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About The Columbus journal. (Columbus, Neb.) 1874-1911 | View Entire Issue (Dec. 12, 1888)
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VOL. XIX.-KO. 34.
COLUMBUS, NEB. WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 12, 1888.
WHOLE NO. 970.
Cash Capital - $100,000.
LEANDER GERRAKD. Pres't.
GEO. W. nULST, Vice PreVt.
-JULIUS A. REED.
R. 11." HENRY.
J. E. TASKER. Cashier.
Baak m Deflt, DlncBt
CeIIectleaa PresiIy 3faele
lay iMtereMt Tlsae
C. li. SHELDON. Pres't.
W. A. MCALLISTER, Vice I'r.V.
C. A. NEWMAN. Cashier,
DANIEL SCIIRAM. -Wt Cah.
J 1 BECKER. JONAS WEIjCn,
( ui! KE1NKE II. 1. H. OEHLRICH,
1 II WUltUKMAX. H. M. WINSLOW
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This Bank transacts a regular Ranking Basinet-!',
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Pups Repaired oi skert motier
BTOne door west of Heintz's Drug Store, 11th
street. Columbus. Neb. 17novMf
- When I say Ccre I do not mean merely to
atop them for a time, and then have them re
tare again. 1 mean A RADICAL CUKE
I have made the disease of
FITS, EPILEPSY or
A life-long stud; . I wakrajst my remedy to
CCSE the worst cases. Because others have
failed is no reason for not now receiving a core
Scad at once for a treatise and a Free Bottle
of my Infallible Remedy. Give Express
aad Post Office. It costs yon nothing for a
trial, aad it wiU cure you. Address
TXLSTDERT AXEB !
COFFUfS AND METALLIC CASES
ZTBepairing of alllnndsof UphoU
-tf COLUMBU8, NEBRASKA.'
CITINA AND ITS PROGRESS.
INTERESTING DESCRIPTIVE LECTURE
BY GEN. JAMES H. WILSON.
The Social and Political Status of the Ca
lcutta! Empire Sew Ideas from the West
Set Received with Cordiality Autocracy
Maj. Gen. James H. Wilson delivered
a lecture before the American Geograph
ical society, in Chickering ball. New
York city, during the course of which
In China the family is the political
unit, and if one member goes astray the
whole family may become extinct if the
emperor pleases. No man can be a gov
ernor in his own province, and no gov
ernor is allowed to surround himself
with officials who are his own relatives.
Nepotism is unknown.
The great rivers of China flow east to
the Pacific, and the populations gather
in the deltas in towns and villages. A
peculiarity of tho great cities is that they
are surrounded with great brick walls,
with diiclies, parapets and gates, and the
gates are regularly opened and closed
every morning, as they were 600 years
ago. The new capital of Formosa has
such a wall, after the manner of the
middle ages. The crystallized labor of
Japan is seen in these great walls of
cities, the great wall of the nation that
separates it from outlying provinces and
the grand canal They spend every year
large sums to keep the grand canal open.
Yet it is inadequately supplied with re
serve stores of water.
He spoke of the civil service system of
China as a democratic institution, that
gave every man a chance to advance
equal to that of his neighbors. There is
no nobility, only the autocracy of sci
ence. The la6t examination comprised
the competition of 30,000 students of ma
ture age, of whom only thirty succeeded.
The learning relates to Chinese history
and jurisprudence and the philosophy of
Confucius, hut has nothing to do with
modern sciences. There is a college in
China presided over by an American.
Dr W. A- P. Martin," hut the goveni
tuent is very slow to admit new ideas. 1
only lately began to investigate electric
ity." It isnot best for the native China
niun to know Um much of modern aei-ence-
CJen. Wilson spoke of the successive
destruction of Chinese dynasties as
inseparable from the Chinese sys
tem. As far as it is practicable,
wherever there is a Chinamen in
oHicc. there is a Tartar to watch him.
The ojk ration of the censorship is inquis
itoi ial and offensive. Tho w hole empire
is held in subjection by the army and the
centor. The nresent emneror is onlv 17
years old. He is the nepliew of the late ,
emperor; for the lirst time in many ,
years the direct male issue failed. For
some years the practical sway was held
bv two women, the wife and 6ister of
the late emperor. But recently one of
them died, and the empress dowager was
left in practical supremacy.
She is never seen by foreigners. She
is a remarkable woman. She selects the
emperor's wives, and has begun by
choosing as his first wife her favorite
niece. The imperial clan occupies a
place alxmt a mile square, walled in, in
the middle of the city of Pekin.
The high officials will not hold inter
course with foreigners. No diplomat
has ever seen the empress dowager or the
emperor. Not even the great men of
China can approach the throne without
permission, and then they must be pros
trate. There is no such thing as popular
education. The people have nothing to
dti with the government. The govern
ment is absolutely isolated, and holds no
communication with tho people. Ideas
never reach the throne from the people.
The foreigners are conlined to a very
small part of the seaboard, except that
missionaries are allowed to go to the in
terior. Tho foreign merchant does not
deal with the Chinese merchant directly,
but through servants. Improvements go
on slowly. Yet in the interior may lie
found kerosene, cotton cloth, needles ant1
matches. TheTai-ping rebellion had its origin
with a disappointed student. The an
tipathy of tho rehels to foreigners led to
the establishment of the "ever victo
rious" army, under the celebrated Capt.
Ward, and the development of the hair
brained Burgevins, whose ambition even
soared to first shipping the rebels and
then taking possession of tho empire.
The result was that after he liad deserted
to both sides several times the Chinese
lost him one night while crossing a river.
Gen. Wilson quoted one of the me
morials recently sent to the emperor by
a high Chinese official, written, accord
ing to Chinese customs, on his deathbed,
advocating the building of railroads,
mining, the construction of 6hips, coast
defenses and other progressive things.
That this and other similar memorials
have reached the eyes of the emperor is
known by the fact that many such me
morials liave been printed in the Chinese
official paper, which has been published
about 800 years, not daily, but every
now and then. But the ideas of the
government progress slowly. The cen
sors are conservative and slow to move
and suspicious of foreigners, although
they have admitted that the foreigner
are not necessarily enemies.
American watches and clocks are mak
ing rapid progress in China. The only
drawback is the fact that American
trade marks are counterfeited.
The Chinese students who began their
course of study here, but who were re
called by the censors, complain bitterly
of their treatment, and despair of the
progress of China while the present
China lias no floating capital The
legal rate of interest is 37 per cent. The
lowest rate on the most favorable loans
is 25 per cent. Every man is liable to
spoliation. The imperial treasury is in
a constant 6tate of collapse. The em
press follows her own judgment, and
she is now engaged in a vain effort to
turn the bed of a great river, and the
treasury isnot equal to the task. There
Is one railroad fifty miles long in China.
The present condition of the country as
regards its foreign foes, particularly
England and Russia, is deplorable. The
prospect seems to be that before long the
great empire, unless she can arouse her
self to progress, will be partitioned. The
will of- the emperor is suwreme, but un
less he cm be reached ana directed there
is little hope for Chinese progress.
THE BEST EDUCATION.
That Wade Tralaa Hand aad Brala To
gether A Great Mistake.
Each year brings to the general public,
as well as to the educators, the convic
tion that the present system of education
is inadequate to the demands of the day.
The great public, which is more directly
interested in school methods than the ed
ucators themselves, are waking to the
conviction that there is much useless ex
penditure of time and effort in putting
the boy and girl through the course of
stodvin the schools. This conviction is
not limited to any class of intelligence.
It is permeating mil classes. With this
more complete view of education comes
among the higher classes' a greater re
sotct. foe skilled labor. In these dart
wnen ncnes suaaemy race to tnemselves
wings and fly away; when there may be
luxury one week and penury the next,
it is necessary for every one to be pre
pared for these emergencies. The exi
gencies in business life cannot always be
foretold with accuracy. The laws' that
govern the evolutions of commerce are
to a certain extent the same in their ten
dency and as unerring in their effect as
those that govern the evolutions of na
ture. It has long been a great mistake of the
rich to educate their children in the ef
floresences of knowledge, and to teach
them to view manual labor as lowering
in its influences. But self preservation
is one of the first laws of nature and
there are comparatively few people who
would rather starve to "death than work
with their hands. Tho instinct of na
ture is strong with us all, and there is
tliat consciousness in every one, at least
in nearly every one, that forces him to
labor in order to save bis own life. The
complications of social conditions and the
consequent competition in all depart
ments of industrial and professional life,
together with these sudden disappear
ances of fortunes, are impressing upon
tho minds of all, the rich as well as the
poor, the necessity of being forearmed.
The man who is armed is always ready
for an attack. The man who has a
skilled brain and hand to fall back upon
is ready for an emergency.
If society is to be compactly built and
enduring we must all contribute our
labor, not only to mako it so, but to
keep it so. We have now as much of the
disintegrating elements as we need. These
are the criminal classes, the paupers, the
insane, the bed ridden, the homeless, the
aged, the infirm: We have in this wide
domain many that are needy, but that are
not yet tho wards of the public. With
the increase of the population comes an
increase in society's burdens. The com
plication in social conditions must bo evi
dent to every one that will take the trou
ble to penetrate the slight crust which
envelops life in tho United States. The
only way to put an obstacle in the way
of tliis alarming increase in our non-producing
class, or non-contributing classes,
is to educate onr children to become pro
ducers and contributors. The present
system of education is good so far as it
goes, but it does not go far enough.
If all members of society were produ
cers as well as consumers there would be
less necessity for poorhouses. Practical
education might, and undoubtedly would,
lessen tho tendency to crime. An idle
brain is the devil's workshop is a saying
as truo as it is old. Thomas Carlyle's
ringing sentences may Le quoted here.
Says the great philosopher: "Produce,
produce, produce. If it be but the most
infinitesimal part of a product, in God's
name produce it. 'Work while it is yet
day, for the night comcth wherein no
man can work.' " It is the business of
those who direct education to consider
these facts deeply. Detroit Free Press.
The Young Man front College.
College bred young men are without
experience on tlie practical side, of life.
The pushing, alert business man is not
particularly impressed with the valuo of
a college degree in forecasting tho mar
ket or determining the value of "job
lots," because be knows business is not a
theory at all, but a liard fact Then,
too, collegians often give themselves su
perior airs, which do not go down with
their associates, the majority of whom
have received honorable scars in their
light with circumstances, and liave little
tenderness for carpet knights. More
over, the impressionablo and formative
period of life having been spent in the
school room, they have not acquired that
alertness, that power to grasp a business
situation or problem and instantly solve
it Nothing in their school books taught
thein the shrewd, watchful readiness
competition makes necessary.
Take the voung fellow who left school
as soon as he had mastered tho rule of
three, and entered upon the struggle for
existence. His mind was open to .ill
impressions he learned business with
out knotting he was learning, as a child
learns to talk. He has formed business
habits unconsciously. His mind was
molded to alertness, 'rapidity of thought,
promptitude of action, tho requirements
of business character. Let us illustrate.
Tako a littlo fellow of 8 or 9 years,
brought up in a well regulated home,
and place him beside the street Arab,
bootblack or newsboy. On tho bcore of
mental activity and practical knowledge
and shrewdness, the latter will run him
to cover in two" minutes. Does not some
such difference exist between the edu
cated young man and the ono to whom
business has been a matter of daily life
since early vouth. which makes emplov
ers prefer the latter? Baldwin's Textile
A Manicure's Queer Experience.
Wo liave 6omo very queer experiences
in our trade. We could not help it.
But tho strangest one came under my
notice quite recently. A tall, splendidly
formed woman came in to have her
"hands fixed," and while awaiting her
turn attracted great attention by her ex
treme beautr, which was of the creamy,
oriental style. Dazzlingly white teeth
and great, slumberous eyes softened an
otherwise too coarse cast of features.
But her toilet ! That was superb, in such
quiet elegance and taste. As soon as pos
sible I hastened to attend to her, out
other customers having come in in the
meantime, she expressed a decided
disinclination to liave her hands arranged
until the rooms were vacated. I told
her that would, perhaps, be not for hours,
but if she preferred I would attend to the
hand dressing in an alcove, which was
curtained off at the extreme end of the
room. To this she consented, and when
my toilet articles were ready she drew
off her gloves. What was my surprise
to see a coal-black hand, ebony in nesh.
She briefly explained she was a negro
or deep mulatto, from New Orleans. By
every art of the face decorator and washes
she had become whitened as I saw her,
but her hands were more difficult to man
age and she wore gloves at every possible
opportunity. She desired me to mani
cure her hands as deftly as possible and
she would have her maid arrange the
blistering process at home. I did so and
she left in a few moments closely gloved
and I sawher enter her carriage. Sub
sequently I learned she possessed im
mense wealth, inherited, too. A very
good, but vain woman, owning every
thing that she wished except what she
most desired, white skin, and this she
got by artifice and wealth. Manicure in
The Btaraey Stone.
'A popular tradition attributes to the
blarney stone the power of endowing
whoever kisses it with the sweet, persua
sive, wheedling eloquence so perceptible
in the language of the Cork people, and
which is generally termed blarney. This is
the true meaning of the word, and not,
as some writers have supposed, a faculty
of deviating from veracity with an un
blushing countenance, whenever it may
The curious traveler will seek in vain
the real stone, unless he allows himself
to be lowered from the northern angle of
the lofty castle, when he will discover it
about twenty feet from the top, with the
inscription, "Cormac IXacCarthy fortis
me fierifecit, A. D., UKS." St. Louis
A cunons notion m table decoration is
to have the center of the table made into
a little-pond in which crabs and lobsters
are seen, and even fish ara riW
OLD SPINNING WHEELS.
OUR GRANDMOTHERS' METHOD OF
PREPARING WOOL FOR LOOMS.
Mlaata Oeacriptie of lb Uttto Old Ma
chin Welch Has Been aa latptratte
to Poets aad Composers "Things Ala's
Jest as They Used to Be.
Spinning tliat is. home spinning has
just as much gone out of fashion in the
-New England and eastern states as sul
phur matches, and for just the. same
reason there is no need of either now
that something better has taken their
place. There are, however, plenty of
good wives who once on a time were
learned practitioners in the domestic
arts of spinning and dyeing, and it is
from the lips of ono of these that I gath
ered the following information, wluch I
should imagine would be of interest to
your western hearers:
"The first tiling, you see," said this
good lady, "is to pick tho wool. No,
taint either." 6he said, interrupting her
self: "the first thing is to wash and shear
the sheep, but as tliat's done now just as
it always was, 1 don't need tell you any
thing about it When the wool was
sheared and washed we used to take it
and pull it all apart, getting out all the
tangles and burrs and dirt that was left
When it was all picked it had to be
greased, and to do this we put a plate
with lard on it in front of us and a neap
of the picked wool to the left side. e
then rubbed a bit of lard on both palms,
took up a fleck of wool and worked it
between our hands until every bit was
greased. When there was enough wool
greased the old man or one of the farm
hands would take it right away to the
"When the wool came back from the
carders it was in bundles about two feet
long, and mado up a number of tight
pressed rolls the size of my little finger,
each roll jest the length of the bundle.
When we want to use the wool we'd
take the bundle, give it a shake, pick out
a roll and then begun spinning. I don't
know as ever you've seen a wheel, but ef
you ain't ther's mine in the setting room,
and p'raps 1 can best explain how we
worked it ef you'll come in there."
A stout wooden horse with a sloping
body formed the base of the machine.
At either end was inserted an upright,
the one at the higher end stationary and
supporting tho wheel; that at the lower
end movable and holding the "head,"
the vacant space between the two being
used to hold the rolls just spoken of. The
wheel was fully four feet in diameter,
of oak, with rounded spokes springing
from a solid hub, and joining a lyre
two inches wide, in which was sunk
a groove to receivo tho driving band.
This a stout cord passed round a
sharply grooved barrel in the "head"
of two inches in diameter, and
gave to it. of course, an exceed
ingly rapid revolution, which was still
further added to by a second grooved
wheel of four inches in diameter set on
the same axis as the barrel driven by the
main wheel. The band over the second
whuel encircled a still smaller one from
which the spindle sprang. The 6pindle
was of iron, three inches long and with
a half thread at the end; the bearings
were of plaited corn husks, and the
whole was attached to a tapering wooden
peg fitting into a socket drilled into tho
second or movable upright. By a wooden
screen at its base the upright was worked
back to give the driving band its proper
tension. It will be easily understood, I
trust, that a single turn of the big wheel
would set the spindle revolving at such a
rate that it would actually hum, and it
was to the humming of such wheels that
the old housewives of lang syne spun tho
thread from which stockings, carpets,
coverlets and blankets were afterwards
made by their tireless hands.
"Leinmo see," said my delightful oM
informant, "if I can't find a speck of wool
soaiewhere so as I can show you jest how
we worked." Then she went out on the
search and soon came back with what
she called a "fleck."
" 'Taint good wool," she said, "but I
guess 'twill do."
Setting the wheel in motion with a
light touch of her right hand, she held
tho end of tho wool to the spindle with
the left It caught at once, and walking
quickly backward and slightly from the
wheel,' but always keeping within its
easy reach, a twisted thread seemed to
grow out from between her practiced
finger and thumb, even throughout and
lino enough, if not to sew at least to darn
witlL When the thread grew long tho
6pinner rapidly advanced toward the
spindle, carrying her hand near the
wheel, a motion that instantly wound up
the thread around it the spindle. So
the operation was repeated, until in a
very few minutes tho wool was ex
hausted. "My fingers ain't quite what they
used to be, said the old lady, but I as
sured her as was the fact that I had
never seen any one spin a better thread.
The oldy lady smiled and went on:
"When this spindle is full, you see, it
has to be wound off, and that is done on
the reel over yonder."
The reel thus pointed out was a simple
arrangement of two cross pieces of wood
set so as to make four revolving arms,
and furnished at every end with a long
"The reel," said my informant, "is
placed beside the spinning wheel jest
under the spendle here, the band is
thrown off, and by turning the reel the
thread is wound off from the spendle.
From the reel it was made up into skeins
and laid away for use. We've still got
the old loom out in the carriage house
that my mother used to weave on, and I
got so far on with it as to be able to lay
out a blanket Then the mills were built
at the falls and the loom was laid away.
Wo still used the wheel, however, for
spinning thread for knitting with, and
fust rate thread it was, too." Cor. San
A Bone la Tropical Africa.
Several incidents of recent African ex
ploration call to mind the 6toriesthat
were told of the early travels of white
men in this country. A white man on
horseback is a very unusual spectacle in
fVniAil A f s Ms4 4lin - 1 aVl
nlnt n m,h f ,t,m; ,- 7L !
horses that Cortez introduced into Mex-
Hodister's journey was a short
one. extending only from Landana, on
the coast, to Boma,"on the Congo, but it
led the traveler through a densely
peopled region of which little is yet
"My horse," he writes, "made a groat
sensation. At sight of him all the
women in the villages at first were pet
rified with astonishment They stood
motionless, with their eyes fixed on the
strange animal. Corning to themselves
af last, with then- hands raised above
their heads, they raised their cry of
'Ho, ho, hof expressive of boundless as
tonishment Some of them threw them
selves upon the ground, smiting their
breasts. Could it be. they said, that
6uch a great beast with a white man
above him, was harmless? Such an ani
mal must certainly eat black people.
44 When we convinced them at last that
horse was harmless and that he was a
very, useful animal they ventured nearer.
They, had no eyes for anything but the
horse. As" we passed through the Til
laves manx nt tha inhabitants, followed
us. me men turned back atteramile
or so. but many of the women, who
showed the greatest interest and curi
osity, followed us for three miles. When
my horse trotted they trotted, too. their
eyes fixed on the beast Unmindful of
where they were stepping they fell into'
the furrows in the manioc fields, and
tumbled down in the tall grass. They ,
kept pointing the animals out to the ba
bies tliat were fastened on their backs.
From some of the villages deputations
came to me asking me to stop a while in
their towns that they might have time
to admire the prodigy."
A whole menagerie of African curi
osities would not excite so much atten
tion in the civilized world as this horse
aroused in a part of Africa where the
zebra never roams and no species of
the horse family is known. New York
Severe Plainness of Tolstoi's Home
On arriving at the house Count Tolstoi ,
showed me into a little room on the right !
liana siueoi iue entrance, "inere, saiu
I he, "you can occupy that sleeping in '
the little library among the books, and I
you can dress in the adjoining room '
where I dress." The dressing room was
also the sitting room and work room of j
tho count In the recess by the window j
lay the shoemaking tools with which he
used to employ himself; near the door
was a washstand and mirror.
"Perhaps vou would like to wash now," '
said be. ojiening tho waslistand. "You
can wash here. When you are done you
can empty the water out so," and. suit
ing the action to the word, the count
stepped out on the raised terrace in front
of the house and flung tho dirty water
out into the garden. This was done so
naturally, and with such an evident un
conscious confidence that it was the right
thing thing to do. that you could not
feel more than a momentary impres
sion as to the incongruity of the novel
ist, philosopher and nobleman, emptying
his dirty water for the convenience
of his guest 1 had been told, moreover.
that the count's simplicity was more
theatrical man real that he tared as a
peasant and "did" his hair with a silver
comb, and so forth. I saw nothing of
this. There was certainly no silver plate
or luxurious plenishings in the count's
living rooms. Everything was severely
plain and in harmonv with the desire of
its-occupant to simplify his life. W. T.
Stead in St Louis Republic.
The Poet Craj'n Unhappy Life.
Gray's was, in many ways, a melan
choly "life. His vitality was low. and
such happiness as he enjoyed was of a
languid kind. Physically and emotion
ally he w:is unfit to cope" with realities,
and this though he never felt the touch
of some of the most crushing evils that
; humanity sustains. He was never poor.
he was never despised, be had many de
; voted friends; but on tho other hand he
had a wretched and diseased constitution,
he suffered from all ;ort3 of prostrating
j complaints, from imaginary insolences,
violent antipathies and want of sym
pathy. Fame such as is rarely accorded
' to man came to him: he was accepted as
without doubt the first of living Eng
lish oets: and tie took no kind of pleas
ure in it. He was horrified to find him
self a celebrity: he refused to le poet
laureate: he refused honorary degrees;
when at Cambridge the young scholars
are said to have left their dinners to see
! him as he passed in the street; it was a
sincere pain to him. Cooper counter
balanced his fits of unutterable melan-
I choly by his - hours of tranquil serenity
over teacups and muttins and warm coal
fires, with the curtains drawn close.
Johnson enlivened his boding depression
by tyrannizing over an adoring circle.
B'ut Gray's on! compensations were his
friends. Any ono who knows (J ray's
letters to and about his vounjr friend
i Bonstetteten. knows how close and warm
1 it is possible lor friendship to lie. Ar
I thur Benson in Macmillan's Magazine.
Kentucky's Mountain Heautles.
While tho mountain men are generally
unprepossessing in apiiearance, havint;
, thin frames, thin faces, thin scraggy
leards and trembling open mouths, tho
young women are fair. Their cheeks
are red. their forms are plump and
rounded, their limbs taper and their car
riage is graceful. When they laugh,
which they do frequently and heartilv,
they show white teeth, in spite of tfie
fact that they learn to snioko stoneware
' piKs with fisi. jiole stems at an age
, that would compel a northern man to
marry a very ;,oung lass if he would
have a wife with a bearable breath. The
forms of tho mountain girls are such as
nature provides. There are thousands
of them who never saw a corset, and who
never will; neither do they bang their
hair, but they are no less attractive, even
to northern eyes, on account of either
peculiarity, and if one doubts this, let
him come down here and sec for himself.
-Mouth of Pond P. O. (Ky.) Cor. New
The minister's wife sat on the front
porch mending the clothes of ono of her
numerous progeny. A neighbor passing
stopped in for a social chat. A large
. work basket, half full of buttons, sat on
the floor of the porch. After various re
marks of a gossipy nature, the visitor
"You seem to lie well supplied with
buttons, Mrs. Goodman."
"Yes; very well indeed."
"3Iy gracious! If there ain't two of
the same buttons mv husband had on his
last winter suit. I'd know 'em any
where." "Indeed!" said the minister's wife.
calmly. "I am surprised to hear it, as
all these buttons were found in the con- ,
tribution box. So I thought I might as '
well put them to some use, so I what!
must you go? Well, be sure to call
again." West Point Alliance. I
The Common School.
I in uie earnest days oi i:i seiiieuieui
oi wis country, provision was maue ior
the instruction of the children at the
public cost, the colonies of Massachusetts
and of Connecticut taking the lead in
tli9 work, and the object being to give
all children free instruction in reading,
writing, grammar, elementary arithme
tic ana geography. Wnen certain com
missioners addressed questions on this
subject to the governors of the colonies,
! the governor of Connecticut replied that
the colony is laid out in maintain? free
schoolsfor Uieoducation of ourchildren;
I but Governor Berkeley, of Virginia, re-
pueu, "1 thank uod there are no free
schools nor printing, and I hope we sliall
not liave these hundred years." Har
What It Oace Meant.
A teacher writes: "One of my pupils
who had been teaching during the sum
mer came to me in despair over a sum,
saying, I can't understand sympathizing
fractions.' " (When we went to school,
years and years ago, "sympathizing frac
tions" meant broken candy. We under
stood, but the teacher didn't Tines
change, and we change with them;.
The amateur photographer and the
burglar have very taking nays, and there
is undoubtedly something catching about
the policeman and the fisherman. Har
An l?ngt'h physician claims a new way
to benefit consumptives by giving them
largely of ries aad whisky.
FACTS ABOUT CATARRH.
A DISAGREEABLE DISEASE WITH
WHI3H MANY ARE AFFLICTED.
, It Originates In Dlwarea Cause Not as
Seriows as Often Represented Easily
Cared Under Proper Conditions and
The term "catrrrh" is from two
Greek words meaning "I flow." and has
its seat in the mucous membranes.
Speaking generally, the mucous mem
brane is structurally the snmo as the
skin. Its office is similar, being a lubri
cator, excrctor and secrctor in the func
tions of tho body. The diseaso catarrh
is one wluch, as before remarked, finds
its expression in the mucous membrane
, and the extent of this tissue shows at
! once to what an extent tho diseaso can
' exist, as there is no part or locality of
1 mucous membrane which cannot and is
; not affected by the catarrhal condition.
The regions of the mucous trait most
prone to catarrh are those of tho nose,
mouth, upper and lower pliarynx. or
back part of the nose and mouth: the
larynx, or voice organ: the bronchial
tubes, the stomach, intestines and gall
passages. These several regions give
names to tho existing catarrh, as nasal
or nose catarrh, bronchial catarrh, pha
ryngial or laryngial catarrh, stomachic
or intestinal catarrh. In these different
regions we find the catarrh acute or
PREDISPOSITION TO CATARRH.
There seems to bo a certain predisposi
tion or structural development of the in
dividual prone to catarrhal attacks.
These conditions are cliaracterized bv
poverty of blood and nutrition, in wluch
the walls of the capillary or minute blood
vessels have a feeble tone or power of
resistance.while the tissue through which
such vessels pass are at the same time
soft and yielding. This predisposition to
catarrh is stronglv marked in scrofula
and rickets, and as in bronchial catarrh,
the morbid condition is a frequent at
tendant on typhoid fever, measles. whoop
ing cough "and smallpox. Effeminate
habits also augment the liability to
In a consideration of the "reasons why
any one should suffer from a catarrh,
acute or chronic, this condition of the
system or susceptibility is the important
and determining factor without its pres
ence the existence of catarrh is an im
possihilitv. As in consumption, so it i
in catarrh, tliis pretlisposition is the re
sult of original organization of the indi
vidual, or can lie acquired.
DANGERS GREATLY EXAGOERATEP.
The flaming advertisement setting
forth the horrors of catarrh is a familiar
object, and our ideas of catarrh are more
largely influenced by what we read than
what we know. While some forms of
catarrh are truly of grave consequence
and should receive intelligent attention,
if this was true in the majority of cases,
probably a large part of tho population
of the large cities would be, patients
of some physician or specialist. The
truth is, outside of the common cold,
there are many forms of what may be
termed mild catarrh, which are not in
compatible with a state of health, and
we can probably take tho majority of the
fieople in any city and by examination
demonstrate that they have, in fact, a
mild catarrh. These people are subject
to taking cold, easily get a cold, and it is
somewhat stubborn. They are usually
afflicted dming tho spring and fall;
steady warm or cold weather is
beneficial to them, and only when they
have a cold are they much inconve
nienced. Their general health is good,
and influences brought to lear on the
general health usually meet with a
prompt effect on the catarrh. It is safe
to say tnat, directly, a fatal result from
catarrh is a bugbear and finds no foun
dation in fact Tliat much suffering
and disability is due to the graver or
more chronic forms of the die:ise is
true. The commonly received belief
among the laity that chronic catarrh is
the forerunner of consumption, and is
only a question of time, is pure nonsense.
If a consumption does follow a catarrh
we arc safe in saying that the catarrh
was consumption from the first, and
tliat either the individual bad the con
sumptive taint through hereditary influ
ences, or his habits and surroundings de
veloped it in him and the catarrh wa
only the first local expression of the con
sumption. In that lorni of catarrh in
which tho disease extends to destruction
of tissue and death of bone, wo must not
saddle the result on the catarrh; while
this unquestionably was the immediate
exciting cause, there was present and
ready for the development of the result
a soil so bad and vicious, either by he
redity or acquisition, that the death of
tissue and bone was perfectly rational
VALUABLE HINTS TO SUFFERERS.
The results of a chronic catarrh are
many and varied, and wldle marked by
a high degree of persistency and stub
bornness, relief can and should be at
tained. This is to be accomplished not
by local measures alone, but more espe
cially by attacking the individual and
relieving the condition which makes the
development of the catarrh possible.
Treatment locally might be pursued
for a lifetime and nothing but relief of
temporary character gained. Correct all
that is wrong in habits, surroundings
and occupation, and you gain a potent
influence for recovery.
One of the most common causes of
catarrh, especially of the nose, is de
fective nasal breathing or respiration.
Again, the structural changes which
usually develop in time from long con
tinued and neglected catarrh are other
reasons why catarrh is not readily re
lieved. Notwithstanding these obsta
cles,, relief can and should be attained.
The most necessary factor i3 an intelli
gent conception of" tho condition which
is the foundation of the disease. Relief
for this in most of the cases means relief
from the disease. Cor. St Louis Globe
Democrat The Production of Petroleum.
In the Revue de Deux Mondes M. de
Tchihatchef, whom it would probably
be safe to take for a Russian, has a strik
ing article on the sudden rise of Russia
as a competitor of the United States in
production of kerosene. Some abate
ment may properly be made from his
confident "predictions on account of the
unconcealed partisan bias with whichJie
writes; and liis figures leave something
to be desired on the score of entire self
consistency and recentness, but what he
has to say "is nevertheless well worth the
attention" of our oil producers. He makes
it evident, in tho first place, that the
only rival of the United states at present
in "sight is Russia. Following a late
French estimate of the world's produc
tion of petroleum, putting the total at
100,000.000 hectoliters, it appears that
the United States furnish 64,000,000,
Russia 25,000.000, and all other countries
only 11,000,000. In fact, while deposits
of oil have been found in many parts of
the earth as in Burmah, China, Persia,
Egypt, New Zealand and most of the
European countries their extent is so
limited and difficult of operation so
great that the race has narrowed down
to the two contestants named.
The principal oil fields of Russia are
found within a limited territory. The
famous wells are almost all situated in
the pgwinanla of Aspheron, which runs
out into the Caspian sea' at a point not
far from tha aontnaxsLRuasian KrumHarv.
tuucuistne port wnence snlpments are
made. The great natural advantages of
the Baku field are the compact terri
tory to bo worked, the small depth of
' the" wells, and their great steadiness of
I flow. The whole area worked does not
, exceed I.IUU square miles, sec tins over
I against the area estimated for the United
OHUei illlt.tV BUIUUO 1IU1V3 BUU
the richness of the Russian wells
which produce at least one-third
as much as those of the United
States, will lie at once perceived.
The depth of the wells runs from 120 to
540 feet. Ono famous well is but thirty
three feet deep, vet out of it the oil jets
up to tho height of 246 feet M. de
Tchihatchef asserts also that the average
flow in the Baku region is 8,000 pounds
per da v.ns against 25,800 in tho United
States.' New York Times.
The Cars ef the Peppy.
. The sallow complexion of the people
of China, their emaciated forms- and
languid movements attract our atten
tion everywhere along the river. 1 do
not see a beautiful faco or figure, nor
a rosy cheek: a dead leaden color is on
all faces, old and young, malo and fe
male. I look at the broad, swift river,
I feel the cool, clear breeze, I gaze at the
high green hills, the flowing rivulets and
sJie wide spreading trees overhanging
the liamlets. Upon the mountain sides
are houses and hundreds of workmen;
approach those busy laborers and you
will see this deathlike pallor on all faces.
The climate seems the acme of perfec
tiona long, pleasant summer, with a
cool, agreeable autumn and bracing win
ter; yet there is a want of energy and
life among tho people. There is plenty
of food, and of excellent quality for
China rice, wheat, millet, peas, beans,
corn, oils and fruits of many varieties
all within the means of the humblest
I enter a laro field near a hamlet, by
the side of a luxuriant growth of ripen
ing wheat. The field is clean, not a
weed visible; but close together and four
leet high stand stalks with large dry
heads, orown and decaying now, for
their bright flowers faded a month axo.
These decaying stalks speak; they tell
me why the death pallor is upon all
faces, from the shriveled form of age to
the liowlegged child sitting in the cottage
door. O seductive viper, curse of mill
ions! Who sliall dare to stand up in the
presence of this fabt fading, degenerating
people and say the evil is not widespread
Traverse the fairest portions of all the
provinces; not tho cities alone, but the
quiet, out of the way places are rJ.i satu
rated and besmeared with the black
paste, even to the gods. "Western
A Wedding at Telos.
In Telos wedding presents are exceed
ingly practical, and partakechielly of the
nature of food to be consumed at the
wedding festivities; and toward even
ing on this day, when all the luiskets of
grain had been gathered together, the
voung men of the village distributed it to
be ground in the hand milk, and for the
space of two hours nothing was to be
heard in the town save the monotonous
grinding of the two atones, and the
equally monotonous songs of the women
engaged in this occupation. It was nearly
dark when Peter, tho bridegroom, elect,
was informed that all the tiour was
ground, whereupon certain young men
of his acquaintance, with flutes, bag
pipes and lyres, escorted him from house
to house to" collect this flour i:i large
At each house they tarried for a little
time, the instruments played and the
young men and maidens danced a curi
ous little dance, in which one man and
one maid alone took iart. at the same
time singing littlo love pongs as they
move to and fro. Frcm houso to house
they wandered, singing and daucL'ig all
tho evening, and when the flour was. col
lected they took it to Catliarine's hoiibe,
where a table was spread, at which the
women who had ground tho grain and
the voung men who had accompanied
tho bridegroom were entertained. A f tor
this meal, and when all wore merry with
wine, the dancing began again, and con
tinued well into the night; it was very
interesting and pretty to watch th inter
laced Cretan dance, tho quirt, stately
singing dances, and tho brilliant acro
batic feats of the leader of tbe circular
dance. Thus ended the great prcnuptial
ceremony of "the greater flour." Gen
How ITlee Spread Disease.
A contributor to Nouveaux Remedes
cites a statement by a Brazilian physician
to the effect that in hot countries flics
aro the most active agents in the propa
gation of yellow fever, and adds that M.
Spilmann and 31. Hanstoutter attribut"
the same role to those insects in spread
ing pulmonary consumption. Wnen a
fly has lingered on the tuberculous sputa,
it is said, its intestine and excreta con
tain the bacillus of tuberculosis, which
it may deposit on the various articles in
an apartment. Flies are credited al-:o
with being the cliief instrument in the
dissemination of Egyptian ophthalmia,
and Koch is cited as of the opinion tliat
they may play the same part in spread
ing cnoiera. frame ivesne s.
ine Little "Fads" of Dear Ones.
It is, perhaps, well that pome 5itant
traits mark us all it prevents v.-earisomo
monotony. How affectionately lu we
remember the little cliuracteii.-,tic habits
and fancies of those whom we love, mure
especially when our memories in these
matters revert to tho dead. The little
"fads," as we call them, of father and
mother become sacred or. we hxtk l:: k
upon them in our after years, and the
quaint peculiarities of many an old friend
are remembered lovingly when they
themselves have passed away
Want of Sleep
Is sending thousands annually to the
insane asylum ; and the dot-tor say this
trouble is alarmingly on the incr-nM.
The usual remedies, while they may
give temporary relief, are likely to do
more harm than good. What is needed
is an Alterative and Blood-puriiier.
Ayer's Sarsaporilla is iuconiparuhly
tlie best. It correct.-, thoe di.-.turljanee.s
iu the circulation which cause sleeplos
ness, gives increased vitality, and re
stores the nervous system to a healthful
Rev. T. G. A. Cote, agent of the Mas.
Home Missionary Society, writes that
his stomach was out of order, his sleep
very often disturbed, and some im
purity of the blood manifest ; but that
a perfect cure was obtained by the ue
of Ayer's Sarsaparilla.
Frederick W. Pratt, 424 Washington
street, Boston, writes: "My daughter
was prostrated with nervous debility.
Ayer's Sarsaparilla restored her to
William F. Bowker, Erie. Pa., was
cured of nervousness and sleeplessness
by taking Ayer's Sarsaparilla for about
two months, daring which time his
weight increased over twenty pounds.
Dr. J. b. Ayer"& Co., Lowell, Mass.
I tfetdbyaUDraggisu. Prise 1; sis betue,S&
Authoriztd Capital of $250,000,
A Surplus Fund of - $20,000,
And the largest Pal is GaskCftfttal of
nay bank is this part of tbe State.
ty Deposit received aad interest paid or
CSDrafts on tbe price ipal citiea ia this coon.
try aad Europe booifht aad sold.
BrCoUeetioaa and all otaer bassnese dR '
prompt aad carsfal attesitioa.
A. ANDERSON. PreVt.
J. H. GALLEY. Vice Pres't. .
O. ANDERSON. P. ANDERSON.
JACOB URE1SEN. HENRY-KAOAT&
JOHN J. SULLIVAN. W. A. McALUSTfiL
Office oTer Colombas State Bank, Colara bus,
Attorney and'CauRsellar at Law.
Office in Commercial Bank Bnildiaa; Colnm
bns. Neb. All lepd bnsineea promptly,, ac
curately and carefully attended to. lSaog-y
UlrLlYAi A KEEBEat,
ATTORNEYS AT LAW;.
Office over First National Bank, Columbus,
ATTORSEY t SOTARY PUBLIC.
tOffice oxer First National Bank. Colum-'
8S Parties desiring sunrejins; done can ad
drats me at Columbns, Neb., or call at my office
in I ourt House. SmaytDt-y
T J. CatAMKK,
CO. SUP'T PUBLIC SCHOOLS.
1 will lie in my office in tli Court House, the
third Sat unlay of t-nch month for the examina
tion of applicants for teachers' certificates, aad
for th transaction of other school business.
DRAY and EXPRESSMEN.
Light and heavy haolinir. Goods handled with
care. Headquarters at J. P. Becker A Co.'s office.
Telephone. 33 and 34. 30mar87y
FAUBLE 4 BRADSHAW.
ISucctsxors to Fauble tt Btuhell),
BRICK MAKEES !
KfContmctors and builders will rind our
brick firer-clans aud offered at renMonable rates.
We are also prepared to do all kind of brick
ja K. TURifER ft CO.,
Proprietors and Publishers of the
C3L73UU3 JOraSAL Mi tis SIB. fAMCT JQVUUL;
strict!) in advance. Family Jocbnal, $1.0u a
w. a. mcallister. w. m. cornelius.
ATTORNEYS AT JLtllf.
Office up stairs over Ernst & Schwar 'a store oa
Eleventh street. - U?Bimy88
. J. HAS. W ,l. Y,
PHYSICIAN and SURGEON,
eye Diseases a specialty.
Office No. : Residence No.97.
JOHN G. HIGGINS.
C. J. GARLOW.
Specialty made of Collections by C. J. Garlow.
Tin and Sheet-Iron Ware !
Job-Work, Eoofinr asd Oattar
ing a Specialty.
Shop on 13th street. Krause Bro.'s old
stand on Thirteenth street. Sitf
SEA WQrfDERS exist in
BjSjUioodmiius oi lonns. Dot are sur-
tnousanas oi forms, but are sur-
alljbl Those who are in need of profitable
work that can be done while living at home
should at once send their address to Hallett A
Co.. Portland, Maine, and receive free, full in
formation how either sex. of all -agee, can earn
from $5 to 25 per day and upwards wherever
they live. Y oa are started free. Capital not re
quired. Some have made over $50 in a single
day at this work. All succeed. 87dec28y
n I an I yi
fltXWARDED are those
'who read this and then act:
HI I III I I they will find honorable em.
IIwIIIm I ployment that will not take
them from their homes and families. The
profits are large and sure for every industrious
person, many have made and are now mmyin
several hundred dollars a month. It is easy for
any one to make f5 and upwards per day, who is
willing to work. Either sex. young or old; capi
tal not needed; we start you. Everything, new.
No special ability required; you, reader, can do
it as well as any one. Write to us at once for
full particulars, which we mail free. Address
Stinson & Co., Portland. Me. dec28y
the world during the
last half century.
Not least amour th
wonders of inventive progress is a method and
system of work that can be performed all over
the country without separating the workers from
their homes. Pay liberal; any one can do the
work; either sex. young or old: no special ability
required. Capital not needed; you are started
free. Cut thisoutand return to oa and we will
send you freeomething of great value and im
portance to you. that will start jou in business,
which will bring yon in more money right away.
than anything else in the world. Grand out fit
free. Address True A Co.. Augusta, Me. dec28
l book of 10S nages.
. The best book for aa
.advertiser te con
sult, be be expert
lenced or otherwise.
Itcoiitiitsui hstsol newsp
srjarjers and estimates
wants to speed one dollar, finds ia It the In
formation he requires, while fornim who will
Invest one hundred tbeusanC dollars la ad
vertising, a scheme, is indicated which will
meet his every requirement, or con eealadie
rttponderur. U editions have bees Issued.
Sent, post-paid, to any address for 10 caats.
Write to GEO. P. ROvTEIX CO.,
NEWSPAPER ADVERTISING BC7KKAU.
ossoc sat,ntortnHnsgq.), jrw York.
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