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VOL. XIX .-NO. 4.
LEANDKIl GEUKAUD, I'ms't.
GEO. W. HULST. Vice l'n-'t.
JULIUS A. HEED.
It. II. HENKY.
J. K.TASKEK. Cashier.
HamU of epowlt. ONroiiBl
CHec(loBM Proraptlj Made oa
ray latereMi oa Time Wepw-
C. II. SHELDON. I'res't.
"W. A. MoALLlHTEU. Vice Pres.
itOKKKT UHL1G, Cashier,
DANIEL SCHUAM, Ass't Cash.
J P. UECKEK. H. r. H.OEHLK1CH,
JONAS WELCH. CARL RELNKK,
II. 31. WLNSLOW.
Thi Hank transacts a regular Hanking Busi
ness, will allow interest oil time deK.sits. make
collections. Iny .r sell exchange on United
States and Euroi. and bu and. sell aailab.e
We studl li pleased to receive jour business.
Wo solicit your putpm-is-'. Wo g.itrHiitee satis
faction in all business intrusted in our curt-.
A. & M.TURNER
Or . W. KIBLR.
BBTThese organs are first-clnss in every par
ticular, and so guaranteed.
SCHIFFROTH & PL1TH,
Buckeye Mower, combined, Self
Binder, wire or twine.
Paiips Repaired on short notice
Mr-One door west of Heint:' Dm Store, Jlth
street. Columbus. Neb. l.novsd-tf
COFFINS AND METALLIC CASES
Purnltura, Chalra, Bedateada. Bu-
raana.Tablea, Safes. Loungea,
Ac, Picture Pramea and
-Repairing of all kinds of Uphol
6-tf COLUMBUS. NEBRASKA.
Caveat, and Trade Mark """"k'!1
..nt business conducted for MODtllAXfc rttri.
Omi ; OFFICE IS OPPOSITE U.S. PATENT
SKF1CE. We liave n sulKiconcies. all business
irc4. hence we cnn transact lwtent buine- in
lesstwne and at LESS COST than those remote
Bend model, drawing, or photo, with descrip
tion. We advise if patentable or not. free of
charge. Our fee not due till patent i a secured.
A book. "How to Obtain rat ents," with refer
ence to actual client in jour state, county or
town. W Addip s &
Opposite Patent Office, Washington, V. L.
WESTEI WAGE ORGAN
WHAT CHICAGO DOCTORS SAY ABOUT
A Newspaper Asks for tht Best Course
to Ite Pursued by the Victim of Con
firmed Alcoholism Various Method
Is there one course better than another
for a man to adopt in endeavoring to
break himself of the drinking habit?
Tho Mail has 60Ught to obtain from
those who should be best informed a
practical answer to the abovo question. A
number of leading physicians have been
visited and a given set of questions put
to each Tho result of these interviews
is hero presented.
"Ah." said Dr. Charles Gilman Smith,
"they never do taper oft They can't.
Tho way to break off drinking is to stop,
and stop short. In stopping short don't
uso bromides unless the reforming drinker
can't sleep. Uso the fluid extract of cocoa
leaves That's a sort of stimulant, not -o
dangerous as alcohol, perhaps, although
its continued uso impairs the heart. It is
hard to lay down a general course of niedl
cation, since every case is different. A
physician must prescribe for a patient
what ho particularly needs. As to diet, it
should be generous and rich not fatty or
greasy, but strengthening. If the patient
can't sleep let him take a brisk walk bo
foro bedtimo, and get himself tired out.
Regular exerciso in a gymnasium you can
.rarely get a drunkard to take. Tho man
who leaves off drinking had better stop
smoking, too. Tobacco has a relaxing ef
feet on the system. Stop both together.
It will pay."
"Will a man recover his old physical
ami mental tone? Well, if he leaves off
altogether ho will practically be as good a
man as ho was before he began to drink."
J Adams Allen, president of Rush Med
ical college, said bluffly: "If a man's
going to stop he's got to stop, and
there's an end of it. Don't let him
try to taper off. All nonsense. But
ho ought never to try to quit with
out consulting a physician, because a
Mlcndy drinker Is 6uro to have some or
gauic trouble of the liver or kidneys which
whisky spurs up to action, and which be
comes torpid when it is left. Ho don't
want tonics and other stimulants to stay
him up. A good dose of calomel to set
Ids liver going right is worth more than
them all. Yes, leave off tobacco, too. It's
harder to break off than liquor drinking "
Dr. X. 15. Delamater, the specialist hi
nervous diseases, took a decidedly differ
ent view of the propositions. He aid:
"Whether the would bo reformed drunk
ard sball taper off with light wines and
short rations of drinks depends entirely
on the individual. He who is anxious to
quit and is a man of strong will and in
the habit of controlling himself in other
ways, and is able to withstand tho pain
and suffering, can do either way. There
is less suffering tapering off than stopping
suddenly. A man who is not accustomed
to controlling himself would either have
to be put under restraint or be obliged to
"Ordinarily the man will begin to feel
better In tlireo weeks' timo. The norma'
tone ought to be restored in a couple of
mouths unless some organic disease has
been developed. Some men am regaiu
everything they have lost. Others can
not. It depends on the man and it de
pends on the amount of drinking he has
indulged iu. Those men of a finer qual
ity of nervous temperament are those
who are most bound by liquor and to
whom tho damage is most permanent.
Coarse, brutal natures are not much af
fected. They recover as much as ever"
"All habits of life are hard to breah
off," said Dr. E. H. Pratt. "A man who
wants to stop drinking most realize that
tho thing can only be accomplished by a
strong effort of the mind, and as long as
he weakens his body by keeping up the
irritation with even diminished doses of
alcohol, so long will be a slave to the
liquor habit. If ho wants to quit, why
quit. It lies more with tho man himself
than with tho drugs. You can't reform a
man unless it is a thorough reform.
Therefore, in such cases I do not attempt
to drive out ono bad habit with a worse. I
give a weak solution of cayenne pepper to
relievo the burning sensation, and I givo
Mm lots of milk. Milk is, of all things,
the most necessary.
"The great thing In breaking off a habit
of this kind is keeping busy. Push the
mind and body to tho utmost activity to
divert attention from tho hankerings of
the old habit. Concentrate the thought
on some hobby and ride it at full speed.
For mercy's sake don't think of trying to
stop. Don't tell anybody how long it has
been since you tasted a drop. Don't con
gratulate 3'ourself that you liave gone
without liquor for six weeks or six
months. Dismiss tho subject from your
mind as completely aa If you had never
heard of such a thing as whisky, and had
no curiosity to learn about it. If a man
asked you how long it has been since you
stopped drinking change the subject of
conversation without answering. The
mind has tho greatest part of the task at
first. I should certainly say that a mat
who wants to quit drinking should step
"How long it will be before ho begins
to feel as good as he did beforeJie stopped
drinking depends on how badly besotted
ho is. The most rapid gain will be In tho
case of the man who has mado up his
mind in dead sincerity that he has taken
his last drink and that he will never look
back with longing on the old habit. Six
months ought to restore him to complete
health if he has no organic disease."
"The notion that quitting suddenly is
more dangerous or more difficult than ta
pering off is one of whisky's fallacies,"
said Dr. A. J. Baxter. "Tapering off is
simply taking smaller doses of poison. A
man can't quit taking poison too suddenly.
As for bromides and all that sort of thing.
if his physician finds he needs bromides
let him prescribe them, but if they are
needed it will not bo because the man has
quit drinking entirely, but because liquor
has undermined his health and made
tonics necessary to pull nature through in
her efforts to restore what has been lost.
No man on the top of earth can say how
long it will take to make a man well
again." Chicago Mall.
A "BENDER'S" CONFESSIONS.
A Fair English Coatortlonlst of Nineteen
Telia of Her Profession.
The other day I called on a bender, a
lady, not a gentleman, who is well known
as a most serpentine contortionist. 1
wished to ask Mile. Vonare a few ques
tions about her art, with a view of throw
ing some light on the training of little
boys and girls for the profession. The
lady was sitting before the fire with her
sister, who has abandoned bending her
self . and exhibits atroune of highly edu-
cated poodles. A hugo wicker basket con
tained her dress and other stage habits.
From its depths she produced a bundle of
photographs of herself, tied and knotted
into all manner of curious folds.
That is tho business of a bender. The
body is thrown into a score of unnatural
postures, which appear to the audience to
bo achieved by dislocating every joint in
the human frame, and to bo effected at
great risk to Hmb and life. Artists at
generally enthusiastic about their callings,
and I must say tliat Miss Vonare declared
she would rather be a bender tlian a
queen or something to that effect. Sho be
gan at 4, at 5 J she was before tho public,
and remains a bender stilL "My father
saw a contortionist one night on the stage,
and ho asked himself why ho should not
teach mo, aged 4. I was put into train
ing at once, and enjoyed the fun, as a
child will enjoy anything new. Was I
beaten? wa3 I starved? No. I seemed to
take to it like a littlo duck takes to
water. You see, we were a family of
athletes, and. besides, I was a daughter
and not an apprentice. If the father is
tho trainer ho may not spare tho rod, but
ho is cruel only to bo kind. My experi
ence is that less rod and more kindness is
tho best plan Father used to bribe us
into doing the different tricks. To bo suc
cessful means years of hard work, prac
tice and performence. I am 19 now, and
my performance keeps mo in capital training.
in tlso business of contortion the first
lesson is tho backward bend, first with
the arms, and then without. You stand
on a long mattress, so that there is no
danger, and at first your teacher controls
your movements with a belt. It is much
tho same with other forms of acrobatic
work, and tho cruelty often takes th form
of taking away tho mattress, vhicli
-reaves a bort of panic in the pupil's mind
If ho has really tried his best and failed,
he is so terrified that ho is almost certain
to fail unless he has a great deal of pluck.
If he has only been sulking, it may bring
him to his bearings. Of course, children
are often btubborn, and try tho patience
of the teacher to its utmost limit.
"The art of contortion," continued Miss
Vonare, "is learned by degrees. First the
backward bend, then the 'dislocation,'
thou tho 'splits.' and so on What wo
call 'closeness distinguishes tho lest
bending. To tho audience bending seems
most difficult. I experience no discomfort
or inconvenience. I was a puny child.
You see me now." The lady bender was
certainly most healthy and cheerful, stout
in body and ruddy in complexion, and she
strongly maintains that all women would
bo greatiy benefited if they took to bend
ing. "It is quite a mistake to think that
we put our limbs out of joint, or that we
suffer from tho curious nature of our per
formance. Of course, after one or more
difficult positions one may suffer a little
pain, but it goes in no time. In somo at
titudes I can only remain for twenty sec
onds, as the breathing becomes difficult.
But these are trifling inconveniences. I
practice a few minutes every day to keep
myself loose hero in my room, and tliat is
about all I need do." Pall Mall Gazette.
Railroad Flyers fn England.
"You don't know what fast traveling
means In this country."
An Englishman, who had recently made
a trip throughout the New England states
and the west, was discussing our railroad
system with a friend at a cafo.
"Now listen and 111 givo you some
news. In England third class passengers
ride from forty to forty-five miles an
hour and nobody pays extra faro on ac
count of tho speed. From New York to
Albany it is 142 miles by a splendid track.
Thcro are ten express trains daily between
these cities, and their averago speed is
twenty-nine miles an hour. Between
London and Sheffield, 1C2 miles, tho
Great Northern runs nine trains daily,
with an average speed of forty-five miles
an hour. Between New York and Bos
ton tho averago speed is thirty
miles an hour, and the fastest, a
train composed exclusively of sleeping
cars, makes thirty-nine miles an hour.
Between London and Manchester, 203
miles, there aro twenty trains daily, with
an average speed of forty-one miles an
hour, and some trains making fifty. Be
tween London and Glasgow, 440 miles,
there are thirteen daily expresses, and
their averago speed is almost forty miles
an hour, ono train being much faster
"Yes, but that is only on favored
"Not at all. All over England and
Scotland express trains, composed of first,
second and third class carriages, make
from thirty-five to fifty miles an hour,
whilo in America a thirty-five mile train
is called a stroke of lightning. Tho fast
est regular train in America, so I am told,
is on tho Baltimore and Ohio, which
makes tho forty miles between Washing
ton and Baltimore in fifty minutes. There
are three or four fast trains between New
York and Philadelphia covering forty-six
miles an hour. Between Liverpool and
Manchester there are fifty-two "rains
daily, none of them slower than foi -five
miles an hour and four of them making
fifty-one and a third miles an hour."
New lork Mail and Express.
An Underbred Guest's Ways.
The disposition to regard a friend's
home as a hotel, and the repasts served
therein as free lunches, betrays the under
bred guest beyond the possibility of reha
bilitation. One token of this inclination
is in tho establishment of his contented
person in the most luxurious chair he
espies or lolling on the sofa. He carries
forward the neat design by fingering bric-a-brac,
opening and shutting books, scru
tinizing wall paper, frescoes and furniture,
sometimes turning up the corner of a rug,
pinching draperies with haberdashery
touch, and, when not prevented by in
tractable casters, tipping his chair on the
Why what the indignant military critic
of the Jackson statue at Washington
called a "r'arin' " chair should express the
extreme of ease better than one left in the
normal quadrupedal position is a recon
dite question. It must, or it would not be
brought to the front so often that a chair
tipped backward might serve as the crest
of the independent Yankee the world over.
A further and quite indubitable evidence
of quite-at-homeativeness is tho subdued
whistle or hum with which the guest re
gales himself when not talking. He can
compliment his entertainers no more
highly than by becoming a human kettle
on the hob, and singing himself up to the
bubbling point of conversation. Marion
Borland in Philadelphia Times.
Oranges jn riorlda.
Visitors in Florida say that besides the
delight in picking oranges from the trees,
they have tho pleasure of oranges for
breakfast, prepared in several dainty
ways unknown to the north. Chicago
COLUMBUS, NEB., WEDNESDAY, MAY
SIGNED EDITORIALS ARE COMMON
BUT NOT UNIVERSAL.
Foreign Affairs Treated with Intelligence
mul Ability IUcal Columns Not What
They Should Be-Office Prices of Ad
ertising Copying the News.
Tho editorial department of the Paris
papers, which is their leading feature, is
often able and brilliant. Tho habit of
signing editorial articles is common, but
by no mean universal. Among the ex
ceptions are the Temps, tho Debats, and
La Paix. The Matin has an article daily
from ono of several writers, among whom
aro Jules Simon, Emanuel Arene, Ranc
and John Lemoinno. Each writer ex
presses and is responsible for his own
opinions only, and as they represent all
shades of politics, except Socialism, what
tho paper says ono morning is flatly con
tradicted by its article of tho following
day. What are called "general articles"
by the American newspapers are almost
always signed by Paris writers. They
may bo literary, critical, or may cover a
wide variety of interesting topics. Among
tho best contributions of this class aro
those of Anatole do la Franco and Hughes
lo Roux. written for tho Temps.
Foreign affairs, so far as regards the
continent, are of late years treated with
intelligence and ability. Tho domestic
politics of the United States are still
poorly understood by the majority of
French journalists, with the exception of
a few who have crossed the ocean. As to
tho foreign continent in geucral it is fairer
than that of the London nowspapers,
which is not paying it an extravagant
compliment. Probably not less than sixty
members of tho senate and chamber of
deputies aro connected with tho Paris
newspapers, principally as contributors.
This leads to what would bo considered in
other countries violations of parliamentary
privilege or to occurrences that strike
foreigners as somewhat indelicate, jour
nals not hesitating sometimes to publish
facts that should be kept secret, or to givo
speeches of their own writers in extenso
with fulsome compliment.
IN Till: LOCAL COLUMNS.
Tho local columns of a Paris newspaper
are not what they should be or what their
readers would bo glad to have them, for
want of room. Tho great city is a mino
of sensational material, tragic, comic,
grave, gay. but always interesting if
properly treated. As a Paris newspaper
is usually a small four-page sheet, printed
in coarso type on bad paper, it is difficult
to get more into it than tho literary and
political matter that must in any event
appear, and a mere resume of local events
If the foreign news is of great importance.
local matter is crowded out. If a single
local event Is sensational all other local
matters, no matter how interestlug In
themselves, must make way for it. Re
porters of some papers sign their names.
This practice bometimes causes curious
displays of egotism, the writers forgetting
that which they have to narrate is their
own personal experiences. Tho facts are
obscured by their efforts to obtain them,
their littlo deprivations, and tho articles
of food that composed their breakfast
Tho self consciousness of French
newspaper writers is always notice
able, whether they sign their arti
:les or not. Tho editorial "wo" often
ippears in tho editorial columns. It is
hard for a correspondent hi a foreign
capital to give tho facts in a dispatch
without prefacing or interspersing them
with useless personal detail. Aside from
these evidences of imperfection and Jour
nalistic juvenility, tho local columns are
usually readable, and sometimes bright
and witty. The Paris interviewer, who
is a recent institution already become
universal, is. If possible, inoro unscrupu
lous and imaginative than his American
A Paris newspaper office is not usually
an abodo of luxury. Tho Franco has a
fino building, of which it uses but a small
part itself. Tho Figaro Is handsomely
installed in tho Ruo Druot. Tho Petit
Journal, tho newspaper of tho bonnes,
coachmen and garcons, has comfortable
quarters in tho Ruo Lafayette. Most of
tho papers of small circulation aro hi the
upper story of somo large building, where
their business, editorial and composing
departments aro crowded into a few
small, badly ventilated and poorly lighted
TOO MANY NEWSPAPERS.
There aro far too many nowspapers in
Franco for the number of readers, and
they cannot all bo rich. Tho revolution
ary, socialistic and some of tho ultra-radical
newspapers are sold at one sou. Most
of the others aro sold at two sous. Some
are sold at three sous, with another sou
added when the size is doubled, as in the
case of tho Saturday edition of the Figaro.
A sou is sometimes added to tho Paris price
for purchasers in tho departments. The
newsboy cuts no great figure in Paris.
Men, boys and women cry certain sheets
in tho streets, but if one wants a news
paper ho has usually to go to tho news
stands. Prices of advertising aro high,
and Paris merchants do not care much
about the newspapers as a means of mak
ing their goods known. Tho space occu
pied by legitimate advertising is small,
therefore tho newspapers have to depend
for support on then- circulation and on
subsidies paid for their influence. These
are sometimes large, and constitute then
chief means of livelihood.
Paris newspapers working for tho most
part with an insufficient staff, the habit
of copying from one another's columns is
general, paragraphs being taken verbatim
by the evening from tho morning papers
and vice versa. As these paragraps often
contain opinions and individual ideas, they
read curiously when met with in succes
sion in several different journals. Dis
patches two or three days old are often
seen in uonio of them. An important oc
currence happening in some European
capital, like Bismarck's speech iu the
reichstag. is known, as regards its gen
end import, in San Francisco before It is
in Paris The speech in question was de
livered about 2 o'clock The Temps that
appeared at 4:30 had nothing of it. and
the Soir. appearing at 9 p. m.. only a few
words. Paris Cor. San FrancLscoChron
WHAT PROTECTION HAS DONE.
HuW It Has Kflected One Industry in
This Country and Germany.
"This house." said Mr. Bar boar, "the
Barbour Flax company of Paterscn, N. J..
and the house of William Barbonr Sons.
of Ltsburn, Ireland, are substantially one
house and are controlled by myself and
my two uncles. Mr. Robert Barbour and
Mr. John D. Barbour The Irish house
was the parent house. My father. Mr.
Thomas Barbour, and his brothers started
American manufacturing soon after the
nrar. being induced thereto by the pro
.ective tariff We aro engaged in tlie
muuifncture of linen thread.
"Ever since lean remember tho Irish
tiouso iias had a largo trade in Germany,
Laving agencies in Hamburg. Berlin and
ther places Well, as soon as German
trado increased of course our plant Iu Ire
land increased ' Naturally all of the
profits of tho German trade wero trans
ferred to and benefited Ireland. This went
on until a few years ago. when Princo
Bismarck concluded that the German peo
ple had had enough of it Tho result was
that there was incorporated in the Ger
man law a tariff on imported linen thread.
The tariff was so high as to bo practically
prohibitive. Well, what was tho couse
queuce? This." said Mr. Barbour, turn
ing to a table, whence ho took a largo
sheet of blue paper, which he handed to
The Press representative. The paper con
tained architect's drawings, and Tbo Press
man read on it tho legend, "Plans for a
factory to be built at Ottensen, Germany "
"Ottensen is near Hamburg." proceeded
Mr. Barbour. "Tliat factory Is now in
pfbOss of construction. This simply
means that in order to 'preserve our Ger
man trado we have been compelled to go
to Germany and mako our goods, just as
In lSOo we were compelled to come to
America to preserve our American trade."
New York Press Interview.
Profession and Practice.
Tliat sturdy Democratic paper Tho New
York World presents a strong indictment
of tho Cleveland administration when it
says that "scarcely any idea for which the
Democrats contended iu tho election has
been carried into effect." The paper
freely confesses that the recent investiga
tion by the Hale committee shows that the
civil service act has been practically nulli
fied, but that the party workers have been
mollified by tho placing ot a few thousand
heuchmeu and dependents of tho poli
ticians in the public service. It then saj-s:
"Tho war taxes are still untouched, cor
rupting plutocrats aro unpunished, mo
nopolies multiply and rings rule, but the
grab bag is nearly emptied."
Who can deny this? And where failure
in all these things is confessed, what is
left to justify the support of Cleveland
by anybody but the spoils seekers? Those
who support him on account of his reform
pledges have been cheated, and tho most
of them already acknowledge it. Those
who supported him ou the understanding
that he was not a free trader, and that
tho platform on which he ran was not a
freo trade platform, havo been cheated.
Only tho spoilsmen and the freo traders
have had any luck Both these elements
supported Cleveland because he was a
Democrat merely, hoping that as a Demo
crat he would ultimately turn out to be a
freo trader and a leader of that good old
Democratic sentiment "to tho victors bo
long the spoils." They were not deceived.
Those of the other kind who aro disposed
to protest are being read out of tho party.
A Disturbing Kumor.
Thero is a painful rumor to tho effect
that Hon. S. J. Randall, of Pennsylvania,
proposes to visit St. Ix)uis during the ses
sion of tho Democratic convention with a
tariff plank all hi3 own. Tho attempt to
transfer that peculiar timber from his
private pocket to tho national Democratic
pl.itform is very certain to mar the broth
et ly feeling and harmonious proceedings
of that body. As a matter of history,
however, Brother Randall has always put
in his best work at conventions, and the
chance for a tariff double ender, with a
Cleveland cast of countenance ou thoforo,
and a Randall likeness to tho aft. part of
the Democratic cralt. ready to forge ahead
or sail backward with equal facility, may
bo regarded as a probability of tho Demo
cratic future. Boston Traveller.
Iteglnuing to See Aright.
Tho president's mistakes in Maryland
and Indiana have been very serious They
havo been based on tho idea which we bo
lieve is President Cleveland's own. that
tho civil service ought to bo reformed on
a sort of local option plan that is. that
in states in which tho reform sentiment
was strong the spoilsmen wero to be ro
sisted. but that in states in which the re
form sentiment was weak they ought to
be allowed to have their way The re
sult has been, both in Maryland and In
diana, a most shameful demoralization
of the public service. New York Even
ing Post, Mug.
False Exhibits or Economy.
Secretary Fairchild asks for a special
appropriation of 450.000 in order to
carry on tho business of his department
for the remainder of the current fiscal
vear. Tho appropriation would have been
made largo enough in the first place, if
the Democrats in Congress had not de
sired to make a false show of economy by
cutting down the estimates in an arbi
trary and senseless fashion. St. Iouis
Signs of Victory.
The Republicans of congress and the
country aro united on tb tariff question,
and tho Democrats aro hopelessly divided.
Shrewd observers, in putting the two cir
cumstances together, aro apt to conclude
that tho result must bo Democratic de
feat, especially as the tariff is likely to be
the principal issue before the voters of
the country this jear. Norristown Her
ald. Cleveland's Hypocrisy.
President Cleveland says it is impossi
ble to givo reasons for the removal of
Ft deral officials. What Cleveland really
meant was that reasons could not begiveu
without moie clearly exposing tlie suam
and hypocrisy of the reform claims of the
present administration. Philadelphia
I'llteen Hundred Foot Seaweed.
Californian big trees will have to take a
second place as botanical giants now that
the ocean has undertaken to beat tho land
in the size of its products. Capt. John
Stone, of tho ship Clever, picked up a sea
weed on the Atlantic near the equator
that was 1,500 feet long. It was an alga,
and has been identified as a specimen
of macroceptis pyrifera. Philadelphia
When Duties Meet.
"Good mornin. Jones."
"Good mornin'." .
Syrup of Vi
Is Nature's own true laxative. It is the
most easily taken, and the most effective
remedy known to Cleanse tho System
when Bilious or Costive; to dispel Head
aches, Colds and Fevers; to cure Hnbit
uul Constipation, Indigestion, Piles, etc.
Manufactured only by the California Fig
Syrup Company, San Francieco, Cal. For
sale only by Dowty & Becher. 27-y
FARM, FIELD AND GARDEN
EVERY DAY SUBJECTS CONSIDERED
IN A PRACTICAL MANNER.
Some Timely Statements In Regard to
the Relative Merits of Barn Yard ud
Commercial Manures, from an Eco
nomic Point of View.
There is no subject of more vital im
portance to the farming interest at tho
present tune than that of manures How
to supplement the accumulations of homo
made manures with least outlay of money
and time and greatest benefit to the farm,
is as yet an open question with somo.
though many farmers have accepted com
mercial fertilizers as an easy solution of
There are not a few cultivators who aa
sort that the commercial manures are
stimulants rather than fertilizers, and
ask tho very pertinent question how a few
hundred pounds of these made fertilizers
can cause such a large Increase as has
been gained, for instance with wheat, hi
any other way than by forcing the soil to
part with some elements necessary to
plant growth which it was holding in re
serve after having given up all it could
spare to former crops These objectors
state the caso with plausibility and also
with some truth, unless the uso of the
artificial fertilizers Is alternated with
substances of a grosser and more ma
terial kind, when their continued employ
ment must bo a positivo advantage. Tho
true theory of successful farming is the
rotation and variety of manures as well
as rotation of crops, all being useful and
necessary in their turn. Where this rulo
is observed lands may not only be made
to mako remunerative returns every year
In grain or grass, but also Increase in
general productiveness under good culti
At the head of all fertilizers stands the
product of tho barn yard, not only on ac
count of its general distribution, but also
for tho reason that as it has been wholly
derived from the land it contains all the
elements necessary to be returned to it
Clover In tho north and cow peas in the
south offer to each section ready and ro
liable fertilizers, valuablo not only for
their chemical properties, but especially
for their usefulness in mechanically
changing tho character of hard and com
pact soils. Along with these are tho
numerous kinds of commercial manures
tho trustworthy brands of which contain
In fair proportions tho elements found in
thoso from tho stable, with tho important
exception that they cannot form vegetable
mold, which is just as necessary to a well
constituted soil as its mineral and chemi
Tho following formula, made by the
Mapes company, indicates about the aver
ago chemical coniosition of many of the
well known commercial brands, along
with tho other necessary Ingredients
Ammonia. 4 to 5 per cent.; phosphoric
acid. 10 to 12. and potash, 4 to 5 per cent.
The analyses of scientists make it appear
tliat a. ton of average barn yard manure
contains about 10 pounds nitrogen, 12
pounds potash and S pounds phosphoric
acid It must, however. le understood
that these amounts will vary according to
the condition of the manure and tho food
out of which it was made.
What Others Say.
Experience has not yet developed a suit
able mixture or combination of grasses
that will give an all the year round pas
ture. Rye or barley. If the soil is rich
make a winter pasture that leaves
nothing to bo desired except tho feature
of permanency, says Southern Cultivator
It is settled that in the hands of some
men some incubators will hatch a large
percentage of tho fortilo eggs About
this matter there can be no d'spute say&
TheSpaulding plums, according to J T
Lovett, Is sure curculio proof
W F. Brown, in Country Gentlemen,
claims that loss of ico generally Is caused
by ono of three things 1. Too small
a'bulk stored. 2. Neglect to keep It well
covered and solidly packed. 8. Allowing
the wet packing to accumulate until it
generates heat. Other material may be
as good as sawdust for packing, but I
have had experience with none but
Matthew Crawford, of Ohio, recom
mends shallow culture for blackberries
Somo very successful plantations are
never cultivated, bot receive special
The Rural New Yorker says that tho
system of threshing corn fodder ranks
with the silo as a measure of farm econ
omy. Corn and stalks must bo perfectly
dry to realize the best results. A better
machine for the purpose than tho ordinary
threshing machine Is needed.
Lime for Poultry.
It la perfectly true that all tho grains
used in feeding poultry contain a greater
or less percentage of lime, and that if no
other supply is furnished the eggs which
are laid will generally be inclosed hi a
shell that is very largely composed of
lime. It is also perfectly true, adds The
Poultry World, that the universal ex
pcrienco as well as the general practice is
to provide lime in some additional form,
and that such provision pays
The methods of giving this addi
tional supply are to furnish ground oyster
shells, granulated bono, cracked bone,
bone meal, old plaster, sea shells, slaked
lime allowed to cool and become crumbly
air slaked lime and tho like When
cracked oyster shells, granulated bone,
sea shells, old plaster and water or air
slaked lime are used it is customary to
provide vessels and keep the lime before
them at all tunes A self feeding hopper,
such aa is used by pigeon men for feeding
their pets, is a very convenient receptaclo
for lime in these forma Bono meal ia
usually mixed with the soft food, ami its
consumption in that way assured We
think the former inothod. however, except
hi the case of very young chickens, the
better one, as It Is but little labor to QA
the hopper, and the fowls will eat all they
wlsh and need no more. Furnish the
hens with lime, and thus prevent soft
shelled eggs, and, we might truthful!;.
add. get more good ones.
LABELS FOR TREES AND PLANTS.
Various Methods Practiced. Including
Permanent and Transient Labels.
The subject for consideration at a late
meeting of the Massachusetts Horticul
tural Bociety was. "Methods of labeling
Trees and Plants." hi an essay on tht
subject read by Robert T. Jackson, the
suggestion is made that as labor costs
generally more than anything else it is
economy to provide good labels labels
that will last a long time. Metals were
named as best material for durability.
Zinc is the metal moat commonlv uaed. as
it is reasonably imperishable, cheap and
readily handled. Bright, clean zinc may
bo written ou with an aqueous solution of
chloride of platinum or chloride of cop
per the former is probably tho better.
They may be obtained of chemists or pur
chased under tho name of chemical inks
for zinc label A quill pen should be
used in writing with them. The zinc
should be prepared for them by cleaning
with fine emery paper or very weak muri
atic acid, the latter being preferable, as it
is not so likely to bo followed by exten
sive oxidization so injurious to the
writing Uso a rag dipped in weak
acid and rinse in clean water After
writing nothing further Is necessary
Zinc when slightly ronghened by oxidiza
tion may be written upon with a soft lead
pencil, and the graphite soon becomea In
delibly fixed ou the zinc, and Is quite as
permanent as chemical Ink. Tho labels
may bo sufficiently oxidized by leaving
them a few weeks in a damp place. This
is much the quickest way of making any
metal labels, and makes ono of the best
labels for outdoor purposes They have
been seen perfectly clear after ten years'
Zinc labels may also have the names of
plants or catalogue numbers stamped with
steel dies The letters nrt rendered
clearer by rubbing black paint into the
lines after stamping This is an extremely
good and permanent method, but if the
lalwr of stamping Is to bt expended It
would be better to use copper or pure tin
Iron or tinned iron Is frequently used
for labels especially for trees and
botanic gardens Tho surface Is first
painted a neutral color Hint the name ia
then painted in a contrasting color This
makes an expensive but very neat and
attractive label where large ones aro
needed Good examples may le seen on
the trees on Boston common which aro
painted in two shades of brown
White pine is tho wood in most common
ti.s5. and is presumably tho best of easily
obtained woods Probably the best way
to preserve wood to bo written on la to
3pak it in linseed oil. and then to paint on
both sides, reservina spare for writing
Thin garden labels so prepared have been
perfectly sound after nine years exposure
in tho grounds
Tho active horticulturist has frequent
needs for a transient lalcl as for hybrid
izetl flowers, seedlings to bo separated out
at tho end of the season, etc For such
purposes paper labels, with a string looped
through a perforation in the margin, such
as aro used in tagging goods, aro very
useful They arc easily attached to thf
plant or flower, and last perfectly well
throughout tho season.
I!eliful Hints on Killing HVciIh.
1 Plants cannot live indefinitely tie
prived of their leaves Hence preventing
their appearance arwivo the surtaco will
kill them sooner or later
2 Plants have greater need for their
leaves, and can be more easily killed in
tho growing season thau wheu partially
3 Cultivation In a dry timo Is most In
jurious to weeds and beneficial to crops.
4. Avoid the introduction of weeds in
manure or litter or from weedy surround
lugs Some gardeners uso no stablo
manure on grounds they desiro to keep
especially clean, relying on commercial
fertilizers and tho plowing under of green
5. After a summer crop has ripened. In
stead of allowing tho land to grow up to
weeds it is often well to sow rye or some
other crop to cover tho ground and keep
G Givo every part of the farm clean
cultivation every few years either with a
hoed crop or. if necessary with a fallow
7 It is often stated that cutting weeds
whilo in flower will kill them This is
only reliable with biennials and with
them only when done so lato that much
of the seed will grow
8 If the ground is kept well occupied
with other crops weeds will givo much
less trouble. Keep meadows and road
tides well seeded and plow land culti
vated. except when shaded by crops.
Two Sides to Dehorning Cattle.
Readers are advised to consider both
sides of the question of dehorning and
not be carried away with the enthusiasm
of its advocates. Hoard's Dairytnaii warns
against dehorning, on the ground that do
horning is likely to impair the potency of
the transmission of the butter function
and to create a tendency toward the beef
temperament and type. Iu this same
journal it is told that C E. Gordon, of
Milwaukee, president of the Humane So
ciety of Wisconsin, on being Interviewed
on tho subject of dehorning said that
"while the society is not opposing the
practice, it in withholding its decision
until it sees more of the Immediate
results of it. It will not oppose it on
the ground of cruelty, as it ia conser
vativo enough to seo that temporary
pain for a permanent benetit is uot
cruelty " A year or two will decide this
matter and In tho meantime those who
cannot afford to experiment will do wel.
to wait for the public verdict
Mailing Unmounted I'hotoi.
Unmounted photographs, etc.. can be
bent by mail without damage by rolling
iheni aroimi tho outside of a light cylin
drical pieco of wood or bamboo, when a
pasteboard tube cannot bo obtained. "T.
t I). U." in Writer.
Want of Sleep
Is sending thousands annually to tho
insane asylum ; and the doctors say this
trouble is alarmingly on the increase.
The usual remedies, while they may
give temporary relief, are likely to do
more harm than good. What is needed
is an Alterative and Blood-purifier.
Avcr's Sarsaparilla is incomparably
the best. It corrects those disturbances
in the circulation which cause sleepless
ness, gives increased vitality, and re
stores the nervous system to a healthful
Rev. T. G. A. Cote, aent of the Mass.
Home Missionary Society, writes that
his stomach was out of order, his sleep
very often disturbed, and some im
purity of the blood manifest ; but that
a perfect cure was obtained by the use
of Ayer's Sarsaparilla.
Frederick W. Pratt, 424 Washington
street, Boston, writes: "My daughter
was prostrated with nervous debility.
Ayer's Sarsaparilla restored her to
William F. Bowker, Eric, Pa., was
cured of nervousness and sleeplessness
by taking Ayer's Sarsaparilla for about
two months, during which time his
w eight increased over twenty pounds.
Dr. J. C. Ayer & Co., Lowell, Mass.
tiotd by all Druggists. Price $1 ; six bottles, $5.
WHOLE NO. 940.
Auihorized Capital of $250,000,
A Surplus Fund of - $20,000,
Ami tho lancext paid ia Cask Capital of
nny lunik iu this part of tlit Sttt.
JXp"lViHtitH iwoivtsl and interest paid on
fr"Dnift on the rrine ipnl cities in this coun
try uiul Europe bought ami sold.
SXColloctioan And nil other business giien
prompt and cnroful uttention.
J. H.UALLKY, Vice IWt.
. AN DEItSON. 1. AN DEKSON,
.IACOUUKE1SEN. HENKY KAGATZ,
JOHN J. SULLIVAN. W. A. McALLlSTEK.
ATTORSEVS AT LA V,
Otlico over First National Ilnuk, Columbus,
"i IK KVA.N, 91. .,
rilYSIClAX -IA7 SL'HGKOX.
S3r"Ot1c ami roomx. Cluck buildinjr, 11th
ftnrt. Telephone communication. 4-y
J HI. JIACa-MKI.ANI).
ATWKXKY it- XOT.IRY I'L'HUC.
J35""OfhVi tT Firt National Iluuk, L'oluui
CO CAT 1 SUKrKYOK.
iSfl'artieH tlemrinn hiirvcjinn tlono can ad-dri-ft
me nt Columbus, Noli., or call nt my ottictt
iu Court Housf. Jjmnjsrt-y
CO. SCP'T PUBLIC SCHOOLS.
1 will be in myollife in the Conrt Houw, tho
third Saturday of each month for tlie examina
tion of applicant" for teacher certificates, nud
for the transaction of other m-ImhiI btimnt.
DRA V and EXPRESSMKX.
Linht and heavy haulintr. iimk1m handled with
tare. Headquarter at J. 1. llecktr A Co.'a office.
Telephone. 23 ami SI. 3UmarS7y
y K. TURNER & CO.,
Proprietors and Publishers of tho
COLTJMEJC J3331TAI, Kl til KES. rAJHI.7 JCTJSSAl;
Itotli. ivot-paid toany aililriH, for S'J.OO n jear,
Mrietly in advance. Fimily Jouicnal, $!. u
W. . McALLISTIilL W. 31. COKNELIUS.
I t!,I.IH 1 1.IC Jk 4 oK.t:i.n;
attoi:xi:vs at law.
Oflieo up stairs oer Erutit A Schw tin's store on
Lieiciitli ctreet. UlmuijSS
DIC. .1.4-IIAK. IV 11,1.1.
ilt-ulm Ifr Arzt.)
PIITSICIAX ami SUUGEOX,
EYK IH.1K.tSES A Sl'EClALTY.
Lleteiith sjtritt. OUio, No. 4U: UesMence No.ffT.
JOHN U. HlCtilNS. C. J. t'AULOW,
HIGGINS & GARL0W,
Specialty mail of Collections by C. J. Garlow.
M NCFACTUUEK OF
Tin and Sheet-Iron Ware !
Job-Work, Roofing and Gutter
ing a Specialty.
;?""Shoj on lath street, Krauso JJro.'s old
Red Top, Millet,
Blue Grass Seed,
nrrnEA wonders exist in
IILLUwi'iiis-inilrt of forms, but aro wr.
1 1 r r luu-iMl ly the marvels of invention.
vlskil rtioMi who are in need of profitable
uurk that ran ls done while livimc at homn
should at once m nd their addret-s to Hallett A
Co., I'ortland, Maine, and leceive free, full in
formation how either eex, of all nes, can eHrn
from ?." tti $i'i per day and upwards whttrr
they live, b ou nre started free. Capital not re
iiuired. Koran have made over $.V in a siukIh
day at tl is work. All succt-ed. 6dec2y
We will pay the abovo reward for nny cas of
liver complaint, djHpepsia, sick headache, indi
Ueftion, constipation or ctstieness we cannot
cure with West s Vegetable Liver Fills, when tlit
directions are strictly complied with. They are
purely vegetable, and never fail to tfive satisfac
tion. I.arje Ixixe containing 20 supar coated
pills, 'J."c. For sale by all dniKXist. IJeware of
counterfeits and immitations. The genuine
manufactured only by JOHN C. WEST & CO.,
M W. .Madison St.. ( hicatco. 111. dec7'87j
the world duriuK the
last half century.
Not least amnoit the
wonders of inventive progress is a method and
system of work that can ls jerfonned all over
trie country without separating tho worker from
their homes. I'ay liberal; any tine can do tlie
work; either sex. voung or old: no special ability
required. Capital not needed; you are started
free. Cut this out ami return to us and we will
send you frte. something of great valneand im
ixirtance to jou, that will start jou in business,
which will bring jou in more money right away,
than anything elso in the world. Grand outfit
ftrv. Address Trno & Co.. Augusta, 3Ie. dec24
A book: of 100 pagcy.
The best book for an
ftilvfrtftr tr con
sult, bo ho experl-
I a. .... (a.1i nr..-...vA i,An3 mul aaHtntitAa
wants to spend ono dollar. Amis 1 Ittno in
formation lie requires, w lnle lorliim who will
invest one hundred thousand dollars In ad
vertising, n scheme is indicated which will
meet his every requirement, or am bmad
to do so by tliijhichanqeatasily arrivtdat byeor
respomlence. 113 editions have been Issued.
Sent, post-paid, to any address for 10 cents.
Write to GEO. 1. UQWELL CO.,
NEWSPAPER ADVERTISING BUBEAU.
(l0SuruotLirinanjlIouaeS(i.), Saw York.