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About The Columbus journal. (Columbus, Neb.) 1874-1911 | View Entire Issue (Sept. 30, 1885)
BATK8 F AaYKMTIMa!i
QTBuainasa and profaaaioaal cards
of fire liaes or less, par anaun, Arm
137 For time, advertisements, apply
at this office.
7Legal adTertisessents at statute
TTor transient adrertleing, see.
rates oa third pace.
ISSUK EVERY WEDKJEbftAY,
M. K. ' J JEfcNEK- .&, CO.
Proprici-uis and Publishers.
3T OFFICE, Eleventh St., up sfatw
in Journal Building.
VOL. XVI.-N0. 23.
COLUMBUS, NEB., WEDNESDAY. SEPTEMBER 80, 1885:
WHOLE NO. 803.
CASH CAPITAL, - $75,000
Leaxdku Gekkakii, Pies'!.
Geo. W. IIulst, Tce Pre'f.
Julius A. Ueei.
It. II. Hknky.
.1. K. Taskek, Cashier.
Baak of Iiepealt
CellectluBN Promptly !litd 01
Iatcret ob Tlwf
COFFIN'S AXI METALLIC OASES
AND DEALER IN
Furniture, Chairs, Bedsteads, Bu
reaus. Tables, Safes. Lounges,
Ac. Picture Frames and
EBr 'Repairing of all kinds of Upholstery
C-tf COLUMBUS. NEB.
Buckeye Mower, combined, Self
Binder, wire or twine.
Pinups Repaired on short notice
jgrOne door west of Hcintz's Drup
Store, IKli Street, Oolumbu-, Neb. S
To strengthen the stomach, create an
appetite, anil remove the horrihle depres
sion and despondency which result from
Indigestion, there is nothing so effective
as Ayer's PUN. These Pills contain no
calomel or other poKouous drug, act
directly on the digestive and awniilathe
organ, and restore health and .strength to
the entire system. T. P. Bonner. Chester,
Pa., writes: "I have iwed Ayer's Tills
for the past f0 years, and am satisfied
I should not have been alive to-day. If It
had not been for them. They
me of Dyspepsia when all other remedies
failed, and their occasional ue has kept
me iu a healthy condition ever since.'
L. X. Smith, Utiea, X. Y writes: "I
have used Ayer's Pills, for Liver troubles
and Indigestion, a good many years, and
have always found them prompt and
efficient In their action. Richard Xorrls,
Lynn,"Mas., writes : "After much suffer
ing, I have been cured of Dyspepsia and
Ayer's Pills. They have done me more
irood than any other medicine I have ever
taken.' John Hurdett, Troy, Iowa,
writes: 4'For nearly two years my life
was rendered miserable by the horrors of
Dyspepsia. Medical treatment afforded
me only temporary relief, and I became
reduced In flesh, and very much debili
tated. A friend of mine, who had been
similarly afflicted, advised me to try
Ayer's Pills. I did so, and with the
happiest results. My food soon ceased to
distress me, my appetite returned, and I
became as strong and well as ever."
DE. J. C. AYES & CO., Lowell, Mass.
For sale by all Druggist.
A WORD OF WAKi:.
FARMERS, stock racers, and all other
interested partiei. will do well to
remember that ttie "W estern Horse ana
Cattle Insurance Co." of Omaha is the
enly companv doing husiuesa iu this state
that insures" Horses, Mules and Cattle
against loss bv theit, accidents, diseases,
or injurv, (as also asain loss by fire and
lightning). All representations by agents
of ether Companies to the contrary not
withstanding. P. V. IIENRICII, Special Ag't.
15-y Columbus. Neb.
I State Monro Sts..Chicao. .
far 13, STO lJ. zl Jrti
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M"aw",""C" Z. ' 'a m aam.a"aaaaaaawP
A POPULAR SUPERSTITION.
The liappy Agriculturists
r t im
A popular superstition has prevailed
in all agei, to the effect that the typical
farmer harvests more solid joy and hap
piness to the acre than any other class
of agriculturists wko toil in the Lord's
After mature deliberation we have
come to the conclusion that the average
Teas farmer, at least, sutlers as much
from the canker-worm of care as does
the man who "rastles his hash" in the
busy haunts of men.
Some vears ajjo. while engaged as a
local reporter on the San Antonio Bugle,
we' knew a hardy agriculturist who
tilled the soil on the ltosillo Creek about
ten miles from the Alamo city, the
Thermopylae of Texas. His name was
Ho Aiti -.... - . u(UiU !..-
.wuen Jterdid- the black pall of-olooru
settled down on the place worse than it
did the day after the fall of the Alamo.
He came to town on-an old llea-bitteu
gray marc, sb thin and gaunt, and
suggestive of au impending famine, that
at Uk- sight of Simmons on that pale
horse, the people whooped up all the
grain in the country, expecting a rise.
What's the matter, Macbeth; has
anybody died out on the Kosillo, and
asked you to come to town to order a
sarcophagus?" we asked.
' There is nobo Jy dead yet, but we
might as well be. We are going to have
a late frost, and then it will be Good-bye
John to the crops."
44 Perhaps we will not have anv late
frost at all."
' May be not. If we don't have no
late frost the eggs of the grasshoppers
will hatch out and eat up the crops,
anyhow. There's no silver lining to
the cloud. We poor farmers don't work
for ourselves nohow. We toil and
sweat, and sweat ami toil, for the grass
hoppers aud the San Antonio mer
chants. If we manage to keep them
lilled up I suppose we oujjht not ter
grumble. Texas is no farming couu
44 Cheer up old man, you will raise
the biggest kind of a corn crop this
year, if you don't stop it growing with
your discouraging talk."
" Suppose we do raise a big corn crop
what's the use anyhow, ' he ex
claimed, indignantly; '"if we raise a big
crop the price will go down to forty
cents a bushel, and then it won't pay
to haul it to town. I reckon I'll raise
enough to keep the weevils busv all
winter. If I do that I reckou I ought
to b happy," and after he had mopped
his moist eye with his elbow, he stirred
up his crow-bait and started for his
ranch on the Itosillo.
We did not have the pleasure of soe
ing Macbeth Simmons again for some
time. In spite of all hi- groaning and
sighing, the clouds let their garnered
fullness down, and the crops were
Once more Macbeth turned up with
his old pale horse hitched to a wagon.
He had sold his cotton at a jrood figure,
hand, but he did not look as happy aud I
contented as he did the last time we
Got the toothache. Macbeth," we
Mo," he replied, surlily.
You probably haven't got any use
for teeth this year. You haven't got
anything to bite. Noiorn.no water
melons, no nothing,' we remarked,
"Yes."we have got something to keep
our teeth goin' now. We are all gwine
ter be dowu with chills. We won't
douothin' this fall with our teeth except
to chatWr and gnash 'em. It will tako
everv cent of money I've got to get
quinine. That's the way it is whenever
it rains enough to make crops." and
with a sort of a "we-are-all-poor-worms-o:'-th;-dust"
expression, he climbed up
iuto his wai:on, which was loaded don
with canned goods, demijohns, smok
ing tobtcco, etc., and moved slowly out
Of course all Texas farmers are not
like MaclK-th Simmons, but that the
average farmer in any part of the Uni
ted States is happier than the lawyer,
th- merchant, or even the overworked
journalist, or the tired banker, we very
much doubt- Texas Si flings.
A ChrmUt Vy Il.tre the Base Deception
of thr M:tuufrturer.
'How is modern
was the question
propounded to a
chemist bv the Herald re-
Oh. I wouldn't b? too hard on the
girls by tel'ing you," replied the man
of science, 'because they would de
prive themselves of their favorite luxury
should they know what they eat.'
But it Would be a blessing for the
small-salaried Ihivs,' suggested the
scribe. '-Two dishes of ice-cream for
the girl aud a lemonade with a stick in
it. aud a cigar on four evenings of call-in-
time each week would lie 1.6 . or
over 40 during, the seasou. Tiiat
amount would purchase a beaver over
coat with sealskin cutis and
Think of it!"
The Profes-or was not proof agaiut
such an example of domestic arith
metic, and he relented. "I noticed."'
he said, -that Dr. Hartley, of Brook
lyn, publishes a statement in which he
ays that' he finds a ery subtle poison
ptomaine in ice-cream during this
ason of the year. The formation of
this deadly alkaloid, he thinks, is prob
ably the result of decomposition in oiho
gelatinous matter of animal origin,
which enters into the cream as we get
it now. I rather think that very little
cream, if auy, cuter iutp the manufact
ure of modern ice-cream. Milk. eggs,
corn starch and a thickening of gela
tine are the principal ingredients, so
far as 1 know. That gives a very ap
petizing ice-cream. I should think, and
it is no wonder that they can sell the
stuff at a dollar the gallon."
I understood that cotton seed oil is
used by some of the manufacturers," re
marked the reporter.
Worse than that." was the reply.
They use lard-oil, which is nothing
else than the 'oleo oil' of the butterine
trade. Contrary to the butter-making,
though, the oif is not chilled by being
run into tanks of cracked ice, but
is warmed in steam jacket-kettles to
nearly the boiling point two hundred
degrees Fahrenheit The milk which
is Durchascd from, the creameries, is
whaCmay be calledl skimmed on both.
also heated to about one hundred and
seyeaty-five degrees Fahrenheit, thus
nearly equalizing the specific gravity of
the twoprmcipaT ingredients. To every
five iralloos of milk, costing twaaty
I cents, je added eight ounces of aloe oil
1 Alter this is tfcorotgkly mixed tfchaa fe
an addition of sixteen ounces ! potash
starch, which is cheaper than corn
starch, and one-half ounce of gelatine.
This whole delectable matter is the
boiled in copper vacuum pans. Tbe
ingredients unite chemically much
better in a vacuum than under atmos
pheric pressure, as would bs the case iu
open vessels. Again the boiling point
is lowered, and thus is prevented what
has proved such an annoyanee in butter-making
the suet flavor. Whatever
should remain of that nasty flavor in
so-called ice-cream is killed by the
flavoring extracts, mostly vanilla.
Then the mess is congealed in ordinary
freezers, and youis modern ice-cream is
readv for market. The average vaa-
illa extract is made from the sprouts I
of the spruce pine, and a better Kino
is made from the tonka bean."
"Then this voracious animal you call
ptomaine is not only in cured meat but
also in ice-cream which our dear girls
consume with such avidity?" Thi by
Ptomaine is fouud in all articles of
food which are in certain stages of de
composition," said the Professor, wills
a laugh, "but then it is not an animal
like trichina or bacteria. It is an alka
loid of great interest, which needs much
explanation. At this season of the year,
especially July and August, and some
times during June, when the air is very
moist and the vegetation very rank,
there are conditions' that favorsickness
and at the same time decomposition.
During the first stages of the latter an
animal alkaloid is found which is called
ptomaine. At just what point this for
mation takes place 1 am unable to say,
but that it exists is beyond a question
of doubt It can not be discovered by
ocular inspection, nor by the ordinary
microscopic examination a chemical
analysis must proceed. Therefore, be
fore there is any summary decision
about the liability of dealers means
must be provided and conclusions must
be drawn which will show the exact ap
pearance of articles of food jnfectea
with ptomaine in order to determine the
character of such food as to its fitness
for consumption. As far as I have" beeu
able to learn there .are times when the
me.it appears at its best and looks most
wholesome, but at the same time is
charged with this deadly poison. It is
supposed that this poison is very much
more active than others. It is beyond
doubt that it exists in meat and broth,
and it has been found in pudding,
cheese, ice-cream and other articles of
food into the preparation of which milk
enters as main ingredient. I also have
au idea that ptomaine is found in the
human body under certain pathological
conditions, especially in typhoid fevet
and peritonitis." Interview in Chi
IN WINDSOR CASTLE.
Official Farcei Acted by the Queen, Sup
ported by Her MluUters.
The Qucon of England's finest resi
lience is Windsor Castle. In fact, in
telligent Londoners often said to me
that Buckingham Palace was a misera
ble old rat-trap, not fit for Victoria and
wtcsot'S "0!iv.e. -in. while thov were
was the finest royal palace in the world
The Queen spends a large portion of
the year at Windsor, and there she
transact a large proportion of thai
formal yet mainly rather amusing use
less court business, the details of which
are daily paraded in the the Court Jour
nal. Theae matters are mostly quite
familiar to average readers, yet one or
two curious illustrations of the point
in hand are too singular to be omitted.
Here, fop instance, is the Court Cir
cular for a dav in early spring. In it
thi- item: Tile Sheriff of Lancashire,
aUa private audience which the Queen
wave the Chancellor of the Duchy of
Lancaster, was pricked by the Queen.
The Sheriffs for England and Wales
w..n- uricked bv her Majesty at th
council on Thursday last, the oth inst.,
ami not after it, as stated in the. Court
Cinulur for that date.
Now what doe's all this mean? The
explanation is simply this: Every year
the .Judges of Assizes make return to
the Queen of three persons for every
county in England, from which she is
to select one to serve as Sheriff of eack
When these names, written upon a
sheet of paper, are presented to the
Queen, she takes in her fingers a pin
and sticks it through one of them, be
inp; thus supposed to indicate her choice
to make her selection.
The old phrase of "stick a pin there,"
in such common Use in New England,
must have taken its origin in this very
ancient royal custom of making a se
lection which I have just described.
Bnt the'oin-sticking of the Queen at
Windsor is of c mrse, a mere meaning
less form; for all the appeintmrnts of
the officer- whom she is supposed to se
lect are settled upon by tfie Govern-ment-before
being submitted to her.
There is another and more fitting
use of a pin which the Queen sometimes
makes When officers or soldiers have
tmrtieularlv distinguished themselves
in the field decorations are often be
stowed upon them. And in such cases
the heroes are sometimes summoned to
the palace of the Queen and personally
' received and hospitably entertained by
her. Then, in her presence, the serv
ices of the men are read over to her
Ma'csty, after which she pins upon
their b easts with her own hands the
decorations granted to them. It is not
uncommon for such au audience as this
to close with a personal introduction to
the soldiers and members of the house
hold at Windsor, often iacluding the
three little Princesses of the palace, the
grsndchildrcu of Victoria.
There are many other palace public
cereraoniej which are of a somewhat
similar -character to those I have been
describing. But I have space to men
tion only two more. When the Gov
ernment has made an appointment of a
diplomatic representative, the Minister
selected makes a journey to the palace
of the Queen before he goes forth as her
representative, and on liis bended knee
kisses her hand in recognition of the
honor he has received.
The forms gone through at the palace
when au address of the Queen is to be
presented to Parliament are peculiar.
The Ministry the Prim Minister pre
pares the speech, and then the Cabinet
makes a stately ana most iormai jour
ney to Windsor for the purpose of read
ing the document to her Majesty. Alter
it has been read in her presence it is
supDoscd to become her speech from
the"throne. Boston Commercial Bulle
Lucy Larcom recently lectured in
her native town, Lowell, Mass.. on her
life aud the life of all mill girls thirty
and forty years ago. when she worked
twelve hours a day, and edited the Op
eratives' Magazine im has -iaitura
PRICES IN SAN FRANCISCO.
Uow th Once UNplieU .N'ickal Has Cheap
ened Som Thine.
Among the recent contributions to
the hodge-podge of attractions on the
dime-museum side of Market street are
several little "holes-in-thc-wall," where
any of the articles displayed may be
purchased for live cents. The array
aud variety of the goods are remark
able wheu the price is considered. On
the walls and shelves aro walking
sticks, tinware, collars, neckties, soap,
pipes and, to quote the usual tag of an
auctioneer's catalogue, "other things
too numerous to mention," all at the
low price of half a dime. The novelty
of the venture and the tact that the
once despised nickel had grown to be a
purchasing factor of some consequence
led a Chronicle reporter to put together
ibo results of certain-observaUoas on'
the gradual tendency of small pries to
become smaller. The change has been
especially noticeable during the past
live years, and while the greater items
of expenditure have not been affected,
and while housekeeping remains just as
expensive as ever, the little things and
the luxuries have been cut down sev
eral notches. The five-cent piece has
been called the "despised nickel," aud
it is a fact, as everyone knows, that un-
til within a comparatively recent date
San Franciscans looked with supreme
aad most unreasonable coutemnt
anything; that was not sold or silver.
The street-car companies were mainly
instrumental in breaking down thfs
prejudice. Silver half-dimes were get
ting very scarce, owing to the discon-
tinuance of their coinage, and large
importations of the nickel were made.
Once put into circulation, new use.i
were naturally found for it, and while
it would be impossible to give the gene
sis of these new uses, it will bo just as
interesting to point them out With
the reduction of internal revenue on
tobacco, smokers were not slow in dis
covering what could be done with the
nickel. Five-cent cigars came strongly
into fashion, cigarettes went down to
five cents a pack, and chewing-tobacco
followed in unsavory suit. Before the
change the "bit" cigar was the cheap
est, anil when a man wanted to do the
swell thing in treating he put up a dol
lar for the two. Now, not only is a
five-center considered good enough for
the ordinary puffer, hut modorately
good cigars can be had at the rate of
six for a quarter, and when a treat is to
be made none but the extravagant think
of taking anything but two for t'o
cents. Reference is not inadu hero
to Chines- c'gars. which can be bought
at almost any price, peddlers in China
town offering them as low as ten for 10
Plush-covered chairs set in rooms or
wooden sheds, all th daily papers to
read and a brush-oil' are among the in
ducements to a shine. Ten cents ued
to be the lowest price for all these "com
forts, while if a quarter were tendered
there would bo but 10 cents change,
and the shine would cost 15 cents.
Some Italians started a new order of
cents, and though there was a vigorous
attempt made to crush out the danger
ous cheapness, patrouage went all that
way, and now the 10-cent boot-black
stands can be counted 0:1 the lingers of
one hand. Closely allied to the boot
blacks are the barb rs. and though the
five-cent regime has not yet reaclio I
the "ton-onal artists." a material re
duction of charges obtains among them.
Twenty-five cents was at one time the
ruling price for a shave and ."0 cents
was no unusual price to pay for hair
cutting. Now there are plenty of places
where a man caii be well shaved for l.
cents aud shorn for 1h cents, while
those who are on stricter economy bent
could furnish one with the addresses of
barbers who shave for a dime and cut
hair for 1 cents.
The "bit was for many years one
of the local monetary peculiarities of
San Francisco. There were, as every
one knows, two "bits" the "long" and
the "short."' The ".-hort bit" was P.'
cents, and the "long" lo cents. Like
the York shilling, the 12 cents was a
fiction. There never was such a.coin.
and the difficulty here was that there
were no copper cents to make up the
change. The re-ult was that he pur
chaser, whenever the price was in odd
bits, invariab'y contributed 2 cents to
the illegitimate profit of the seller.
Especially was this the case at restau
rants. Checks were made out for three,
four, five or six bits, and so on. The
meal having cost three bits, say that
means :17 cents a half-dollar would
be tender.-d and 10 cents given in
change, which meant .that instead of 37
cents the customer paid 40 cents. Now
the checks are in cents, and if the lunch
costs b'5 cents the customer pays ex
actly that amount.
With all the mulcting of an occa
sional 2 cents, Sau Francisco main
tained a well-founded reputation for
being one of the cheapest places for
food in the United States, but latterly a
new order of cheapness has come in. A
few years ago a frugal Dane opened a
10-cent coffee saloon on California
street ' The customers used to slink in
there afraid of being seen, but the fact
that a good cup of cofled and a plate of
cake or doughnuts could be had there
for a dime was something that over
came false pride, and 10-cent coffee
houses are at present to be found in
San Francisco by the score, if not by
the hundred, while the patrons of the
places walk in with head erect and in
clude amomr the number the wives and
sisters of well-to-do men.
These are a few of the examples of
the manv that mhht be given iu sup
pott of the statement that the luxuries
aud little things arc cheaper now thau
they were live years ago. Others may
be briefly referred to. Fruits used only
to be sold at so many pounds for so
much, or at so much a dozen. Now
one may find a score of little stands on
Pine and California streets where, in
their season, a bunch of grapes, a few
figs, or two or flirce apples may be had
for five cents. There are five-cent
loaves, five-cent neckties, and five-cent
papers. In fact, it needs no great gift
of prophecy to predict that copper cents
will soon "be as current here as the
nickel. Indeed they have already made
their apj)earance quietly. They are
used in change at two or three auc-tion-hou.n.;s,"
and the Woman's Chris
tian Temperance Union must employ
them, since it dispenses its coftee at
three cen'.s a cup San Frannsro
a violent h.ucr of tobacco is Dr.
Hitchcock, the professor of athletics at
Amherst College. He attributes to its
immoderate use, especially by immature
young men, all sorts o! physical "and
mental ailments, and predicts that a
quarter of a century more of excess will
Sroduce a generation of waakliag.
r. r. Sun.
Aitkerized Capital, - - S2o0,000
Paid In Capital, - 60,000
Sirplis aid Profits, - - 13,000
OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS.
A. ANDERSON, Pres't.
SAM'L C. SMITH, Vice Pres't.
O. T. ROEN. Cashier.
.1. W. EARLY,
W. A. MCALLISTER,
-fftrfigand Inland Exchange. P;
D.T. Mastyx, M. D. P. .. SCIIUG. M. D.
Dm. MAETYH & SCHUO,
II. S. Examining Surgeons,
Local Surgeons. Union Pacific, O., N.
Jfc K. II. and It. &. M. K. R's.
Consultations in German and En-
Telephones at office and residences.
t3TOffice over First National Bank.
COLUMBUS. - NEBRASKA.
I. KVAIVK, M. !.,
PHYSICIAN AND SURGEON.
J3r)(lii-e and rooms, Gluck building,
lltli street. Telephone communication.
F. F. KUNXF.K, M. D
Ckroalo Diseases aad Diseases of
Ckildrea a Specialty.
laroiliee on Olive street, three doors
north of Firtt National Bank. 2-1 y
TXf 91. COKKI.IIJM,
LAW AND COLLECTION OFFICE.
Upstairs Ernst building 11th street.
pt .1. GARLOW, Collection Att'y.
SPECIALTY MADE OF BAD PAPER.
Office with J. G. Higgins. Sl-Hm
TT J. uuifsorv,
2th Street, 2 doors m-st of Hammond Koine,
Columbus, Neb. 4l-y
T . RKEDER,
A TTOIiNEY AT LA W,
Office on Olive St., Columbus, Nebraska
MONEY TO l.OAtt.
cuTuvaYionV in sums representing one
third the fair value of the homestead.
Correspondence solicited. Addre fs ,
r,0.v Columbus, Nebr.
V. A. MACKEN,
I'oreian end Doviestic Liquors
llth htrcet. Columbus, Neb. TiO-y
A TT011NE YS A T LA W,
Office up-staira in
ing. llth St. W. A
, McAllister, Notary
NOTARY PUBLIC AND CONVEYANCER.
Keeps a full line of stationery and school
supplies, aud all kinds or legal forms.
Insures againt fire, lightning, cyclone
and tornadoes. Office in Powell's Block,
Platte Centei. 19'x
,T. M. MACKAKLAND,
Atterciy i iteiy PaW:
LAW ANI COLLECTION OFFICE
If ACFARliAND & COWDBRY",
Columbia, : : Nebraska.
J. J. MAUCillAIV.
Justice, County Surveyor, Notary.
Land and Collection Agent.
TPart ics desiring surveying done can
notify me bv mail at Platte Centre, Neb.
I. K I Kill t.
llth St., opposite Lindell Hotel.
Sell Harness, Saddles, Collars, Whips,
Blankets. Curry Combs, Brushes, trunks,
valises, buggy tops, cushions, carriage
trimmings, &c, at the lowest possible
prices. Repairs promptly attended to.
CONTRACTOR AND BUILDER.
Plans and estimates supplied for cither
frame or brick buildings. Good work
guaranteed. Shop on 13th Street, near
St. Paul Lumber Yard, Columbus, Ne
braska. 52 (imo.
DEPUTY CO. SURVEYOR.
Will do general surveying iu Platte
and adjoining counties. Inquire at the
S. MURDOCK & SON,
Carpenters and Contractors.
Have bad an extended experience, and
will guarantee satiafaction in work.
All kinds of repairing done on short
notice. Our motto is, Good work and
fair prices. Call and give us an oppor
tunity to estimate for you. 93TShop on
13th St., one door west of Friedhof &
Co's.ntore. Columbus. Nebr. 483-y
o. c. snAisrisroN"
Tin and Sheet-Iron Ware !
Job-Work, Soofinf and Gutter
ing a Specialty.
fjCaTShop on Olive Street,
north of brodfeuhrcr's Jewelry
LAND AND INSURANCE AGENT,
, HUUPHREY, NEBR.
His lands comprise some fine tracts
in the Shell Creek Valley, and the north
ern portion of Plrtte county. Taxes
paid for non-residents. Satisfaction
guaranteed. 20 j
THE ISLAND OF CEYLON.
A Monntalaoas Country With Steadily Ia
The island of Ceylon is two hundred
and seventy milos in length, one hun.
dred and fiftv-six in breadth, and Terr
mountainous near the center, there be
ing mountains ranging between three
thousand and seven thousand feet
high, ten of which arc above the latter
limit. The highest is Pidurutalage,
eight thousand two hundred and ninety-six
feet. Large tracts of the island
aro still covered with deuse jungle, in
which many wild elephants are to be
found; but the wanton slaughter of
these useful animals led the Govern
ment to prohibit their destruction ex
cept under special permission. Of late
there have been great progress and im
provements in the means of internal
communication. There are good road
ways, metaled and graveled, and now
one hundred and seventy-eight miles of
railway and one hundred and sixty
seven miles of canal, which have done
much to promote the interests of the
country. The population has been
steadily increasing, and now it num
bers two million eight hundred and
fifty thousand. There are Europeans,
Eurasians and Burghers, Singalese,
Tamils, Moors, and a few Parsees, Af
ghans. Malays and others. The Singa
lese inhabit the interior and parts of
the coast, and comprise nearly two
million of the people, while the Tamils
occupy tho northern portion of the
island, and number about six hundred
thousand. The Europeans are com
paratively few in number, being under
five thousand; but of Eurasians and
Burghers there are nearly eighteen
thousand. There are one hundred and
eighty thousand Moormen, who are to
be found in large numbers all over the
different provinces. The postal ser
vice throughout the island is in a very
satisfactory state. Scarcely a town or
village but boasts of a post-office, and
ere long they are to have added to
them the all-important savings bank,
which does so much to influence thrift
and economy. The island has many
institutions for the sick and the dis
eased in body and miud, and in educa
tion the people are far in advance of
their northern neighbors. English
is pretty generally spoken,
and particularly among the do
mestic class. The products of
the country are very varied, and con
sist of rice, cinnamon, cocpanuts,
paints, tobacco, sugar-cane and cot
ton, and latterly coffee, cinchona, india-rubber,
and tea have been added.
The land is admirably adapted for the
growth of rice. The cultivation of co
coanuts has been gradually increasing,
and, though a large quantity is ex
ported, a large trade is done in the
coir fiber from the husk and in ex
pressed oil from the kernel of the nut.
The cultivation extends nearly all along
the west part of the island. The great
planting industry, however, is now
coffee and tea. For many years, dur
ing the occupation of the Dutch in 1740,
the cultivation of coffee was confined
country .and the coast was made, that
it began to flourish, and since then it
has been gradually extending all over
the central and western provinces.
The opening of the railway between
Kandv and Colombo did much to stim
ulate'the industry by supplying cheap
free labor and greater facilities for the
market. Large quantities of jungle
were cleared and planted, and every
thing sseemed to insure a permanent
good investment, but an enemy ap
peared in the field who began his de
vastation, and has continued steadily
to diminish the productive power ever
since till he has reduced the exports to
less than a fifth of what they were.
The enemy is a minute fungus on the
leaf called Hemileia vastatrix. It ap
peared iu a remote corner of one of
the young coffee districts and spread
with" the greatest rapidity all over the
coffee gardens. The leaves assumed a
bright orange spot, and then they
withered and decayed. The conse
quences of such a failure, following on
the investmeut of a number of planters
in the high districts, led to the most
serious consequences and ruin. These
losses convinced many that the climate
and character of the "soil were admir
ably adapted for the cultivation of tea,
ami the result has been that thousands
of acres under coffee cultivation have
now been changed to tea, aud the
jungle is being cleared for the exten
sion3 of the cultivation of that plant.
Cor. Ol'tsgow Herald.
A BOY AND HIS DOG.
Tlielr FrieudiihJp For Kuch Other True and
A boy and a dog make the greatest
of chums. A boy who own a dog is
well provided with good company.
Thev are true friends, and neither
would think of such a thing as going
back on the other. Their friendship
for each other is true and faithful. If
you meet one you are pretty sure to see
the other near by, and if one gets into
a quarrel, the other is sure to take a
hand in it. Did you ever notice a boy
and a tlog that have been together auy
length of time? Of course "you have.
Why, thev understand each other as
well, and better, iu fact, than two boys
would. The dog knows exactly what
his little master means when bespeaks,
and will stick up his ears, turn his
head on one side, then on the other,
and look the bey square in the face
with an all but human expression on
his couutcnancc wheu he is being
talked to. It is, "lo'.e me, love my
dog," with every boy. To insult one
is to insult the other, and an insult to
each is resented by both. Why, you
could no more buy that dog of his
young master than you could hire him
to kill his best friend. The wag of that
dog's tail is of more value to the boy
thau anything else, aside, may be, his
mother's love, in the world. A dog is
a most excellent companion to give a
boy. That dumb brute will be true
even to death to the boy. aud his faith
fulness to his young friend does, to a
certain extent, create a true aud faith
ful disposition in the boy toward his
friends. A boy is generally iu good
company when" he and his dog go out
into the woods and fields, and the
parent has a reasonable feeling of se
curity for the bov in such company.
Sarah Bernhardt is struggling to
pay her debts, and it is believed that
she is temporarily insane." If 6trug
gline to pay one's debts is the sign of
insanity, there must be something
wrong about the statistics which in
form us that this dreadful disease is ob
the increase. N. Y, Commercial Ad-vcrtiter.
A t'oatptrnoM Figaro la Iaaaai
From tho Tenth to tho Foartcoatfc
There is no chapter of the world's his
tory so crammed with fighting; aa that
which chronicles the doings in India
from the tenth century to the fourteenth,
and to endeavor to condease any ac
count of the numerous sieges suffered
by Delhi and by many another city of
northern India during that period would
be to produce a picture pf unceasing
bloodshed and of wearisome sameness.
The character of Timur Beg, or Tamer
lane, however, is so extraordinary as to
merit description. From him dates the
famous Moghul Empire, finally ax
tingushed in the present century by ab
sorption into the East India Company.
"His successors," says Gibbon, "ex
tended their swaytrom the mountain
of Kashmir to Cape Comorin, and from
Kandahar to the Gulf of Bengal Siace
the reign of Aurungzebe their empire
has been dissolved, their treasures of
Delhi have been rifled by a Persian
robber (Nadir Shah), and the richest of
their kingdoms is now. possessed by a
company ot Christian merchants of a
remote island in the Northern Oeean."
It is said that Timur Beg was a gravo
man of quiet manners, halt of one hand
and one foot, and delighting in the
game of chess, which he greatly com
plicated by doubling the number of
fiieces from thirty-two to sixty-four.
Ie is described as" ruling his household
with calm equity, by no means sparing
his sons from the observance of the law;
temperate and regular in his life, and
aiming ever at the establishment of an
ideal kingdom where a child might
carry a purse of gold in safely from
east to west of the Asian continent.
How a man of such character could at
the same time be so emphatically the
arch-destroyer of mankind is not clear.
As for the authority he exercised over
his children, it is a't least certain that
when he invaded India, his grandson
Pir Mohammad had made a little war
for himself at Multan, and would have
perished miserably had his grandfather
not come to ms rescue. How young
Pir went out to conquer India on his
own account is not told, but it is cer
tain that Timur was not provoked to
any act of sharp justice. Timur' s sons
seemed to have only waited for his
death to tear each other to pieces at
Timur, tho wild chess-player, signal
ized his success in India by a series of
barbarous massacres. At one time
on one day alone he murdered one
hundred thousand prisoners in cold
blood, lest they should turn against him.
Having conquered the weak Mahmoud
III. before Delhi, he entered the city,
and had himself proclaimed emperor
in all the mosques on Friday (the Mus
lim Sunday), and immediately left the
fityto tho mercy of his Moghul sol
diers, who burned, plundered, aud slew
till they were weary. He afterwards
returned, and gave evidence of his
taste for the beautiful by ordering tba
famous mosque of Ferose, which had
more barbarous when we fememSer
that he was himself a mussulman sack
ing a mussulman king's city and
slaying by the hundred thousand
his mussulman subjects. He had
not the excuse which he subsequently
aliedged iu support of his expedi
tion against China, that he was
carrying the faith of the Prophet
into a heathen country. The kingdom
founded by Mohammad of Ghor ws
essentially" Muslim, and its invasion by
Tamerlin" was us purely arbitrary an
act of plunder as was the conqdbst of
his own successors by Nadir Shah, the
Persian freebooter of the eighteenth
Timur died of drinking too much iced
water on the march to China in 1405.
As was to be expected, his kingdom, or
empire, fell to pieties, and for a hun
dred and twenty years a series of par
venu emperors of all sorts reigned at
Delhi, besieging it, taking it, and hold
ing it as they were able. F. Motion
Crawford in Harpers Magazine.
THE TRAMP'S COMPLAINT.
How He lieat the Mauaeeof a Pnnyl-
vanla I'uwdcr House.
"They tried the gum-game on me
down in Pennsylvania," said the old
tramp as he got a frash brace on the.
fence for his back, "but I came out
ahead, considerably ahead."
"How was it?"
"Well. 1 struck the town of York one
day, and I didn't look a bit like a gen
tleman My duds were old, my com
plexion ruined, and I was all run down
at the heel. Ever in York?"
Well, the people there neither send
money to the heathen in Africa not
waste sympathy on the tramps of Amer
ica I struck thirteen houses in succes
sion and didn't get a bite; and I was
looking around for scrap-iron to stay my
stomach, when along comes an officer
and gives me the collar. He was tak
ing me to the cooler when a wagon
drives up, and the chap on the fropt
seat calls out that he will give me a
teadv job at a dollar a day."
'You wait a minute. I didn't hanker
for work, mind you, but 1 didn't care
for the jug, and so, as the officer was
willing, I climbed into the wagon and
awav'we went. That job was in the
powder houses which blew up the other
day. The manajer thought he had a
hi" joke on me, "and thought 1 didn't
lilTn the idea of working over a volcano,
I turned to aud put in three days be
fore I quit."
4Whv did vou quit?"
"We"!, on the third day, as I war
carrying powder to the storehouse, tht
mauager came into the building. There
was a busted keg on the floor, and I wat
smoking my pipe. He didn't notice
this until he got past mc and I had biro
cut off. Then I sits dowu by the busted
keg, pulls away at my pipe and says I:
" dr. Manager, if we gets thereat the
sam moment vou must give me a fait
W-where?' says he, his face whiter
" At Heaven's gate!' I auswers.
'With that he wanted to know if 1
hadn't rather take thirty dollars in cash
all the money he had with him and
go West and ruu for office and become
a great man, and I didn't know but I
would. He tossed me his wallet, re
markiag that the train started in five
minutes, and I picked it up aud waiked
off. I reckoned oa beiug pursued, but
he didn't even yell after me. The last
I saw of him his legs were giving out at
the knees, aud a snow landscape tiv
no comparison to his complexion. Il
may have picked up another truui
DOfoit Ftte Pttm
PERSONAL AND IMPERSONAL.
The famous Dr. Teaser still lire,
and remains in good health on a voge-,
tarian diet. His home Is ia Las Cruces.'
After a reign of forty-eight years,
Tictoria has in Lord Salisbury, for the .
first time, a Prime Minister vounrsr
than herself. .
Mr. John W. Murray, of Sumter
County, has a little daughter of elevea'
years whose head is quite gray. Macon
Lieutenant T. H. Barber, who re
cently resigned his nositiou as aide-decamp
to General Hancock, is one of
the three wealthiest officers ia the
. .. Edmund Hoyle, the patron saint of
eld-fashioned whist-players, was bora
over two hundred years ago,' and lived
to the advanced age. of aiaety-sevea.
dying in Cavendish Square, London, in
Joseph W. Torrey, of Boston, who
died in that city a few days ago, was.
even at the time of his death. Rajah of
Ambong and Movodu, in Borneo. Mr.
Torrey was a wealthy merchant with
great interests in Borneo, where much
of his life was spent.
The present Queen of Roumania
intended to be a school teacher, but
Prince Charles of Hohenzollern asked
her to become his queeu, and she for
sook her first love for a palace. She
is now forty-two years old and has
been married fifteen years.
The widow of Henry J. Byron, the
dramatist, has declined a purse of
seven thousand five hundred dollars,
raised by English friends for her
self and children, because the money
is aot needed. The late Mr. Byron's
stage rights are worth annually ten
Harry Garfield, son of the martyr
President, takes a professorship in St.
Paul School, at Concord, N. IL, where
he prepared for Williams College, aad
his brother, who was the youngest
member of the recent graduating class
at Williams, will study law at New
York. Chicaqo Journal.
Brooks Thomas, of Georgia, is the
only ex-Confederate soldier who re
ceives a pension from the United States
on account of the late war. He was
captured, and while a prisoner took tho
oath of allegiance ami wa sent to tho
Northwest plains to fight Indians, where
ho became disabled. He has just re
ceived his pension. Chicago Inter
Dr. Delaunay. an eminent French
physician, says that the most general
edition in sleep is on the right side,
reams which come to a sleeper in
that position, ho says, as a rule are il
logical, absurd, full of vivacity and ex
aggeration. Those which come to a
sleeper who lies upon his left side, in
Delauuay's opinion, are not only less
absurd, but also more intelligent. They
are apt to be concerned with recent
actual events, and less with reminU
Mr. Shillaber, the "Mrs. P?;""fne
use of his lor limbs Locomotion,
save in a wheeled chair, is impossible
with him. He can neither stand nor
walk, but while in these respects he is
as helpless as a babe, his general health
is sound, his appetite generous, and
his spirits are unclouded. Some of the
funniest of his savings have been writ
ten when he was in acute pain. tV. 1".
"A LITTLE NONSENSE."
The reporter who said Odium's
speed carved "a roaring vacuum out of
space" will be sent west to find the
serene silence of a cyclone. Haeken
It is now given out that too much
coffee dries up the liver. Shoeppeu
stedt congratulates himself that he is
out of danger. Shoeppenstedt boards.
"A man who went to a skating rink
a few days ago fell and was picked up
senseless"." says an exchange. Well,
what of it? You didn't expect the fall
would knock sense into him. did you?
N. Y. Graphic.
Youno- mother "Do you think baby
looks most like me or his father.''
Nurse "Like you, mum. Mr. Jinks is
a mightv handsome man!" Advertise
ment Wanted A competent and civil
nursemaid. A". Y. Sun.
More than half a century ago a
good New Hampshire deacon by the
name of Dav. living not far from the
White Mountains, had seven children
six daughters and one son. They
were known as his six week Days and
one son Day. Boston Globe.
Bobby (to young Featherly. who
is making an evening call) "Will you
speak .a little French for me before you
go, Mr. Featherly?" Featherly (smil
ing)'CertainIy, Bobby, if you wish
it, Bobby "I do. Ma says your
French is very amusing." -V. Y. Sun.
Colonel Yerger told his colored
servant Sam: "Go and get us a couple
of tickets for the performance to
night" Sam came back and only
hmiK'ht one ticket. "Where is the
other ticket?" "I has done disposed
ob hit." "What do you mean?"
"Bess, you .ole me go and get us two
tickets.' Dar's your ticket, and I dona
guv my ticket to a ctillud lady I met
on de street. She will be dar, bos.
You bet she will be dar. Dar's no
danger ob de ticket bein los' or
wasted." Texas Sifting.
The McGushes are getting pretty
much' Settled dowu for the season.
Thcre'are a half dozen or more "works
f rt" to be obtained for the walls of
of art to oe ootaineu lor mc
Rosalind's reception room aud then all
will be done. "Ma, dear' remarked
the young lady with the sweetest smne
at the command 01 -ucr siore iceiu.
"are you going to buy any coffee or
tea to-dav?" "I don't know but I
shall. Why?" "Because if you do. I
wish you would have a care not to
duplicate that picture 4When coo
come hame' again. We have in it
three different frames now, and George
remarked last night that it was grow
ing monotonous. Hartford Fo3t.
Oh, Childhood's Days.
I hear uoon th ino-y ground
The awful dull thuiTs sickest sound;
A wail swells up wilh rcaUrul force
A boy has fallen off the horse.
I kear the dog's Impatient irrowl.
Aad then I Uit bia startled howl;
A stooo coaes through my window paa.
The cat gees madly "wauling
A brill voice linn a wuu rt-iiaiu.
; gees mauiy "wauiim uj .
Tbe neighbor's bor begins loery;
I bear tho man who drie th buck
Threaten to break somebody'a back:
Aad up tbe stairway tbuBdering come,
Tae claaaor of a brokva drum:
And a tin whistle's "sereo! screal ecieel
Jset about aaralyxea me.
Sfalieowastalra: On. killing ackt
I tar11-. -It's after iilae o'clock!
Cobum back hi laughing. taaaUag tbouW
"Mrs .rase, as all tfc scbaoU la outl"
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