Image provided by: University of Nebraska-Lincoln Libraries, Lincoln, NE
About The Columbus journal. (Columbus, Neb.) 1874-1911 | View Entire Issue (Nov. 7, 1888)
- " y. -
1 - ' I
COLTJMBTJS, NEB. WEDNESDAY, NOVEMBER 7, 1888.
WHOLE NO. 965.
Cash Capital - $100,000.
LEANDER G.ERRA1U). PreVt.
UEO. W. HULST, Vice Pre.t.
JULIUS A. REED.
K. II. HENRY.
J. E. TASKKU. Cashier.
Maak " ! IlHCHat
Callectleaa rera.fatly .Hade
Pay latereMt ea Tlaae Ueaew-
C. II. SHELDON, Pres't.
W. A. MCALLISTER. Vice Pre'.
C. A. NEWMAN, Cashier.
DANIEL. SCHRAM. Ass.t Cash.
J P 1IECKKIL JONAH WEI:iI. .
CARLREINKK. II- iJ&VKJWMCM-
J II WURDKMAN. II. M. W1NSLOW, r
GEO. W. (IALLEV. ARNOLD OEHLIticiI.
Tlii Hunk transacts u regular Banking "Busi
xm, will allow interest on time deoMit, make
collections, l.iiy or wll; exchange- n Unite!
Stntc ami Eurtiw, and Imy nnl m"H available
Wo shall bnpl:io,l l receive your business.
We olicit your natronase. We guarantee satis
faction in all business intrusted in our care.
WESTERN COTTAGE ORGAN
A. & M.TURNER
Or . W. KWLEB,
tVTheae organs are first-class in every par
ticular, and so guaranteed.
Buckeye Mower, combined, Self
Binder, wire or twine.
Peafs Repaired skrt tice
IVOne door wnt of Heintz's Drag Store. 11th
street, Colambas. Neb. 17novW-tr
Health is Wealth !
DiTE. C. West's Xebve aso Bbais Tbjkat
KXXT, a guaranteed specific for Hysteria, Dizzi
ness, Convultions, Fits, Nervous Neuralgia,
Headache. Nervous Prostration caused by the use
of alcohol or tobacco. Wakefulness, Mental De
pression. Softening of-the Brain resulting in ln
sauityand leading to misery, decay and death.
Premature Old Age, Barrenness, Loss of power
in either sex. Involuntary Losses and 8penmaU
orrhaea caused by over-exertion of the brain,sell
abuse or over indulgence. Each box contains
aae month's treatment. $1.00 a box, or six boxes
To careany ease. Wita eCTo received by us
for six boxes, accompanied with $5.00, we will
sad the purchaser our written guarantee .tore-
' tad the money if the treatment dota not effect
- cars. Guarantees issued only by Dowtr &
Beeber, druggists, sole agents, Coloabcs, Neb.
XJJSTPEjRT ATCER !
COiFfKS ANDllETALLIC CASES
tMWevairiiiQ of all kinds of Uphol-
UZ COLUMBUS, NEBBA&KA.
saaaa . twaABTay
Its History, Its Persistent Aims and
It& Woful Results.
WAIT TILL IT BEEOBMS!
A Black Beeorn Way the Mara States
Tended Steadily Towards Solidity So
Law CaaU Make Than Eqnal to tha
. Free States State Sovereignty, Slavery,
Free Trade, XalUacatloa,
beUloa ana Vote
Federal-Whig- RenubsV Anti-Federal and Demo-
Adams. 17VC Jefferson.
!! ShSS IBaB saaa BBaB alaW aai
Adams. . 1600. Jefferson.
iHia Si aB a a aalaW
Pincknor. 130L Jefferson.
; fajl sHS: r sHS: nr"
Plnckney. 1808. Madison.
Clinton. 16HL Madlsnri.
ps; tan; tar; jHOI HHH HHEEHHHBHbBbB
King. 1S1C Monroe.
No Federal Candidate. No opposition.
Harrison. 18aX Von Burcn.
ESS ZZS1VS2S i
m. iTTTTT XZ7TTS
iiiiii aaooaa aaoaoa I
3 SH n::
SHU ixid Ksa ess HH2
Harrison. 183ft- Van Burcn.
Clay. 1844. Polk.
xzsz pg gtsg g go r 255 255
Taylor. 1849. Cass.
ggy yyy yxSis tsSasS I? riTilS SSSISt ""t H IbbV
Hal aaH IH HlH? H 1 f??!iS
Scott, IBS: Pierce.
i""t i",i I
Fremont. IBM. Buchanan.
FT? Frri 2 asBsss:
E2 SH E S
Lincoln. 19Ca Douglas.
E2 5E S3 :JH3 EH2 S a
Htttt jHt? B Srir5! frit;: rr Breckinridge.
Ess trr rr1 HHH P? HB aB bB bVJbVJ
p.... "!; aaja saa bbb sbs snai
Lmm .m. ana aajaj anv nam anai
Lincoln. 1864. McClellan.
?? S 23 EST: S23 22
SHH EHH EH2 iiss
u EHH BB 2E Eleven vacancies.
mm; Tw. "J gjj
""! j" " ffftfi t' HEB f!i"i H BH
B rnsi I'iHt mKcs aVJi
""""'" Three vacancies.
2HS 22 2S EHtss
Orant. 1872: Greeley.
tssz asg sag ;-3 r aaj aaw ajaj aaa aaa
" " Two vacancies.
aaa fH , j.. j--.
asa 153 c2s 22
Hayes.- 1ST0. Tilden.
225 222 ass 522 as 222 1222:22; IB aB
222 225 223 122: 22: BB BB BB BB BB
Garfield. 138a Hancock.
sss SS-3 sSm sss savj aas bjbjbj sjajaj bbs
t j' " S23 rrwTJ nas saal bb B BB HS
" I'T'I 5-- tus tBB bb bb bb
Bklne. 4. Chnelaad,
23 tiini ssS ii; a MSI i wEEk ESS
Thk diagrun talk its own story. A
gtaaeeaitheanajof black squares and
astodyof the issses in tne yecrsthoss
sqnsxes wars consolidated oagbt to servs
as k vataing to aajr donbtinf toUt jrbo
fsicaaiaat the time has coma to rastors
tbsaoUdsoutktoTxnret. EroMtha "rws.
omtionsor W down throngb. nnUlnea
tion, slsrety extension, Kansas opppes
sion, secession, war and suppression of
the negro vote, whenever there was a
question deeply affecting the rightsof man
orthe honor and dignity of the nation,
the southern states were found almost sol
idly on one side, and that invariably the
In vain did compromising .politicians
seek for some issue that would divide par
ties across this fatal line. At times it ap
peared as if they had succeeded. At one.
time the tariff question, at another the
development of our internal resources and
at still another the establishment of a
sound currency caused a division; patriot
ism aii;i common business sense triumphed
over prejudice and sectionalism, and for
that time the division between the parties
was not on the sectional line. But no
sooner did the wise protective measures
of Adams and Clay, or the improved cur
rency of the nationalists, orthe restored
prosperity under the tariff of 1843 demon
strate that freedom gained more by good
government than by slavery. Then the
angered plantation lords again consoli
dated their power and throwing their
whole weight one way, while the north
was divided, reversed the government
policy. John G. Calhoun, who began his
political career as an avowed nationalist
and protectionist, changed front in a
day, as it were, and devoted his talents to
the creation of a purely southern party.
Observe, however, that there always
were a few "white states" on the border,
states where slaves were few and the
seutlment of freedom strong; in them
were many national men, and these occa
sionally held sway in their states. Dela
ware, for instance, gave a unanimous
vote for the national constitution, and
remained persistently national till after
the war. North Carolina was also able
to "think continentally," as Hamilton ex
pressed it, and did not yield till sur
rounded by secession states. Other states
occasionally revolted against dictation;
but as a rule the line of slavery's exten
sion was and is in the line of vigorous
opposition to almost every policy that has
made America strong and great.
Observe how uniform this opposition
has been and how foolish are some of its
manifestations. Free common schools
were supposed to be a New England in
stitution, so the south refused for forty
years toencourago them. New England
inclined to naval enterprise and foreign
trade, so the first southern administra
tions wero hostilo to a navy, but at a
later day their party claimed to havo al
ways been its special champions. New
England, led by Webster, opposed the
first protective tariff, as her money was
invested in shipping; bo the Loundes
Calhoun tariff was supported by the
south. New England readily adapted
herself to the change and soon rejoiced in
it; then the Calhounites demanded the
overthrow of tho tariff. The real trouble
was, though politicians before Li icoln
snd Seward were afraid to declare i , that
there was a natural antagonism between
slavery and freedom, and no wisdom of
man could deviso laws or systems which
would bring equal prosperity to both.
Verily tho southern destructives bad
their reward. While cites grew and
furnaces roared and spindles hummed
north of tho Potomac, south of it there
was either slow progress or complete stag
nation. They saw it, and hated while
they saw, and devised new measures and
demanded more territory, and thus com
pleted the consolidation of their section.
Contrast the two policies. In tho states
shown in the diagram by white squares
there was a prosperity steadily increasing
till it surpassed all that tho world had
ever seen; on the other side there was de
nunciation, unreasonable complaints and
demands, nullification, exclusion of north
ern papers from the mails, secession and
finally war. With emancipation there
should havo been a change of policies,
but habits of mind often prevail over self
interest, and most of the southern states
arc still dominated by the plantation
A change is in progress. The south is
now in a transition state. There are cen
ters of manufacturing and mental activ
ity where the national idea prevails over
the Confederate. And when such centers
of thought become dominant in a majority
of the states, this issue will cease to bo
important. Then, and not till then, it
may be wise to put the south in control.
But then it will be impossible; for there
will be no solid south. For the present,
young voters, proud of your citizenship,
look at the facts. Shall the old anti-na-tfonal,
anti-liberal plantation idea domi
nate? That is all there is in it. Unhap
pily our allies in the south arc now out of
the count. See to it that the solid south
does not profit by suppressing them.
In the diagram the southern states are
represented by black parallelograms, tho
northern by white. Where the vote of a
state was divided, the fact is shown by
making it a square. The states are ranged
in tho order of their admission to the
Union (after the original thirteen) without
massing either the black or the white to
gether. Mot at AU Extraeraiaary.
"This, ladies an' gents." vociferated a
menagerie orator in a small town in Ken
tucky, "is the great Arabian dromedary,
with two humps upon his back instead of
one. but the extra hump will cost you
nothing. He is the Arab s beast of bur
den. He fetches an' carries, while the
Arab sits idly in the sand and (impress
ively) he can go eight days without
"Only eight days!" was the general ex
clamation, and then the crowd moved on
in search of something interesting;. Phil
' All Got Their Share.
"Sin, my dear pupils," said Deacon
Barnes to his Sunday school class, "is the
legacy of Adam."
And the bright boy in the class re
marked that that was probably the first
case on record where a will was not
"res," said the deacon, "but it should
be remembered that there was enough to
go round. I don't remember hearing of
anybody who didnt receive his sh?re of
the inheritance. "Boston Transcrip
XUda't Keen Any Palais.
Broad Street Dame (waking from sleep
as the clock strikes at 11 p. m.) Mercy
me! Have yon been down stairs reading
all this tine?
Husband rve been sitting la the bacs
parlor waiting for that young man to
"Remember, ay dear, tarns vouwere
young once yonxsanV
"I remember. That's any I watch
the flower brooches
la plain nli.toft
BficnaB. flaleh. la,
wkltestoaaa are set te ambnfaawdicle
SHOWING THAT IT IS SELF CON
FESSED FOR FREE TRADE.
Tha Scheme to Core? tha Tree State ef
I Affairs with a Masker ."Tariff Reform
Censored by Themselves An Enemy te
Here are some significant utterances of
President Cleveland's henchmen, the self
styled "tariff reformers" of the present
Senator Vest Mr, Cleveland, by his
message, for which I sincerely honor him,
has challenged the protected Industries of
tho country to a fight of extermination.
Henry Watterson The Democratic
party is a free trade party or it is nothing.
Roger Q. Mills I will not help to perfect-
any law that stands in the way of
Speaker Carlisle All trade should be as
free as possible.
Henry George I am for Grover Cleve
land because I am a free trader. '
Congressman Breckinridge I am a free
trader. The Mills bill is a step in that
Congressman Campbell, Ohio If this
bill (Mills') means anything, it means a
long step toward free trade.
Secretary Fairchild Add to the freo
list as many articles as possible.
The Hon. S. S. Cox. of New York, May
"The devil is never dressed up so ele
gantly as when he appears as a protec
tionist." "Gentlemen seem to take umbrage be
cause wo call these tariffs, which take
from one class "to give to another, rob
bery." "When tho government lays its power
ful grasp on the property of the citizen to
bestow that property upon favored enter
prises it is none tho less robbery and com
munism because done under the forms of
"Since the tariff forces taxes from one
person to give it to another by indirec
tion, bya6leight of hand manipulation,
is it not merciful to call it by another
name than robbery? Some folks
call it burglary."
"There never was a tariff during whose
continuance there was so much advauce-
, ment in all that makes up the wealth of
nations as our low tariff of 1846."
j The Hon. P. T. Glass, of Tennessee,
April 25, said:
! "The farmer, the laborer and tho me
chanic will cheerfully pay all taxes neces
sary to support economio government.
But they become restive under tho ex
actions of trusts, monopolies and robber
Tho Hon. Asher G. Caruth. of Ken
tucky. May 2, said:
"If I properly understand tho deriva
tion of the word 'tariff,' its origin is not
such as to commend it to the admiration
of man. At Tarifa tho Moors levied their
duty and collected their customs from
those whoso ships, driven by adverse
winds, wero forced, in order to escape
. destruction at the sea to suffer robbery
i "This tariff Is a most insidious enemy.
Whilo it. pretends to be giving
us 'protection,' it is really stealing our
substance and destroying our lives. It is
not the highwayman who boldly gallops
I upon tho public rood and demands 'your
money or your life,' but tho sneak thief,
who, in an unconscious moment, filches
' your purse, or the burglar who robs you
of your possessions in sleep's unconscious
hour. It holds to the false doctrine of
' lie tiiatL: robbed, not wanting what is stolen,
Ijl him not know it and he is not robbed at alL
..... ......... ...
I "we are told mat tms miguty tree
bootcr, this pirato who has robbed us on
tho sea. this thief who has stolen our
substance on land, is not our enemy, but
tho causo of national prosperity."
i "A tariff, such as wo now discuss,
) which raises money that tho government
does not and cannot legitimately spend, is
not a tax, but a tribute paid by the weak
to the strong to tne individual lor per
sonal advantage, not to the government
for public gooa."
(This whole speech is violent in its
abuse of tho tariff and the protective
The Hon. J. L. McDonald, of Minne
sota, May 4, said:
"A protective tariff is legalized rob
bery." "The bill does not go far enough. The
bill is, however, quite an advance in the
"High tariffs do not protect labor."
Tho Hon. William U. Martin, of Texas,
May 8, said:
"I'm ag'in protection!"
"Whom does protection protect? Not
the farmer; not the man or woman in the
factory; not the plowboy nor tho brick
layer; not the man at tho forgo nor the
woman at the loom. I will tell you, Mr.
Chairman, whom it protects. It protects
"The day of the protectionist is fast
drawing to a close."
The Hon. Charles W. Clammy, of
North Carolina, 1888:
"A protective tariff is an unjust, an un
fair discrimination by the government in
favor one class of citizens against another
class of citizens."
Speaker Carlisle, of Kentucky, May 9,
"There is a fundamental and irrecon
cilable difference in opinion between those
who believo that the power of taxation
should be used for public purposes only,
and those who believe that it is
the right and duty of the government to
promote certain private enterprises and
increase the profits of those engaged in
them by the imposition of higher rates
than are necessary to raise revenue for the
proper administration of affairs."
Tho Hon. William H. U. Cowles, of
North Carolina, May 14, said:
"Tho tariff is as much a tax upon the
consumer as if it was levied upon his prop
erty and collected out of it."
"Mr. Cleveland by his message, for
which I sincerely honor him, has chal
lenged the protected industries of the
country to a tight of extermination.
It is useless for us to disguise the fact
that the fight is to the death, and we
would be idiots to Ignore this." G. G.
Vest's Letter to Mr. Napton (Dem.)of
"We demand tariff reform, and we 6ct
our faces in the direction of free trade."
"Tha Democrat who is not a free trader
should go elsewhere."
"The conflict between free trade and
protection is irrepressible and must be
fought out to tho bitter end. We spit
upon compromises and propose neither to
ask nor to give quarter."
"The Democratic party, except in the
person of imbeciles hardly worth men
tioning, is not upon the fence. It is a
free trade party or it is nothing."
"There can te no cooked up platform
and no compromise candidate.
"The.Uacknagisup. No quarter will
oe asked and no quarter given." Ex
tracts from Henry Watterson 'a (Demo
cratic National Campaign Committeeman)
Editorial in The Louisville Courier-Jour-naL
CLEVELAND'S BIUTISB STMPATinZERS.
It is certain that the arguments which
President Cleveland urges are' those which
Cobden used to employ forty-five years
ago and which any free trader could em
ploy now. London Times.
For American party purposes the presi
dent feels compelled to characterize the
ttaapt to brand him aaa free trader aaa
deception of his enemies. For all that the
electoral conflict now hi progress U a con-
ctct net ween 'Tree traue ana protection,
and nothing less. London News.
President Cleveland's message to con
gress will not fail to attract the attention
which it deserves. It marks the begin
ning of a serious movement in tho direc
tion of free trade. Manchester Examiner
They (the Democrats) have, from what
ever motive, resolved to adopt a free trade
noliCV. Sa.trirrUtr Rftrmw
There-election of President Cleveland 1
means the adoption of his programme of
tariff revision, and his ideas on that sub
ject go a long way toward free trade.
Mr. Cleveland stands upon free trade
principles, or what pass for such in the
states, while Gen. Harrison flies the pro
tectionist flag. London Globe.
President Cleveland has been accused of
having shrunk from carrying through his
free trade policy which he then advocated.
The accusation is unjust. His letter
proves that he is still favorable to the
policy which he' advocated in his message
to congress. He does not call it free
trade; but neither did he then. The ex-.
pression is too unpopular in America to be
safely employed. If President
Cleveland and the Democratic party can
havo their way they probably care very
little whether they are debarred from the
use of the phrase free trade. The strength
of the protectionist feeling in the United
States is so great that no politician could
safely disregard it. English Saturday
Review, Sept. 15.
From The Congressional Record: The
attitude of the friends of the Mills bUl is
plainly shown by this colloquy at the
close of tho debate upon it:
Mr. McCbmas (Rep.) Has any friend of
this bill in this debate uttered one sen
xence ra lavor oi mo American tarin sys-
tern, which discriminates In favor of ie
tence in favor of tho American tariff sys-
Mr SSSSL Tether wa., o
to utter one
Con any Democrat deny, in the face of
!.:, n.i.in.:n . :.i
furnished by Democrats or Democratic
sympathizers, that the present struggle
is between free trade and protection?
Same Things to Remember.
.u,a uictnucuuuii: uioaa ui cviueui;t7.
I have been told, even in cultivated, in -
tcllectual circlesthat a young woman
VXTi!JT1rixl .irv P i "i
now uk ui mo ukucu ur i.numry
tnan in tne laooratory or class room or a
college. "Women should be trained,"
such persons say. "to be wives and
mothers." The finger of scorn has been
lightly pointed at the mentally cultivated
mothers and daughters who are unable to
cook and scrub, who cannot make a mince
pie or a plum pudding. Such persons for
get with surprising facility all the cases
of women who neglect the kitchen to in
dulge in the love sick sentimentality to
to which they have been trained; who
think too much of possible matrimonial
chances to endanger them by scrubbing,
or by giving ground for the suspicion that
they cultivate any other faculty than the
power to apostrophize the moonlight and
to long for a lover. They do not care to
remember that it is no whit better to
wither under the influence of ignorance
or sentiment, to cultivate a fondness for
"gush," thau to dry up the sensibilities
like a book worm, or grow rigid and prig
gish as a pedant.
It is as bad to stunt human nature as
to over stimulate it to stop its progress
in ono way as in another. The danger is
in going to extremes. The mass of men
choose the golden mean, and we may
trust women to avoid extravagance in the
pursuit of learning. We may and ought
to give her every help in the direction of
life that her brothers possess. It is no
longer doubtful, it is plain, that what
ever other rights woman should have,
thoso of tho intellectual kingdom ought
to bo hers fully and freely. Sho should
be the judge herself of how far she should
go in exploring tho mysteries of nature
and of science. Arthur Gilmon In The
: Fermented Juice of the Grape.
Wino is the fermented juice of the
grape, and is distinguished from other
fermented and alcoholic liquors bycon
' taining bi-tartrate of potash, a constitu
ent of the grape. Blackberries, currants,
and other berries, by fermentation, will
yield a wine, but the name of the berries
from which obtained is always appended
( to the vinous product. When tho term
, wine alone is used the fermented juice of
the grape is signified, and anything else
I is a misnomer. The numerous varieties
j of wine are occasioned by difference of
' soil, climate, season, and by the kind,
quality and condition of the grapes as to
ripeness, the mode of fermentation, and
by tho manner and temperature at which
, the wine is preserved, and by its age.
j The strong wines, such as sherry, port
and Madeira, are made from grapes
that are thoroughly ripened, and which,
on account of containing a large amount
' of sugar, yield, when fermented, a greater
amount ox alcohol, which will range be
, tween 18 and 25 percent. Claret contains
about 12 per cent, and champagno about
( 10. Sweet wines, like tokay, are made
from grapes so ripe that they are almost
: shriveled up to raisins, and therefore con
j tain much sugar, and the fermentation if
, arrested beforo all the sugar is converted
i into alcohol, which will hardly reach 10
, per cent. Champagne is bottled before
t the fermentation has ceased, and henco
. some of the carbonic acid resulting from
I the fermentation is retained in tho wine.
to be given off only when tho bottle is
opened. It is, perhaps, not too much to
eay that most wines exported from Euro
pean wine countries are adulterated.
Professor W. P. Tonry in Baltimore Sun. ,
Te Shampoo One's Owa Balr. j
Half the pleasure of having the hair j
washed and groomed is to have some one '
do it who knows how. In England, in
the large stores, there is a department of l
hair dressing where an accomplished bar- j
ber, with every convenience for shower- j
ing and drying, will wash the hair of .
ladies for one shilling. In thi3 country a
good shampoo cost from fifty cents to f 1 j
which is a large sum for so simple an '
After combing the snarls from the hair, j
braid it loosely and bind the end with a
small elastic band. Draw tepid water in
a basin and first wash tho scalp thor- 1
oughly with castile soap; then let the j
braid fall in the water, soap it and wash j
as if clothes. Afterward thoroughly rinse
and wring the braid in a toweL Wipe
tho head dry, undo the braid and brush
out, beginning at the lower end, when it
will not tangle. Let the hair loose in the
sun and air and it will dry in less than
null alTl nfttiT A vnmin'i rioi aTtftnli? 1a
I - a-a nvsMBMaw BMWiuu v
i washed at least monthly if kept fine and
healthy. New York Evening Sun.
The Bible la Shorthand.
In the library of Dr. Williams, in Lon
: don, is a copv of the Bible in shorthand. "
lb ia exquisitely wniieu, uu la boiu ui
have belonged to an apprentice of the
time of James U, who feared that the
Bible was about to be prohibited, and so
wrote this copy. Brooklyn Eagle.
The Mooa Frown.
Mr. S. E. Peal, of Sibsagar. Asam, sup
poses the moon to be entirely covered
with snow, with frozen and floe covered
seas, and thus accounts for the chief feat
ures of the lunar landscape, including
the absence of water. Arkansaw Trav
eler. A- College Come.
In the United States one man in every
200 takes a college course; in England,
one in every 600; Si Scotland, one inevery
000; hi Germany, one in every 213.
HE WILL SEE.
s ll 2bu-.
"Keely Motor" Cleveland (to working
man) Tho motor works . beautifully, my
friend. It's going to be a perfect blessing
to you. But I can't let you into the secret
of the blessing and the beaut if ulnes3J ust
yet. Wait until after election! Then
you'll see how my motor works. Time.
Aa Accurate ComptlaUoa
States Ceasas Figures.
In respect to the data on which this
table has been compiled, I beg to say, with
regard to the rates of wages, that they
have been averatred from a comnilation of
j , . , .. , v
'ZGSZEFlS? S-? tl
th Unitod State. Census. thosTof which
! Iolusonteknowledp myself as to
. their having been in continuous operation
I !5u5ut he Priod I" or
sucu no lrumuieiuiunoi mewoKmust
have been fully employed throughout the
wnoie period, being selected for -the pur
pose. The rates are doubtless some
what lower than would be shown
by a comnilation of figures given
by mechanics themselves engaged in
1 i,- ,j rru: J7.u5!S iJi
fdogous trades. This would always bo
i the case if the wages of mechanics who
, , ii Tij
Hin BBrra .in a. w - ana
with factories were compared with those
whose work is transient and not continu
ous throughout the year, owing to the
nature of the occupations, as in the build
ing trades. The rates of wages have also
been compared with those computed on
special investigations made on my own
behalf, from typical establishments in the
state of Massachusetts, which I know to
With respect to prices I had myself
made averages of prices from data
obtained by myself before Volume XX of
tho census was issued; and by comparing
my own data with thoso of tho census, I
was able to verify the prices given in that
volume for the eastern states. The num
ber of portions assigned to 800 days' work
of course assumes continuous work, like
that of the factory, which runs every
workingday in tho year, omitting Sundays
and holidays, customarily computed at
Tho computation of money or currency
per capita is as accurate as the official
data of the Mint and of the treasury de
partment will permit. The only issue
which can be raised affecting it is in re
gard to the quantity or amount of coin in
the hands of tho people. This subject
has been a matter of considerable discus
sion; suffice it to say that the absolute
knowlcdgo of the subject possessed by the
department of the Mint would substan
tially verify the proportions of currency
per capita piven in this tabic, even if tho
amounts did not absolutely correspond
and were somewhat less.
It may, therefore. I think, bo safely as
sumed that tho margins for error in these
four computations are very small; and if
all errors were eliminated, whilo the fig
ures might be slightly changed, tho ratios
or proportions would not be varied suffi
ciently to affect the general conclusion:
Relation of wages, prices, purchasing
power of wages, and volume per capita
of money or currency in circulation at
tho respective dates given:
No. 1. Average wages of mechanics, en
gineers, carpenters, machinists and
painters connected with the mills and
works treated in Vol. XX, United States
census; establishments in eastern, mid
dle and western states.
No. 2. Average cost of ono day's supply
of food, fuel and material for clothing
customarily used by such mechanics,
computed at retail prices in twenty
shops, ten east and ten west-of Buffalo.
No. 3. Purchasing power of 300 days'
wages in equal portions of the same
kinds of focd, fuel and cloth as above
No. 4. Quantity per capita of coin, con
vertible bank notes and legal tender
notes in circulation or in use as money
at the respective dates. Edward At
kinson in Tho Forum.
Why Not Be Honest?
Wo have raw cotton free, and yet wo
cannot export cotton goods in largo quan
tities and compete with Europe in tho
world's markets. The only way in which
this country can ever compete with Eng
land, France and Germany abroad is by
lowering wages. Sensible freo traders
know this, but they arc neither honest
nor courageous enough to acknowledge
it. St. Louis Globe-Democrat.
ITALIAN ARTIFICIAL FLOWERS.
Invente hy Pioas Sist
ten la a
Fameas Factory Handwork.
Artificial flowers were first invented by
pious nuns. In the Italian convents the
altars and shrines of saints were, up to
the end of the Eighteenth century, decor
ated with artificial flowers, laboriously
put together of paper parchment ana
other stiff materials. Since then the
"Italian flowers," which are made' in
Venetian factories of the imperfect co
coons of silk worms, have become famous
for their daintiness, which makes them
particularly suitable for toilet decora
tions. Besides these silk flowers other
artificial flowers are made in Venice,
whence nearly all Italy is supplied, and
whence whole wagon loads are exported
to other countriea.
Lhavabaan oven. one of .tha Venetian
P S5 & A
52 4r 59 SB
. co ao co CO oo
i r-" E3 isr as"- sn5
2 ftp 553
M 1 pl
ower lactones, for no sooner has the
visitor to Venice -taken his early cup of
chocolate at Florian'a. near, the Marcus'
I place, when the cicerone appears; offering
w bhwot uuu tw uiuvus lacwxjr in ius
"famous Italian flowers." This factory
is situated in one of the gray old houses
of the Frezzaria, and. several hundred
girls are occupied in it. In the warehouse
the most wonderful reproductions of
natural' flowers are exhibited in glass
cases, and it seems-in many cases as if
not only the richest and most brilliant
colors, but the very scent of the flowers,
had. been stolen from nature, for some of
the artificial flowers are steeped in the
perfume distilled from the flower which
It represents. Anyone wishing to take
home some souvenir of Venice can Lavo
his choice of beautiful and often fantastic
objects at the factory.
In the upper stories of the house the
girls sit at their work, constructing, with
clever hands, the most beautiful-works
of art. for all the most expensive arti
ficial flowers are nearly exclusively made
by hand, and their value depends solelv
on the manual dexterity and taste of the
poorly clad and mostly delicate looking
girls, sitting at long tables, and -inhaling
the unhealthy dust of the dyed materials.
No-machinery could replace tho dexterity
and taste. Last century a Swiss invented
a machine for cuttincr out the leaves ami
petals, but it can only bo used for tho
smallest kinds, such as are wanted for
hyacinths, lilies of the valley, and other
small flowers. In larger petals the ir
regularities of manual work are preferred
to tho stiff and correct forms produced bv
machinery. The material of which the
petals are mado is woven in special fac
tories: the scissors and other tools used
by the girls, as well as the presses in
which the veins are traced on the leaves,
are of a shape specially adapted to tho
Each part of a flower is made by special
ists. 'In one room, for instance, only
stalks of flowers and leaves are made: in
another fruits and berries of all kinds are
cast, if they are of wax. or blown, if of
glass. The cleverest workers are cm
ployed in making blossoms of tho single
petals, and bouquets, wreaths, and gar
lands of the single blossoms. It is very
interesting to watch this process and to
see how, first, the center of a flower is
constructed, then the petals pnt round,
next the green leaves, and so forth, till
a flower or a branch is complcto. The
Example for Holiday Seekers.
When Maestro Verdi arrived at Monte
catini to take the waters and with them a
well earned holiday, he found that the
chief piece of furnituro in thesnito of
rooms prepared for him was a piano.
Without saying a word, tho composer took
tho music of his "Trovatore." which had
been put on tho music stand as a gentle
ovation. locked the piano, and said to the
son of tho hotclkceper, "Take mo to the
place whence I can seethodeepest abyss."
Tho young man. somewhat abashed at the
proposal, made in solemn tones. led Verdi
to the top of tho Maricnberg, whence tho
latter, who was so tired that ho was
hardly able to stand, hurled tho kev into
the depths, saying, "The Virgin be
praised! now I have accomplished an act
which will greatly help mo to enjoy and
benefit by my stay. On tho day of my de
parture from here I will sco that tho key
is replaced." Holiday seekers, go and do
likewise, leaving behind you the keys of
whatever workshops ye come from.
The Mexican and His Blanket.
Did you ever hear anybody say "Don't
hurry off in tho heat of tho day without
your blanket?" It is a very common ex
pression in tho rural districts of tho west
and south. Well, La Mexico the expres
sion is used as a remonstrance against the
departure of a guest. Every Mexican, on
coming to town from tho country, carries
a blanket with him. Ho does not go to
tho hotel and ask for lodgings, but finds
shelter at almost any private house, par
ticularly among tho poor. Ho then lies
down upon the stone floor, rolls himself
in his blanket and goes promptly to sleep.
Lithe morning ho awakens at daylight,
and, asking tho blessing of heaven upon
the house which sheltered him, ho goes
out to some plaza and thero boils his
coffee in tho open square. "It. M- Y." in
St. Louis Republic.
The Teaagest War Veteran.
The man who claims to bo tho youngest
war veteran in tho country is Charles L.
Stone, of Philadelphia. Ho was 14 years
of age when he carried a gun at the battlo
of Gettysburg. At that battlo ho was
wounded in the left arm by a riflo br.ll.
Part of tho "funny bone" had to bo cut
away, and he says that his appreciation of
a joke is not as vivid as it should be.
But he still has the humerus of his right
arm. That ought to help him a good deal
in keeping up with American wit. Now
A Case of Necessity.
Visitor (to convict) What are -you in
Convict I'm an ex-policeman, sir; I'm
in for stealing.
Visitor That's bad. Can I do anything
Convict If yon could send me in a pint
of peanuts, sir, you would savo my life.
I was on the force bo long, I can't livo
without 'em. The Enoch.
School Children in China.
Littlo girls who don't lil:o to go to
school shonld live in China, littlo boys
who don't .like to 'go .should keep away
from the Celestial empire. Thero tho
girls do not have to go at all, and the
boys begin when they are G years old.
School begins at daylight, end closes
when it is too dork to read. Thero are no
vacations, no half holidays, and cot much
fun of any sort. New York Sun.
to Save Life
Frequently requires prompt action. An
hour's delay waiting for the doctor may
be attended with serious consequences,
especially in cases of Croup, Pneumonia,
and other throat and lung troubles.
Hence, no family should be without a
bottle of Ayers Cherry Pectoral,
which has proved itself, in thousands of
cases, the best Emergency Medicine
ever discovered. It gives prompt relief
and prepares the way for a thorough
cure, which is certain to be effected by
its continued use.
S. H. Latimer, M. D., Mt. Vernon.
Ga., says: "I have found Ayer's Cherry
Pectoral a perfect cure for Croup in all
cases. I have known the worst rate
relieved in a very short time by itn use;
and I advise all families to use it in sud
den emergencies, for roughs, croup, &c."
A. J. Eidson, M. IX, Middleto-.vn,
Tenn., says: "I have used Ayer's
Cherry Pectoral with the best effect in
my practice. This wonderful prepara
tion once saved my life. I had a con
stant cough, night sweats, was greatly
reduced in rlesh, and given up by my
hysician. One bottle and a half of the
'ectoral cured me."
"I cannot say enough in praise of
Ayer's Cherry " Pectoral," writes E.
Bragdon, of Palestine, Texas, " believ
ing as I do that, but for iu use, I should
long since have died."
Ayer's Cherry Pectoral,
Or. J. C. Aytr a Co, Lowell, Mass.
cldsyaUDmajliti Price $1; Ubeuks.fi.
Authorized Ctfital of $250,000,
A Surplus Fund of - $20,000,
And the largest Fai 1 CaehCaastal of
any bank' in this part of the State.
(VDeposits received and interest paid oa
IVOrafts oa the prine ipal cities in Ihiscoaa
trjr and Europe bought-asd-sold.-
EVCbllectione and all outer bnsiatas aivea
prompt and careful attention.
A ANDKKSON. Pres't.
J: If. GALLEY. Vice Pres't.
H. ANDERSON. I. ANDERSON,
JACOHMKEISKN. UENKY KAOATA :
JOHN J. SULLIVAN. W. A. McALXJSTtk.
Attorney and Ceunseller at Law..
Office on Nebraska Ave., Columbus, Neb.- AU
leiral baainem promptly, accurately and careful
ly attended to. !3aag-y '-
ATTORNEYS AT LAW,
Office over First National Bank, Colnmbas,
T M. NACFAKLA1M,
ATTORXEY tr A'Or.llfr rUBLW
CBOffice over First National Bank, Colam-'
SSPartiea dcoirinir HtirTeyinjr done can "ad
cIiwh me at Columbus, NeU, or call at my office
in Court Houne. 3mayWt.y-
T J. CHANEK,
CO. SUP'T PUBLIC SCHOOLS.
I will Ih in my office iu the Court House, the
thiru Saturday of-'dwell month for the examina
tion of iippliiaulK for t-nrlT'c'rtifiratea,and-for
tlii trnnMirtion of other school buoinmwi.
Itlttl V and KXPlCESiLMETX.
Ludit and heavy haulms. G'immU handled with
care, lleiuhiuarterx at J.l. Itecker A Co.' Office.
1 elephone. St and 34. SOinartfty
) K. TURNER CO.,
Proprietors and Publishers of tho
Goitnavs jotos ax. ui a sss. mxLx icoum.
Both. iMMt-paiil to nny niliirei. for $2.W a year
strictly in advance. Kaxii.y Journal, Jl.Ula
W. A. McALUSTEU. W. M. CORNEL! US.
cALI.IHl ft:iC COKnKfLllJM
ATTORNEYS AT LAW.
Office up stairs over Ernst & SchwarxV store on
xJeventh utreet. ltiuunyHH
PHYSICIAN and SURGEON,
EYK DISEASES A SPECIALTY:
... "?:, Telephone:
Eleventh Street. Office No. 4U KeidenceN.67.
JOHN G. HIGGINS. C. J. GAULOW.
HIG01V8 4b GJJLLOW,
Specialty made r Collections by C. J. Garlow
Tin and Sheet-Iron Ware !
Joa-Werk, Xoofiir aid Gattor
iTag a Specialty.
5Shopon 13th street. Kraut, Uro.'s old
stand on Thirteenth street. jgtf
Caveats and Trade Marks obtained, and all Pat
enAH4wn,,con,iuctfJl 'or MODERATE FEES.
n8Rfcr?FS; IS OPPOSITE .U.S. ATENT
ur ICE. We have no nab-aKenciei, all baiiinesM
direct, hence we can trannact patent business in
less time and at IJiSS COST than thoe remote
Send model, drawing, or photo, with descrip
tion. We advise if patentable or not free of
chance. Our fee not due till patent is secured.
A book. "How to Obtain Patents," with refer
ences to actual clients in your state, county or
town, sent free. Address
Opposite Patent Office, Waslangton. K. til
nrriaft? .wonders .-
bnUnuttanri "' forms, lint are snr
JbCI1 JX1 by the marvels of invention.
1 nose who are in need of profitable
wnrlr flint min Iia .1.... M1.M. l:..; ... .
should at once send their address to Hallett &
!'" - ,uru' -" anu receive tree, mil id-
.."-"..."; "- ""c :, jui. wva, can earn
from $o tofZS Per day and upwards wherever
thfr liir,. vritt fin.iitarfivl f.. ,..-.;, .
.. -- - w....; ,CT-. Laiuisi aot re
quired. Some have made over 30 in a ninule
day at this work. All succeed. 87dec2Hy
We will pay the above reward for any case of
liver complaint, dyspepsia, 8jck headache, indi
gestion, constipation or costivenesa we cannot
cure with West's Vegetable Liver Pills, when the
directions are strictly complied with. They are'
purely vegetable, and never fail to give satisfac-U-?-
J'arK2. boxeB .containing 30 sugar coated
pills, 25c. For salo by all druggists. Beware of
counterfeits and immitations. The genuine
S.11i!,rfa.';tu.l?d ,nIy h JOHN C. WEST & CO..
662 W. Madison S, Chicago, 111. dec7'87y
the world during the
last lialf century..
w w m v v v m ..wt 1fc uuiuilg mf,
wonders of inventive progress, is a method and
system of work that can be performed all over
thtf. rnnnt rv vithnnf MnAi-atirtf? th. a,Lim kn
their homes. Pay liberal; any one can do the
work: either eex. young or old: no special ability
required. Capital not needed; you are started-
fMu fn f kia nnf .nil M.,,wn ,a .. ...! Ml
..-. y-. ...... w-. uU .c.uiu iu unauu WW will
send you free, something of great value and im-
iwiuuiw iu juu, uuu. vui start you in Dasinees.
vhirh will Hrivif rnn in miM .m........ -l.l
than anything else in the world. Grand outfit'
irec. auuress rue x to., Augusta, Me. dec28 .
EWAPAPffP A book of im page.
aas-i""" '"an ineucsiooolcloraB
advertiser to' con--sult.
be be' experi
enced or otherwise.
It contains lii.l.toriiewssurersund estimates
oftho cost of advertising. The advertiser who
wonts to spend one dollar, finds hi Ittbe In
formation he requires, while forliini who will
invest one hundred thousand dollars in ad
vertising; a scheme is indicated which will
meet his every requirement, or' can bewtade
to do to by tiight changes airily arrivedat bycof
rerpcmilence. Its editions have been issued. .
Sent, post-paid, to any address for 10 cents.
Write Uf UEO. P. KOSVELL CO..
NEWSPAPER ADVERTISING BUREAU.
Uaflanwaat-IBtlBgriouiaaq.), w Jock.-.
- .- ..
. m ,
Powered by Open ONI