU. ISaiajSWf
FAUBLK & BRADHHAW.
SuccesMn to Fuublr or Btukrll),
brick: ivr akers i
t'ontmctora and bailtlers will aad oar
unci ura-ciaua ami uncivil at rriwlila rataa.
We are alan prepared to iki all kiaiht of brick
TwT k TUsurnt co..
Proprietorn ant) rubliaiiera of the
C8L3IB73 JQVSSa&asl tfca atS. TiMOT JCTtsaL, .
Both, pout-paid to any adilretw. for 2.00 a year
strictly in advance. Family Jociwal. SLOB a
W. A. MeALLISTEK. W. M. CORNELIUS
'CA8.I.IMTKBK ex CBSKaLlUS
ATTORNEYS AT LAW.
Office np stairs over Krnat X Schwarx'a store oa
JUeTenth street. Idaiiajun
JOHN G. HIGGIN8.
HIGGHS ft GA1X0W,
Specialty made of Collection by C. J. Garlew.
R. C. BOYD,
Til aid SkeeMrai Ware!
CT-Shop on lah street, Kraaaa Bro.'a old
atand on Thirteenth street. astf
Cham. F. Kxapp.
Giatractirs art Biilfas.
EBtipates famished on brick aad stoaelwork
and plaateruuc free. Special attention wrea to
tettintr boilers, mantles, etc. Staining aad
tuck pointing old or new brick work to repre
sent pressed brick, a specialty. Correepoadeace
Milicited. References given.
.Smayly KNAPP BROR.
A STRAY LEAE!
TIE A1EEICAN MAtiAZINE,
ire Ogtr Both for a Tear, at f4j.
Tbe JocaXAX. ia acksowledaed to ha tha !
news aad faauly paper ia Platte coaatyad The
i swsssnisr iwrawnaiyn
ly aaaaanaa devotes irirely to i
tare, smanraa xnoaanc aad
taa oaur aanasa exnnasar oc .
tieaav It hi as aood aa aar of
i laea. faraiahiBs ia a year over LSst aasaa of i
i niiiissT iKsrsimre. wnoea avowi
can astasia, it ia Daaaaraur iiiasaiaaBa. aad i
&o asara aawiariaf
a year's sabsenpaoa to
Tha price of JocasAt ia $2M,
ajByPOffJfl KfHaTerV esaBBSsw)
rceanaa. aad ia
. ?PS"SL"-f .. . " ... -!
.-i-7!ZLZr3Liss -,; "ViT. I""" vf.S.
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