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About The Columbus journal. (Columbus, Neb.) 1874-1911 | View Entire Issue (Oct. 3, 1888)
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HOW A SWORD IS MADE.
.ROM.tHE CRUDE IRON TO THE
.." -11IGH TEMPERED BLADE.
: the Finkfced IF.
Process of .'Preimrine tan Kmi-im i
.."Srind 'MiUM-rGrt Skill of the Grind
;.." -."fiew you axe," he said- "Sob if you
cut knock a piece out of the sword oa
that stone-"".. t
--' ': . I'took tlie handle .in both hands and
'truck the stone with all "my might. But
-: to my astonishment a piece flew off the
-. stone; while the sword did not show even,
the least evidence of the'blow.
" "Every one of these weapons has to
stand that test," I was informed, "or we
do not 'put the mark-of our firm on it,
- nor 'do 'we deliver it as a first, class
. . weapon. . . -' ...
- . . I went all through the .factory, which
. " ". employs over 1,000 men exclusively in the
manufacture of fine weapons. They 'are
." -now.filling an order for the German gov
V' erntnent lor a new bayonet. 'Eight hun-
-dred 'thousand are to be mode, and the
".-. firm, delivers 1,500 a day! The weapon is
twelvo inches long, and the government
pays -six xnarke for each of them when
'.". finished "
Before a piece of steel is converted into
'." .'such an. instrument of war it has to go
through quito a process. To show me
-" this Mr. Koch' took mo into a large space
at one end of the factory, where 1 at once
1. noticed pieces of isteel varying in length
from ten to twenty feet, standing all
- around the walls, fn the center of the
room stood a large machine, where one
man and a boy -were occupied.
: .- TIIE ItAW MATERIAL.
"' "This is where the steel is cut before it
has received a stroke yet toward the
shape of a sword, so wo might". call this
the storeroom for raw .material." Thus
my kind informant began Ids explanation.
The long pieces of steel, which were
about 2 J inches wido.were then put under
the machine and by the turning of a crank
pieces of abouo twelve inches fell one
after the other into a basket. The boy
then handed the man another piece of
steel, .put an empty basket under the
'machine and carried the short pieces into
.-. an adjoining apartment. We followed,
and from the number of fires all around I
guessed that we must have- arrived at the
forges; And so 'it was. Each one of
these pieces of steel was put into the
fire, and when it was white with heat, a
man put it under a steam hammer, which
struck tho heated steel in rapid succes
sion about twenty times on every particle
of its surface. When it was pulled out,
the pieces was about eighteen inches
long. It was now thrown into a large
.barrel filled with water. Now the would
be sword had gone through the harden
ing process, and a number of boys
gathered them again into baskets to carry
them to tho rolling -department. In the
front of each of theso rolls I had my at
tention called to a big coke fire. This fire
' . was stirred up to an enormous heat, and
then tho pieces of steel were one by one
" 'put into tho fire. There are two men oc
cupied at each roll, viz. tho roller and
- his helper. As soon as the steel is hot
. again it comes under tho roll, from where
it emerges about one-eighth of an inch
thick, and the eventual shape of .the
sword stamped on it.
Again the pieces of steel are carried
off, and this time they go to the center
presses, where they are put under a con
trivance which cuts tho margins off the
steel, and when they leave here you can
ee that tho thing looks like a sword.
- Hitherto, however, you have seen noth
ing but a dark blue piece of dirty steel,
while we now come into the departments
where the metal is brightened. There is
- at first tho "grind mill." This is a large
place which looks like a barn. From one
. end of the room to the other I observed
trows of immense grindstones, some of
them eight feet in -diameter.
. - " THE GRECDKR'B SKILL.
-In-tbis factory I saw forty stones, and
. ' in front of each sat a grinder. He has a
" . little wooden seat, wears .a' woolen shirt,
no cap and a pair of overalls. But over
the latter up to his knees he has wooden
"" -. gaiters, made out of four 'pieces of wood.
.His feet aro also inclosed in wooden shoes.
. .Tho stones aro turned .by steam and
:"-. ' watered automatically. In the front of
' -.-" this stono tho man sits from 0 o'clock in
- the morning until 12 o'clock at noon.
.Then he has on hour for dinner, when he
' aits -down again from 1 o'clock until 0
'- o'clock in the evening. He has a boy who
;"-- .brings him the instruments as he wants
-. them. The grinding department is tho
-'- " most important in tho entire factory, and
.tho grinder has to be veryskillfnL He
- '". has to have a keen eye; he must know
.. :. - when to press the steel hard against the
- stone and when not. A single scraping
of the stono too much spoils the whole
.. . weapon, and it has to be thrown away.
- -. lAost of the other work is mechanical,
'" while hero it is intelligence that does the
- "work satisfactorily.
- - From tho grinding stone the piece of
steel comes bright antLsharp. It is now
' .. taken to the burnishing rooms. This part
. ' "of the work is chiefly performed by boys,
'- who' vary in ago from 12 to 1G years. In
- this placo there are a number of wheels,
:".- -'out they aro very small. Some of them
are of stone, others are covered with
. -'leather, which, if the article has to receive
. - a polish, is covered with a powder which
'-.. . lends tho blade a high polish. The knob
and the back of tho handle are nowbrilr
' "--' .liantly burnished, and the weapon is al
ready very dangerous. But still it is un-
- finished. .The different holes which are
"made in the handle, the one which fastens
the blade on the gun and several others
are now bored. This is 'done, however,
- by machinery, and takes but a very short
tune. Then the handle is covered with
leather, and now that the blade itself is
. - - thoroughly completed, it is taken to the.
In this department we find, as a rule, a
number of old men who have been at
work, for the firm for long years. They
- areubt able to do actual hard work, but
still in this department their services are
indispensable. Their duty is, in fact, to
examine the artido and see whether there
is a blemish anywhere. As soon as he
detects a flaw he knows where' it was.
"'done, whether in the burnishing, the
grinding, tho rolling, or any other de
partment, tnd the man who is found to
have made the mistake has to make it
good, or, in other words, -he-has to pay
for the damage. Solingen (Germany) Cor.
-'.' Pittsburg Dispatch.
A LAND OF ROMANCE.
- . aLanrtes ef JUTe in Pnmg,anj tfnls ef
.- - Paraguay is surely one of the most
favored lands on earth. There no insane
love of gold compels the heart to. ques-
... ." tlonable deeds. No political situation
;-.' harasses the mind. 'The very atmosphere
.'- ' breathes peace. The air -is soft and
'-' -balmy, inviting to repose, and prolific
..nature, throwing about everything her
. garment of rich vegetation, supplies man
- . - with allhe needs and beautifies ail-that
''.- '..his eyes rest upon. Paraguay is, indeed,
. - .'.almost a fairy land' of romance, so beauti-
" . ' ' .- f ul are its manifold attractions.
-'.. . .The native portion of the population is
" a'remnant of the tribe'ofGuarani Indians,
'."".- one of the loftiest tribes in the grade of
.. . civilization of all the American race. But
.nothing astonishes the visitor to Paraguay
. "so much as the vast preponderance of .the
. female over 'the male-population.' The
. proportion is something like, nine to one.
. - This is the result of a long and very'fieree;
. war, in which the Gnaranmns followed
'. -and supported a cruel and ambitious
' ruler through indescribable hardships and
' sufferings' This war ended only with the
.-J death of the' man who waged it, and has
;'I .-Teduced'the whole' population to about
' one-sixth of .what it was twenty years
; ago, leaving only womeu and boys.. These
-'Women (this 'writer continues) are as
- -beautiful and fair to look upon as can-be'
-.-.-- found in anv nart of the world.
'They, are of 'medium height, rather.
. siigtitanaiitne.witnaneiymoiaea limbs,
.'-.small, pretty hands and feet and figures
" of matchless grace and "beauty that would
serve for models of the sculptor's art,
. -Their carriage is so easy and natural as
to bealmost the poetry of motion,.for the
freedom from high" heeled boots and tight
.dothbig has left their step light, supple
aad strong. Their dress is of the simplest
mi aabort.tunioarioTMuiot alUt.a
salrt "tailing 'to below theaneesanaa
shoulder covering not unlike a shawl
both of pure white and adorned with
pretty native lace. They are gracefully
worn, and bewitchlnirlv serve to half
revesiand half coi-tceaf the form beneath.
In the midday siesta they are fond of
lying languidly in their hammocks, sip
plng their mate and singing In their low,
sweet voices, yet sad and with a touch of
melancholy, the. "narancaros," or songs
of the orange gatherers, or those other
strange, weird songs of theirs whose .
words are all of love. Indeed, what need
to do ought else in a. .land so blessed-as
"' living entirely upon fruits and vege
tables that are secured with but little
effort, unmoved by the ambitious schemes
of the money making Europeans, upon
whom they look with questionrngwonder,
and possessed of languid, voluptuous
natures that are fostered by" the climate,
what else should they do save love, and
dance.and sing? Dancing is their only
'pastime, and into that they throw the
whole spirit of their ioyous nature. Tho
slightest excuse is all that- is necessary
for getting up a ball, at which the wholo
neighborhood at once assembles.
The girls and wpmen are dressed only
in the robes described. .The -men wear
white linen trousers and '.red ponchos.
The dances are in quaint, original figures,
but nearly always very graceful. Some
times the festivities will be' kept up
through the entire night, after -which the
participants will gayly return to' their
occupations, of whatsoever nature, always
contented, always happy. Sometimes
there will be a grand contribution picnic
at some distant point, where the dancing
will be kept up the round of a whole
twenty-four hours. For truly these
people live but to be happy through the
After reading this one is not surprised
to hear that many visiting Europeans,
Englishmen among the rest, have settled
down in the country. "Who would not
rather become a lotus eater among tho
lotus-eaters, and settle down upon tho
sunny ldllside or shady river banks, amid
fragrant and fruitful orange groves, to
forget a regretted past and live only in
the happy present, waited upon by the
simple white robed Indian woman de
voted, affectionate and surpassingly fair?"
A Balloonist' Big Jaap.
"I have made." said Professor E.' D.
Hogan. "163 ascensions and three jumps.
One jump, made out in Jackson, is the
biggest on record 9.800 feet I shot down
400 feet before my parachute opened. The
popular impression is that the parachute
opens with a snap, but this is not so.
First one section opens, then another,
and so on by easy degrees, and as I've
-watched it opening when it was just
above me and was thousands of feet up
iu tho air it reminded me of a rose open
ing in tho morning.
"How did I feel when I made my first
jump? Oh, well, rather afraid. I looked
down and saw the hills and fields away
below me, and the people looked barely a
foot high, and the buildings looked tike
toy houses. I looked down and shivered
when I saw the space between me and tho
earth, and then looked at the barometer
and found the distance to be almost one
and a half miles; but all the same I
jumped. ' I leaped into space hanging to
the parachute, and down I went like a
shot for 200 feet. The parachute then
began to open, gradually lessening my
velocity. I heard the people's applause
very faintly. It rose up to me like the
merest suspicion of a sound. I afterward
learned they clapped and cheered for all
they were worth. The parachute was
oscillating somewhat, and I came near
being banged against several chimney
tops. The buildings are our greatest ter
ror. Mauy an aeronaut has been dashed
against a building and killed more, in
fact, than being dragged over rugged
ground. I met with one accident. See
here," pointing to a big bulb on his right
ankle. "I got that in Nebraska iu Au
gust of 1683 by being dragged over a
heap of rocks. I never could bend that
ankle since can't even stand on that foot
"You see a great panorama from a bal
loon in mid air," continued the professor,
"but, of- course, the landscape is all in
miniature and through a slight haze.'
New York Evening Sun.
ane Child's Voice la Singing;.
Frederick S. Law, hi The Voice, dwells
at length on some of the dangers of al
lowing children to sing In public, par
ticularly when under the care of ignorant
or irresponsible conductors. One case is
mentioned of a girl who was permitted
to sing in halls large enough to test the
powers of experienced artists, and who,
consequently, at the ago of 10, although
sho had started out with great promise,
had no voice at all left. "It is," says
Mr. Law, "as much of an impossibility
for a child to produce full and sonorous
notes as it would be to load it down with
heavy weights and expect it to walk at
once. Many who would regard the latter
as an act of cruelty will listen with com
placency to a child straining every nerve
to fill a large room with a voice that from
its nature is not intended for such use."
Mr. Law concludes: "The instruction
of children, as regards the voice, should
bo almost entirely negative that is, they
do not require teaching what to do so
much as what not to do. They may be
trusted to form their tones as they please,
if they do not sing too loudly nor with
any undue effort. If these conditions
cannot be secured, they should not be
allowed to sing at all. Nothing is more
painful than to hear a child struggle to
fall a large room with a voice crippled
from an attempt to wrest from .nature
what is not there. In no way can we find
compensation for such an exhibition. The
mind receives no pleasure, as there can be
no intellectual grasp of the subject, while
the ear is tortured by shrill and distorted
sounds which awaken a natural anxiety
for the child's future welfare. A healthy
child possessed of a good ear is the most
natural singer in the world, because the
most unconscious. It is only when tam
pered with by those who should know
better that disastrous results are to be
feared." Brooklyn Eagle.
Description ef m Ttu-kisa Dinner.
-Rousseau has said that from the food
of a nation you can tell, its characteris
tics; if this is true, no better spot for the
atudy of ethnology could be found than
CfcvaUa. Doubtless, if it.be desired, an
opportunity will occur of dining with
many nationalities. By all means accept
an invitation to dine with a Turkish
pasha. I had the pleasure of taking a
meal with the governor of Drama, who is
passing rich for a Turk, seeing that he
rules over the plain where the chief
tobacco crops are, and his opportunities
for amsmring wealth are many and varied.
Silence and expedition are the chief
characteristics -of a Turkish meal' The
table preparations are few, but the dishes
are many; olives, caviare, cheese, etc., axe
dotted about, and perhaps as many as ten
dishes are handed round on covered brazen
dishes, consisting of rice or barley, meat
or boiled fish, cakes seasoned with vegeta
bles, roast lamb, beans, a species of
rissole wrapped up in vine leaves, the in
evitable pllaf and fruits, and. as wine is
forbidden, an intoxicating substitute is
found in liquors and brandy. Each per.
son has his class of sherbet by him, and
his piece of unleavened bread, for the
Turks love half baked dough. It will
comfort the European to see every one
wash his hands before his meal, for forks
'are unknown, and each is expected to dip
his fingers into the savory mersel as it is
handed to him. During the whole of the
feeding process scarcely four or five words
will be uttered, and at the most your' re
past will hut 'twenty minutes, but then
afterward, with the coffee and the bubble
bubble, conversation wfll flow freely.'
To the Turk eating is a serious gastro
nomic exercise, which will not admit of
any conversation being, entered into dur
ing its progress. Cornhill Magazine.
The French Academy of Sciences and
certain experts appointed to investigate
the'claims of the grass cloth plant, ornet
tlewort, have reported 'that 'the tissues
made from it are much superior to cotton
goods, both in point -of appearance and
lasting qualities. .The discovery of the
aaes of the aettlewprt. for textile purposes
w creating much exdtesaeat, as the plant
grow abundantly both In tho south of
Franca aad in the French colonies. Chi
SAY EMPLOYERS LOSE MONEY SIM
PLY THROUGH NEGLIGENCE '
All 0feilasUlM for:
Little Car Besatts f Carelc
t Keening- Ace ts
How to keep trusted clerks from em
bezzlement is a secret which every busi
ness firm or corporation in Chicago would
like to know. There does not pass a day
but some peculations are discovered, from
the young man who steals a few dollars
and is sent to jail to the genius who
'leaves for Canada with a million in his
pockets. Expert accountants sav that
employers lose money simply through
their own-negligence, and that all chances
for embezzlement canoe removed through
tho exercise of a little care.
W. C. Baine says: ."The business of an
expert accountant is a new one in the
west, and has npt acquired the dignity of
a profession. It not only calls for 'a
knowledge of bookkeeping in one line 'of
business, but it also requires a knowledge
of 'every business, contractual rights, and
the abilitv to construe the terms of con
tracts. But in Chicago, whenever an or
dinary bookkeeper is thrown out of
employment, he at-once sets himself up
as an expert accountant. Of course such
men f aiL The keeping of a set of books
can be learned La six months as well as in
six years, and the bookkeeper does not
realize that this Is the smallest part of
tho knowledge which an expert account
ant should acquire before ho can succeed.
In Great Britain a man cannot arrive to
the dignity of an expert accountant until
he has gone through a course of study in
the same manner as a student for the bar.
He therefore becomes fitted to answer
any call that may be made upon him, and
the business becomes a life business.
But look at the list of accountants in
the Chicago directory. There are very
few names which appeared in last year's
directory, showing that the business with
many has been but a temporary one while
the men engaged in it were out of work
in their ordinary vocation, that of keep
ing books. But the business is bound to
grow. Business is done in such a hurry
here that mistakes are very liable to
occur. In the large majority of cases,
where an expert accountant is called to
examine a set of books which aro out of
balance, it will be found that there has
been no thieving, but that carelessness
has been the trouble. If a bookkeeper or
cashier is trusted sufficiently and has the
handling of money it is an easy matter
for him to steal, bat it is as much harder
for him to conceal his thefts. A very
common way is to falsify the items on
the debit side of the cash book. The cor
rect amounts are generally entered on
tho ledger account, and the merchant
almost invariably looks at the ledger
when he wishes to see whether any ac
count has been paid. It is his own care
lessness that permits embezzlement,, and
if be has not the time to look after his
own business ho should have an account
ant go over his books three or four times
Merritt Brooks, who has been in the
business for a number of years, has Lad
the opportunity of watching the courso
taken by a number of embezzlers, and the
means used by them to make their books
apparently balance, so that at a casual
glance their peculations cannot be dis
covered. "The way I happened to enter
into the business was this," he said;' "I
had been engaged as a bookkeeper in Buf
falo, and was employed to examine into
the accounts of the county treasurer of
Erie county. It was found that through
a careless system of keeping accounts the
treasurer was short In his cash $19,000.
This discovery led to an investigation
into the accounts of the city of Buffalo
from the time when the charter was
originally granted. The sum of f 164,000
was discovered, the accumulation of
email amounts of overcharges on special
assessments, which tho city had no
knowledge it possessed.
"It is difficult for a man who keeps an
upright set of books to steal his employ
er's money without detection. 'When a
cashier of a bank wants to steal money
outright, and with such a sum as he can
take at once and leave for parts unknown,
there is no necessity for him to try to
cover up the theft by false entries in. his
books. But the defaulter who takes money
from time to time is forced to mako his
books appear balanced. He makes false
entries which can be discovered easily by
an expert accountant. The systematic
embezzler simply relies upon no examina
tion being made. In order to commit
systematic robbery he must be' trusted
not only with the cash, but also with the
books. It is then a very easy matter to
enter items or false footings in the cash
book so that the figures will appear cor
rect. Unless the employer goes beneath
the surface the fraud will never be dis
covered. "The honest bookkeeper wouldjnot feel
offended or Insulted if ids books were ex
amined, and if ho is dishonest, the sooner
his work is looked over the better. Book
keepers would, be more careful and the
books would be better kept. A cashier in
a largo establishment should not be al
lowed to have full charge of the books,
and the bookkeeper should be the one to
keep the record of all the cashier's receipts
and expenditures. In this way embezzle
ment is impossible unless the two act in
collusion. The accounts of the cashier
can then be examined by the bookkeeper's
records only. Few defalcations are found
in the accounts of railroad corporations,
where large sums of money are handled
every year. This is because of the system
of auditing accounts. The agent who
handles money for the company does not
know what moment the traveling auditor
may come in and demand an immediate
inspection of his accounts. Examinations
made in this way affect the market value
of stock in corporations. If investors
could be satisfied that the condition of
the fi""" of any corporation was ex
actly what it is given out to be by the
officers they would have greater confi
dence in investing and the market value
of the stocks would increase." Chicago
Since fresh meat is now transported by
thousands of tons from North and South
America and Australia to England and
France, It .is interesting to examine tho
ingenious processes adopted on the ocean
steamers engaged hi this business to keep
the meat at a low temperature during the
voyage. The means' by 'which this low
temperature Is maintained now consists,
according to a French authority, of ma
chines for "blowing cold sir into tile meat
storerooms in the hold of the vessel, the
air being cooled simply by expansion.
As every one knows, the old fashioned
freezing machines employed the expan
sion of condensed ammonia gas as a re
frigerating agent, conveying the cold
current to the place where it was to be
used by means of glycerine, or some
other liquid not subject to freezing at
ordinary temperatures. By the new
method, the sir Is cooled -by its own ex
pansion, and then forced directly into the
rooms' The air is first drawn into a con
densing cylinder, where it is compressed
under a pressure of about fifty pounds to
the square inch. This greatly reduces its
volume and raises its temperature to
nearly 800 degs. F.
. The next step to carry off the surplus
heat, which is done by means of a current,
of sea water, circulating around the con
denser, or rather around a series of tubes,
into which the air passes from the con
denser.' To cool it still more, and cause
the deposits of the, watery vapor con
tained in it,the air next passes into an
other series of tubes, which are exposed
to the current of cold air returning from
the meat storeroom, and Is then drawn
Into the expansion cylinder. "On being
allowed to expand here; the temperature
of the air falls immediately to about 70
degs. below aero, F., and the last traces
of moisture are deposited as snow.
Wooden tubes then convey the chilled sir
to the storerooms, which it reaches at a
temperature of about 'sero, F., and after
circulating about the rooms is drawn back
byan aspirating shaft to the refrigerat
The Ciermoiater la the storerooms
ever rises to the framing paint of water.
so tba mass la leapt eontui
thaaax of. its ililssaejii iitoiai it
TBa-MS fne ExerelM a i
Melbourne or tne maYiata'nver.-mam rb
arrival in the London docks, where it . is
found to be indistinguishable from the
best fresh beef and mutton. The tore
rooms are protected against the entrance
of heat by conduction from the outside
by means of double walls and ioors,
packed with powdered charcoal Boston
Vast Moaner ef "Saltan,
Taking into consideration, the vast
number' of Smiths extant In the world,
there can be no doubt that the name but
seldom implies relationship. Of straight
"Smiths" alone, there are 1,503 mentioned
in the Directory of. 1888; these are all
adults, and it is reasonably certain that
there is fully an equivalent number of
children and youths of the same name, not
mentioned. This would mako a total ef
8.016 "Smiths." . Then this is still aug
mented by the variations of the name
Schmidt, Smyth, Schniit. etc., until it is
probable 'that there are 6,000 of that
ubiquitous family in St. Louis alone. The
population of St. Louis being 400,000, it is
evident that about one sixty-sixth of St.
Tifiiayng are Smiths.
The peculiar part lies- in the fact that
it is but extremely seldom, if ever, that a
man and woman bearing that universal
name are married. I have noticed this
for years, and watched carefully, but I
cannot remember, ever having seen the
names coupled together in the item-of
marriage licenses in tho newspapers, nor
have. I ever heard of a couple, both of
whom bore that name, being united hi
wedlock. They certainly marry some
body, for the rarest old maid and old
bachelor is one bearing the widespread
name. It will ever ba a 'mystery why
Smiths do not intermarry. At the pres
ent rate it is but a question of time when
the name will have conquered the world,
and everybody will bo named "Smith."
Difference Between- Wool nad Heir.
The difference between wool and hair is
not so great as might be supposed, sine
very fine hair bears a strong resemblance
to very coarse wool; but when the micro
scope is brought into operation a marked
differentiation may be observed. The
surface of the hair will appear' to be per
fectly smooth, as though it were polished,
while the surface of a fiber of wool Is Im
bricated, as though the trunk were cov
ered with infinitely small scales. A hair
is therefore seen to bean entirely different
thing from a fiber of wool, and a further
variation is noticed hi the fact that hair
never curls hi the way wool does, for hair
when it is curly at all curls in long,
wavy lines, and wool in short, half circles,
which almost return intothemselves. The
texture of wool is also varied by fine
lines, from 2,000 to 4,000 in the inch, so,
by means of the microscopo, wool may be
easily known from cotton or any other
animal or vegetable fiber. Every kind of
hair has its own fiber, but fine human
hair most nearly resembles the wool of the
sheep, having the same Imbricated appear
ance as that of wooL Babbit fur is most
widely different from wool, and a deer
hair Is almost equally so, microscopic
examination showing it to be composed
throughout of small calls, extremely pecu
liar both In form and arrangement.
Tan Kewsboya of Mexico.
Our contemporaries are making many
suggestions as to the material of which
the clothes of the newsboys should be
made. Some think leather suits would
be advisable in view of the short time the
striped suits presented by the city gov
ernment lasted, while others urge tin as
the best material. This discussion en
ables newspaper men to air their wit, but
it really seems unnecessary. Tho city
government presented & given number of
newsboys with uniforms, with the under
standing that tho boys would replace
them at their own expense when worn
out. Those suits have long since served
their timo and been discarded, and not a
single one has been replaced by its owner.
Unless the city government intends to
clothe outright the urchins who sell
papers in the streets, our contemporaries
are wasting their time in discussing the
kind of material that should be used for
their uniforms, for there is no legal way
of compelling the boys to buy the clothes
that may be designated as proper for them
by the authorities. To deprive -a boy of
the right to earn an honest living because
he cannot or will not dress hi a prescribed
manner is not practicable in a free coun
try. Mexico Two Republics.
Tne Tramp' to Hit Pnrd.
There is residing In the suburbs a gen
tleman who Is the owner of a very large
amount of real estate, but who is one of
the most negligent of persons in regard to
dress, his clothing being almost invaria
bly of the shabbiest description. This
negligence is an eccentricity, and is not
due to penuriousness, for he is generous
and of a warm and genial nature. Not
many days ago, a tramp called at his
house during the owner's absence, and, as
it was the noon hour, the hitter's wife, a
very sympathetic and kind hearted
woman, gave the nomad a good dinner.
Having finished tho meal and thanked the
giver of the same, the tramp started off,
but just as he got to the gate he met the
owner of the premises, and judging by bis
dress that they were of tho same frater
nity, the wanderer said: "Look here,
para, it's a leetle rough for two o' us to
work the same house durin the same
hour. Jist try some other place this
time, for yenders too good a woman to
have to feed the both o us ' today." Bos
can Tour Boy Swim?
Can your boy swim? No? Then do not
trust him in any sort of boat until he has
learned the art, and feels as much at home
in the water as upon dry land. You
might just as well send him out alone
into a crowded street before he had learned
to walk. He might possibly creep along
all right, and reach home alive, or some
body might pick him up and caro for him,
but the chances would not' be in his favor.
So in boating, the boy who cannot swim
may get along very comfortably for a
while, and not suffer from this defect in
his education, but the time will assuredly
come when he will have cause to bitterly
regret.it. It is one of the simplest things
in the world, too, and can be learned ur
three or four intelligently directed lessons,
such as can be had in any city swimming
school or from the experts in any country
village. By all means talk swim to your
boy before you talk boat, and stipulate as
one of the conditions of his having a boat
that he shall first be able to swim a quar
ter of a mile without resting. Harper's
Tho tough is a product peculiar to
American city- life. In other countries,
of course, you will find the rough and the
cad and the brutal coster, but it is only
in an American city that you will and the
tough. In other lands the'-man who
comes nearest to the tough is but a sub
ject, and a very poor one at that, and he
is constantly more or less in dread of a
superior governing power. In America
the tough is a citizen, or at least claims
to be one, and he feels not only the equal
of everybody else, but the superior of
everybody else, and. he has a profound
scorn and contempt for all processes of
law. The tough is a terror, and there is
no reason why he should escape whipping.
Arrest or imprisonment he fears not, but
a good dose of the cat-o'-nine-tails might
bring him to reflect on the error "of "his
ways. Boston Home JoumsL..
, The Edneatiea f Children.
Children in Kentucky are 'precocious,
fond of study, and brighter far than'the
much to. be. pitied boys and girls 'of the
ncrth, whose parents are-more desirous of
their learning French than 'English, and
who inculcate in their infant minds a
contempt for their country and history,
with a corresponding admiration for
everything foreign. . I know of two boys
in Washington both pf whose parents
are native Americans who have had thfeir
sons taught German from their infancy
and who speak only German to each other
and to their mammas. They are tb be
more thoroughly Germanized when they
are old enough to be educated at Heidel
berg. Cor. Cpurier-JournaL
Interesting News fc
A Russian chemist .thinks ha has dis
covered a plan for solidifying petroleum
far faaL Chicago Globe.
HANDLING OF FREIGHT.
GOME POINTS WHICH ARE OF IN
' TEREST TO THE PEOPLfL
U Handle nrtaomaV
i saili TTiiili WaHieila mi -J-g Wetni
and SeUling Claim 'Described In BrleC
Sending n "Tracer.
The manner of making up through
rates, that is, rates between points neces
sitating transportation over twdor more
roads, is now comparatively simple. Prior
to the passage of the interstate commerce
act. certain agreed rates prevailed at all
junction or common points (prevailed
until some one road felt inclined to cut)j
and points local to one road were fixed at
as high rates as were considered necessary
by'the road reaching them. Now. how
ever, the majority, of the roads have
thrown their local territory open by tak
ing common points as basing points, and
making tho rates to intermediate local
'territory the same as those in effect at the
next farthest basing, point. - In other
words, dividing the road into groups, each
group taking certain fixed rates. The
through rates are divided between the
roads forming.tho line, on a mileage basis
that is, each road receives a percentage
of the through rate' as great as' the dis
tance traversed over its rails bears to the
entire distance from point of shipment to
The numerous cases if delavs and loss
of property in transit are in a large mesa-
ure duo to careless or improper marking
of merchandise by the consignor. If afi
packages -were, properly and plainly
marked these annoying occurrences would
be reduced to a minimum. As it is, how
ever, the systematic methods of handling
freight in practice by all roads render it
almost impossible for anything to be car
ried to a wrong destination, although
some errors in routing occur which, In.
the case of perishable freight, are equiva
lent to actual loss.
When a shipment fails to arrive on
time a "tracer" is sent after it. These
"tracers" are in the shape of .a request
upon forwarding agent to follow up
the shipment by means of his way bill,
car number, train number, date and seals,
all of which aro kept in his station rec
ords. The "tracer" is sent along the line
traversed by the shipment, and each agent
In turn notes thereon date of arrival and
departure, whether transferred into an
other car; and seal record, and forwards
to next junction point. In this manner
freight is always ultimately discovered,
though sometimes it takes considerable
time. In urgent cases .this is done by
The great bone of contention between
shippers and railroads is the time con
sumed In adjusting claims. When a
claim is paid the mass of correspondence
that has accumulated is usually detached
from the claimant's original papers, and
ho cannot, therefore, understand (jwhy it
could not liavo been paid sooner. Claims
are never purposely delayed, and if
shippers but knew the amount of labor
involved, even in tho simplest cases, com
plaints on this score would be less fre
quent. Tho larger business houses are
gifted with more patience in this respect
than the country merchants. It is also
true, as claimed by these smaller dealers,
that the large shipper has his claim "put
through" in much less time. There are
several reasons for this; the constant
shipper, in presenting a claim, accompa
nies it with all necessary documents; and
gives a clear and concise statement of the
case, whereas the country merchant writes
a rambling sort of letter, threatening to
g'vo all his shipments to the A., B. and
road, and to do various other terriblo
things in the event of non-payment of his
claim, and studiously avoids giving par
ticulars, thus, in some eases, forcing the;
railroad to make out a case against itself.
A mistake the country merchant fre
quently makes is to send his claim to the
shippers, asking them to push it through
for him. This course of procedure always
causes delay. A claim presented by tho
owner of the property if bill of lading
or receipt, and paid freight bill, together
with a letter of explanation, is submitted
to the delivering road will be handled
with dispatch, be the claimant a huge or
As a general rule overcharge claims are
the most quickly disposed of. If 'occa
sioned by an error of one road in a line
such road usually stands the amount, and
if the claim be based on a rate hi force
by a competing route all roads interested,
willingly reduce to that figure upon pre
sentation of proof.
The loss and damage claims are more
difficult to handle. In the investigation
of these matters, particularly damage
chums, each road attempts to disprove
any liability, and endeavors to shift the
responsibility upon another, and it is this
discussion between the roads which
causes the delays complained of most
frequently. The method of investigating
claims of this nature is simple enough.
The shipment is traced through from
point of shipment, and the road on whose
line shipment checks damaged or short
Eiys the damage. It often happens,
owever, that the loss or damage cannot
be located. It is then that correspond
ence accumulates, and the claimant's hair
turns gray while waiting for his voucher.
In cases where it is utterly impossible to
locate the damage or loss it is the custom
for all roads participating in the haul to
join in payment of the damages. Several
roads have recently adopted the plan of
paying just claims as soon as presented,
looking to their connections to "chip in"'
afterward. Chicago JonrnaL
The f nccewfta Man's
The clever person Is always practical,
always adaptable, always and unchang
ingly clever. He never misses his chance.
Like Coleridge's raven, who "picked up
the acorn and buried it straight" and
came back and dwelt there when "the
acorn was grown to a tall oak tree," the
clever man lets no opportunity escape.
Men who do net see the acorn or do not
heed it are left to grumble in old age be
cause there is no tree to cover them.
There are hundreds of chances In a man's
life, and clever people grasp them at ones
and turn them into substantial Uesaings.
Genius too often mimes its chance, and Is
sublime, but a failure. But the man of
tact misses nothing, quarrels with none,
enjoys life to Its latest breath, and, per
haps because of bis success, leaves a
sweet remembrance to blossom after him.
This is what most people call luck.
Grant saw bis chance In the lata war and'
grasped it; Lincoln saw his opportunity
in tne great debate with Douglas ana
seized upon it, and the world, looking
upon their early struggles and drawbacks,
are apt .to call them lucky. Mien who
heard the first faint sigh for mustard,
cod' liver oil, pickles. BTTrhirmenninas or
hair wash have enriched themselves by
their-practical adaptability to the needs
of mankind. Talent and genius are "usu
ally mighty uncomfortable to live with,
but cleverness goes with the stream and
gives us what wa like best and what we
want. It comes in a white flannel suit In
summer and muffled up in furs and on
skates in winter. This is the kind of
people and the only kind to invite to
your house to bring their trunks and
anend a week or a year. Berkeley In New
What win be the result of the popular
ization of the picture? -Will harm or
good follow, from an artistic standpoiat?
It seems reasonable to assume that good
must come. The newspaper cat Is laid
before the eyes of thousands daily, who
would otherwise take no interest in pict
ures of sny kind. -Inthecelumnaof their
daily paper or their weekly journal- these
than sands nyist In time grow to look
upon a picture with .increased interest,
.and to value It as arpreialiig anldmva
aentimant, mora clearly aad forcibly than
types can do this. The child,' famllla
Ised daily with pictures, must grow to be
an adult to whom a picture la a necessity.
Asaconeequenee ha Tbeeeasesaladge of
pictures and a patron of art, though it'
may be an humble way. Iatimeraalart
MtbabsneaVfarr. The entering wedge to
this state of aaatrs Is the newspaper cut.
mow has atveral Umm half.
" "nw wmm
varied aeras ear
To Save Life
Freqaeatiy requires prompt action. Aa
Vsuav'a rlstlav wraittna, fa thjt Arvtnr
" mj s .. ..
ea aneaaea win sertoos coaseqaeaces.
especially ia cases of Croup, Faeamoaia.
aad other' throat aad lang troubles.
Heace, ao family should be without a
bottle of Ayert Cherry Pectoral,
which has proved itself, ia' thousands of
cases, the best Emergency Medicine
ever discovered. It gives prompt relief
aad prepares the way for a thorough
cure, which is certain to be effected by
r its continued use.
8. H. Latimer, 51. D., ML Vernon,
Ga., says: " Jf have found Aycr's Cherry
Pectoral a perfect care for Croup ia all
eases. I have known the worst cases
relieved ia a very short time by its use;
aad I advise all families to use it in sud
den emergencies, for coughs, croup, &c."
A. J. Eidson, M. D.. Middletown,
Tean., says: "I have used Ayer's
. Cherry Pectoral with the best effect in
my practice. This wonderful prepara
tion oBce saved my life. I had a con-'
stant cough, night sweats, was greatly
reduced in fiesli, and 'given up by my
physician. One bottle and a half of the
Pectoral cured me."
"I cannot say enough in. praise of
Ayer's Cherry Pectoral," writes E.
Bragdon,. of Palestine, Texas, "believ
ing as I do that, hnt for iu use, I should
long since have died."
Ayer's Cherry Pectoral,
.Dr. J. C. Ayer St Co., Lowed, Mass. .
eldkyaUDraggku. Price SI ; sU bottles,!.
The B. k M. B. R have arranged to
run several Harvest excursions from the
east to Nebraska points, including Co
lumbus. ' Any persons desirous of advis
ing' friends in the east of these excur
jaionscan have them advised from our
Omaha office by addressing J. Francis,
Genl Passenger AgL, or by advising C.
E. Barrell, AgL, Columbus, Neb.
He that brings good news knocks hard.
Set good against evil.
English Spavin Liniment removes all
hard, soft or calloused lumps and bletn
iahea from horses; blood spavin, curbs,
splints, sweeney, ring-bone, stifles,
sprains, sll swolen throats, coughs, etc.
Save $50 by use of one bottle. Warranted.
Sold by C. B. Stillman, druggist, Co
Hunger makes dinners, pastime sup
The Passenger Department of the
Union Pacific, The Overland Boute,"
has issued a neat little pamphlet, pocket
tA-a. ontU1wl HValiAiial Dlai'nnn llivrklr
M4A V7UVAV4VU MVUU AMiUVtUI JAIVM,
containing the democratic, republican
and prohibition platforms, together with
the addresses of acceptance of Grover
Cleveland, Benjamin Harrison and Clin
ton B. Fisk; also tabulated tables show
ing the plurality vote, the electoral vote
and an analysis of the vote as cast for
Cleveland and Blaine in 1884. This
book is just what is needed at this time
and should be in the hands of every
voter. It plainly seta forth what each
party has to offer and every reader can
draw his own comparisons. Sent to any
address on application. Address, J. S.
Tebbets, Genl Passenger Ag't, Union
Pacific By, Omaha, Neb.
Of a little thingr a little displeaseth.
The motto of California means, I have
found it. Only in that land of sunshine,
where the orange, lemon, olive, fig and
grape bloom and ripen, and attain their
highest perfection in mid-winter, are
the herbs and gums found, that are used
in that pleasant remedy for all throat
and lung troubles.
SANTA ABIE the ruler of coughs,
asthma and consumption. Messrs. Dowty
k Becher have been appointed agents
for this valuable California remedy, and
sell it under a guarantee at SI a bottle.
Three for $2.50.
Try CALIFORNIA CAT-R-CURE,
the only guaranteed oure for catarrh.
81, by mail, 1.10.
He warms too hear that burns.
Aa Aeselate Care.
The ORIGINALABIETINE OINT
MENT is only put up in large two-ounce
tin boxes, and is an absolute cure for
old sores, burns, wounds, chapped hands
and all kinds of slrin eruptions. Will
positively cure all kinds of piles. Ask for
the ORIGINAL ABITINE OINTMENT
Sold by Dowty k Becher at 25 cents per
box by mail 30 cents. marTy
War is death's feasL
In a long journey straws weigh.
The Commercial Travelers Protective
Association of the United States, has
membership of over 'sixteen thousand
and is probably the strongest association
of the kind in the world. Mr. John R
Stone, their national secretary and treas
urer, 79 Dearbona street, Chicago, in a
letter states that he has been severely
troubled at times, for the past twenty
veers, with cramp and bilious colic
which would compel him to take to; his
bed from three to six days while in SL
Louis at their last annual meeting he
procured a bottle of Chamberlain's Colic,
Cholera and Diarrhoea Remedy and has
ednoeused it with the best results. It is
the only remedy he ever found, that ef
fected a rapid and complete cure. No
one can safely travel without it Sold by
Dowty k Becher.
All are not merry that dance lightly.
Courtesy on one .side only lifts not
Wine councils seldom prosper.
Tker is ne Care tat-Jfarrinae. -'
How many a pompous old fraud, with
an M. D. attached to hislname, has of
fered this time-dishonored prescription
to a pale haggerd girL suffering from the
ilia of womanhood? How many a
wretched hell onTearth has thus been
started! for no' marriage can be blessed,
either to husband or wife, which is tak
en as a pill. Oat upon such quackery!
There is a cure for suffering women a
cure that will make marriage, the great
est of .earthly blessings, and home the
sweetest of- Edens. Its name is Dr.
Pierce's Favorite Prescription. Just try
it, and see the. black clouds of- life roll
away before the glowing sunshine of re
turning health and vigor. It'is the only
medicine-for woman, sold by druggists,'
under a positive, guarantee from the
manufacturers, that it will give satisfac
tion in every case-'or money refunded.
Dr. Pierce's .Pellets'the original and
only genuine Iittie-Liver Pills.' 25 cents
a vial; on a doss.'
This is the Top of the Genuine
Peari Top Lamp Chimney.
Allothersi similar are imitalion.-
:is exact Label
is on each Pearl
A dealer may say
and think he-has
others as good,
BUT HE HAS NOT.
Insist upon the Exact Label and Top.
RS SAL EttEVWritEE. HAatCKlT.BY
SEO. A. MACBETH h CO., PSitstsrgl, Pa.
Contains also full and complete lives of both
tbecicMstuttift! bearers. lI!sM.w!th nctnrrotistupcibpor
tntts. Anions the author? will Ur found the names of Sena
tors Fnre.Oundler. iUoler. IncaMs. Jclin J). Lour, popula
ex-coT-ofliW. McKinJey of Ohio, writes on theTarlS.
Hciiy Cabot Lotfee. and a number of ctl,mtf alite prom
tMtJi.at.Ktf. Com. Don't l iiuiuc ! t v;t any other. Dis
tance ho hinderanc as we pay all frn:nt charges. Send SB
v. wuip vow oamc inn r me BTf. in -& Bold, or
vw., ". opiinnntia, n;
600O Book Agents wanted to sell
TH Xir AND ttTBUC SE&VICXS or
Tn tmt Midi. fiat al. bmluMd to a! nomination ! 8C
Lenta, wttk fenonat nnnlmin, Ineld.nta ant anKdottn.
rrrwry BhMiattd with atetl portraits aad wd ncrnlaca.
Tk took aha Mtain. aaniMrb rorttnlt nad a full aad raU
JJTM OF UBS. CIXVELAND. thrr wUa a Mntatt
Maniayb' ' AIAaOT O. THUBJtAN. Tala talk endn
anatavattnZdjh. Doo W Indnead to r. any tW. Taara wtO
anaaarya naaataerlatd IJm. tat thin U la rlfksaae. DU
naatn no aHiirai ri. aa nay all trnanportatioa eaarwa. Base
M eatte la la. ntaanpn aad la an ta tao arid, aad taaa rase
. (aldaa kamat. Writs for Ml pataiaia sad Sfjclal Tana,
aaat fraa to alL Asdrt, WINTER A CO.,
Thoroughly cleanse the MoaLwateh tatke
fountain of health, by using- Dr. Perce's Gold
en Medical Discovery, 'SoddigeatJoB, a
fair BnUnTbuoyant spirits, and bodily health
and vigor will be established.
Ooiosn Medical Discovery cures all humors,
from the common pimple, blotch, or eruption,
to the worst Scrofula, or blood-poison. Bs
nsdallv has it proven Its efficacy in curing
Slt-rbeum or Tetter. Eczema, KirsfpebM.
Fever-sort. Hip-Joint DJffss& AsaatoM
Sores and Swellings. Enlarged. Glands. Qot
tre or Thick Neck, and Eating Sons or
Golden Medical Discovery cures Consump
tion (which is Scrofula of the Lungs), by Ks
wonderful hlood - purifying, fgoratiag.
ad nutritive properties. fJa-Smf
For Weak Lung .Spitting pf Blood. Short
ness of BresAhTCatarrh In the Hea Bron
chitis. Severe Coughs. Asthma, and lundred
affections. It Is a sovereign remedy, is
aa anequaled remedy. Sold by druggists.
Price $1.00, or six bottles for f&W.
wnsBwsssi' .ll ,- .M , , it .Is
wj. mm . i "7-
KEWASDED are those'
Iwim tmuT thin and thm act:
rvT - -.r- z
they will find honorable.
llUllnVa I nrnrmmit that will not take
them .from their nomea andrfctniliea. Tbe
prof are large and- rare for every uvlaetrioos
and- rare for every uviastnona
sve made and arcf now making
many nave maoet ana e now rnaamaj
hnndred dollars a month. It ia easy for
one to make S3 and upwards per day, who ia
in to work. ratnereexiToaag or ow; capi
tal aof- needed: we start yoo. Everything new.
No-special ability required; jou, reader, cafl do
it as well as any one. Write to as at oneafor
fall particulars, which we mail free. Address
frjtiauoa A Co.; Portland, ate. dec3ay
Nstare'sOwaTrae Laxative. .
The delicious flavor and healthy prop;
erties of sound, ripe fruit sro'well
known, and seeing the need of an agreed
able and effective laxative, the Califor
nia Fig Syonp Company commenced a
few years ago to manufacture a concen-.
Crated Syrup of Figs, which has given
such general' satisfaction-that'it'is rap-,
idly superfleding'the bitter, drastie:liver.
medicines and. cathartics hitherto in use.
.If costive or bilious,' try. it For., sale
only bj-Dowty .k Bseher. . --.
mC """j"'- '-"" 9am ?'
at. tgwjx - SjSmy
- SnVr i '"'" UnanamY
promptly cures uw sejerea n ....
rnnsniSjnmmmnanmkassr. WarrwaliC assy
Smnnnmnnnml"JilaBslnm Ssth ladtaa-aad snaaalalasa
tafaBamnnnmnC942nn7wrlh nrora an eaaaa at
" "SaannmnnnnB ' '"T T T
aii ulLU timinwIiHainil onwr,asadtnws aeCja
MawBaB7 snaaraa SMSM ) mmmmm tn tmdafrsaa MM
"""- - --yTTV . woadertal Sar
-- - ssretsn.
sad anas- iseaf a wai aa) awai anisns.
asTsBUaasTsfl am ail la to world aadear lares Hasaf
CoUe Lite Co.
nsnna . - .
FAMILY : JOURNAL;
A Weekly Newspaper iggie4 every
32 Celius tf veaiiag jaatter, eta-.
. ristiaj-rtf Nebraska State News
Itejaa, Seleetei Stsries aid
KdVtJMnpie copfee Mat frte to any wMtvml"
Subscription -" price, -.. ..
SI a fiat, It UvMct.
M. K..TubrCo., '
- Colnmbua, ' "' . '.
- Platte Co., NebV;
BlacKsiitli ai. Wagoi Halir.
AH kjads ef Remtirii -
Shert Nstke. Bin-iei, Wag-
as, ete., sate nr- eraer,
aid all, wark 6aar-
Alas sail t warld-taantsis Wallsr Ac.
Iiwm..lNMn, Cass itm-
ea aacaiasj.. Harri
EsTShoo opaeslte tka Tattersall,'" oa
Olive St., COLUMBUS. . '..
.0$ a r. st, gSMSA cirr, m.
Vm on frsrtsMjr .! Uto Of la .)sly
GnOaUtiictor. Oetr JOum' Pract.
13 yton i Chicago.
racaJCST m m. urn lmctjt Ltana.
,SN Aatborlynd by the Sun to treat
WamV Chndlc.Nenromaa4BBwlalIMav- '
M3 X " Seminal Weak neas- (ittM
amnnanVz iBtoaW9jrjal Debility ilouoftemaL
Annamm JwPor)t Nervous Debility, PDMoaed
ftmmnnamtf Moad.UIceraaadBwf llintaof evarr
P kind. Urinary Dtesa. India fact..
fBBBBBBV-ajl trouble or diseases la- eltbr
najawnF-- male or female, carte gnarasteed
or money refunded. Charges low. Thousand of
curea. expemace important au aaeai-
dace are guaranteed to be pure and eBKactoua.
acinar commanded In. nr. imfecUr appointed
laboratory, and are farnlaaed ready for usv. Jto
running- to drag alarm to Save uncertain pra
acTtpUoaa Sued. No mercury or Injurious medl
clnesuaed. NOdtentloafromboslnae. Patience
at a distance treated by letter and eipreas. medi
cines sent everywhere free from gase or break-,
age. State your case and send for terms. Con
sultation free and coaftlenUaU.-personally or. by
A M page lltfVYtr afar Beth Sexesv sent
Illustrated SUVa sealed In plain envelop
for 6c In stamps. Every, male, from the age of
IS to 45, ahould read this book.
TK sWTTMsOSa MESUTK CUE.
A POSITIVE CCBK Ot RHKUMATIHM. I
Sao jraayass this treauaaat (kiln tal
tore or help. i;restst dlsssTtry la aaaala I
cfaudkina. One aoaefl-relief ; Ksr
dosrs reaMTts nm and pata In Joists ;
Care cMaalsM la 5 to I data, grad nsle-1
ratnl of east wllfe naatp tit CUcuIara. I
PAUIILK A HUADSHAW.. .
(i'lMrre-woJ-H to Fautj'.e t itu-ihell), i -
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