The Columbus journal. (Columbus, Neb.) 1874-1911, May 14, 1884, Image 1

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    SLAVES OF AIWKKTISINC;.
JSTBuaineas and professional cards
of fivo lines or less, per annum, five
dollars.
TSfi For time advertisements, apply
at this office.
!3TLegal advertisements at statute
rates.
TSTTor transient advertising, see
rates on third page.
T3TA.W. advertisements payable
monthly.
foitpai
J3T OFFICE, Eleventh St., ty s fairs
m Journal Building.
terms:
Pervear ?
Sir months
Three months
Single copies
a OO ;
VOL. XV.--N0. 3.
COLUMBUS, NEB., WEDNESDAY. MAY 14, 1884.
WHOLE NO. 731.
SO ;
OS i
THE JOURNAL.
ISStKI KVKKY WKIt.NKMlAY,
M. K. TUKNEli Jto CO.,
Proprietors and Publishers .
lie
ulitttlii
Kr
I
4-
1
k
j
BUSINESS CARDS.
O.T. Maktvn. II. D. F. .1. srciicr.. M. D.
. Drs. MAB.TYN & SCHUG,
U. S. Examining Surgeons, ;
Local Sun-eon-". Union Pacific, O., X.
,t b. rr. ami . r. it. kv.
Cnustiltitions iii German and EnsjHr.li.
ThIc pboneaot otlice and residence.
COLUMBUS. - NEBRASKA.
Ai-y
-p imi;giii:kti. ii. ..
I'll YSKIA X d- 7 'It li EON.
ESTOfflVe second door e.i-t of noM-onice.
J.
f WIS.. 31.
i'i i'SI CI AN d- sip G eon.
Disease!, of women and children a spe
cialty. County physician. Office former
ly occupied by nr.Uonestcel. Telephone
exchange.
o
l.l,A ASH H A i; II, ...
DENIAL PARLOR.
On corner of Klewnth and North streets,
over Ern-t' hardware store.
O
lOKKKI'KW Ac SiJ,I,1VA:,
A TTOltXEYS-A T-LA ',
Upstair- in Oluck lluildinjj, Hth street,
Almve the New bmk.
H.
.i. iu:ui4:.
XOTAUY PUBLIC.
12th Slri-rt.i lfirt. Hfst or llammoml House,
Columbus. AV. A9.
rpiU'KS SO' A: POWIWK
I
S U UO FOX DEX TISTS.
tSTOttice in Mitchell Mod., i'oluni
bus, Nebraska. 1M1
r . ici.l.init,
A TTOL'XE Y A T LA W,
Oiliee on Olhe St.. '..liiinbu-, Xcbr.i-ka.
Mf
V. A. MACKEN,
IVKAI.KK IN
Foreign "il Domestic Liquors ami
Cigars.
Uth street. Columbus, Xeli. AO-v
M
rAIJ.IN'1'KK 1IKON..
A TTOIINEYS A T LA W.
Ortlce up-slair- in McAllister's build
ing. Mth M. W. A. M.Alli-ter. Notary
Public.
J. t. MAC!' Utl.AM). It. It- COWKKRV.
AttersijasiycurjPsWc. C:Jtw.
LAW AMI COLLFATIOX OFFICE
OK
MACFAHX.AND& COWDBRf,
CiluiahM, Nebraska.
v. . ki A"M:r. .ii. i..
(Succe or to Ir. '. ;. A . Hulllmr-I )
HOMEOPATHIC PHYSICIAN AXD
.SMUEON.
Uccular graduate of two medical col
leges. OihVc Olive St., one-liail iiiock
north td Hammond Home.
J-lv
C. M. SWEEZEY,
Land, Loan and Insurance,
UrMPHKKY, Ni:i!.
Monev to loan on lonijor short time on
lteal Estate in -um- to -ut! parties. :"0-y
J. J. .UAlX-IIAiV,
Jvslicc, County Surveyor, Notary,
Land anil Collection Agent.
2TParticj. deirinp survej ins done can
stifv me by mail at Platte Centre, Neb.
liotifv
rl-m
F
H. RIJMCIIK,
llt-i St., opposite Lindell Hotel.
Sells Harness, Saddles, Collar-, Whips,
Blanket. Curry Combs, Brushes, trunks,
valise. Imgirv'tops, cushions, carriage
trimmings ,ve., at the lowest possible
prices. Repairs pr uiptly atteuded to.
$66
a week at home. $.".00 oiitlit
free. Pav absolutely sure. -o
risk. Capital not required.
Header, if you want business
at Which person- of either sex, young or
old, can make great pay all the time they
work, with absolute certainty, write for
particular- to II. I (allot v Co., Port
land, Maine.
GEORGE SPOONER,
CONTRACTOR FOll ALL K1XDS OF
MA. SOX WORK.
Okfick, Thirteenth St., between Olive
and Nebra-ka Avenue. Residence on the
eorner of Eighth and Olive.
All Work Guaranteed.
4tf
JS. MURDOCK & SON,
Carpenters and Contractors.
Havenad an extended experience, and
will guarantee satisfaction in work.
All kinds of repairing done on short
notice. Our motto is, Good work and
fair prices. Call and give us au oppor
tunitytoestimateforyou. jSTShop on
13th SU,oue door west of Friedhof A
Co's. store, Columbus. Nebr. 483-y
o. c. sBLAisriNror7
MANUFACTUKKR OK
Tin and Sheet-Iron Ware !
Job-Work, Roofing and Gutter
ing a Specialty.
yg-Shop on Eleventh Street, opposite
Heintz's urus store.
4C-v
G
W. CLABK,
LAND AND INSURANCE AGENT,
HUMPHREY, NEBR.
His lands comprise some line tracts
in the Shell Creek Valley, and the north
era portion ot Tlftte county. Taxes
paid for non-residents. Satisfaction
guaranteed. 20y
pOLCnBCS PACKING CO.,
COLUMBUS, - NEB., "
Packers and Dealers in all kinds of Hoj:
product, cash paid for Live or Dead lloga
or grease.
Directors. R. H Henry, Prest.; John
"Wiggins, Sec. and Treas.; L. Gerrard, S.
Jory.
TOTICE TO TEACHERS.
J. B. If oncrief, Co. Snpt.,
"Will be in bis office at the Court House
on the third Saturday of each
month for the purpose of examining
applicants for teacher's certificates, and
for the transaction of any other business
pertaining to schools. 567-y
COLUMBUS
STATE BANK!
S:e:etx:::t) Oirnrl k Sill lal Tvsir Islft.
C0LUMBU8r MEB.
(jaxTucapjivPl, $50,000
JL
IHUECTOKS: '
!.k.vn'di:k (. kk u Attn, Eres'l. v"L
(Jko. W. Hulst, Vice Pres't.
Julius A. Rekd.
Kowakiv A."Ge'brakd..
J. E. Taskkii, Cashier.
SEank oT lepoMlt, Wixcoant
:ind EwbaHRe.
;ollet:iosi lkroiuptly UlnJe est
nil l'olut-s.
I3" Interest oh Time lepoi
Um. 274
DREBERT & BRIGGLE,
BANEEES!
HUMPHREY, NEBRASKA.
KJTPrompt attention given to Col
lections. JSTInsu ranee. Real Estate, Loan,
etc. 5
LINDSAY &TREKELL,
WHOLESALE AND RETAIL
FLOOR AID EEED STORE!
OIL CA-JCE,
CHOPPED FEED,
Bran, Shorts,
BOLTED i HE! EDSI MEAL.
GRAHAM FLOUR,
AXD FOm KINDS OF THE BEST
WHEAT FLOUIt ALWAYS
ON HAND.
U3TA11 kinds of FKUITS in their sea
oii. Orders promptly filled.
11 tli Struct Columbus, I""clr.
47-Om
HENRY GASS,
TJISrUERTLKEIl !
COFFINS AND METALLIC CASES
AXD DEALER IN
Furniture, Chairs, Bedsteads, Bu
reaus. Tables, Safes. Lounges,
&c, Picture Frames and
Mouldings.
ZSTRepairina of all kinds of Upholstery
Goods.
C-tf
COLUMBUS, NEB.
GOLD
for the working class
Send 10 cents for postage,
aud we will mail you free
a royal, valuable box of
sample poods that will put you in the way
of making mo:e money in a few days than
you ever thought possible at any busi
ness. Capital not required. We will
tart you. You can work all the time or
in spare, time only. The work is univer
sally adapted to both sexes, young and
old." You can easily earn from 50 cents to
$." every evening." That all who want
work may test the business, we make
thi unparalleled offer; td,all who are not
well sati-fied we will send $1 to pay for
the trouble of writing u. Full particu
lars, directions, etc., sent free. Fortunes
will be made by those who give their
whole time to the work. Great success
ub&oliitelv fciire. Don't delay. Start now.
Address STlNfeO.N Jc Co., rort!and,3laine.
A WOKU OF UAItLti.
17AIO(EKS, stock raisers, and all otln-r
. interested parties will do well to
remember that the "Western Horse and
Cattle Insurance Co." of Omaha is the
only company doing business in this state
that insures" Horses, Mules and Cattle
aainst los by theft, accident, diseases,
or injury, (as also airainst loss by tire and
lightning). All representations by agents
of otherCompanies to the contrary uot-with-tanding.
HENRY OAKN, Special Ag't,
15-y Columbus, Neb.
TAMES SALMON,
CONTRACTOR AND BUILDER.
Plans and estimates supplied for either
i rani e or uricti ouuuin'-. uooa work
guaranteed. Shop on 13th Street, uear
M. 1'aul Lumber l ard,
Columbus, Ne-
braska.
r2 timo.
J. WAGNER,
Livery and Feed Stable.
Is prepared to furnish the public w.'tb
good teams, buggies aud carriages for all
occasions, especially for funerals. Also
conducts a sale stable. 44
ILYON&HEALY
I Stilt A tfaarat Sts..Chlcat-
mUwiiwHUuyitwtli
. ANDOATAtOQUK,
l Mr 153 WK?"
IPBBseM. Eoaltb. Ctv-Uau
-- : r. -r u
tf. TWm MftMW. Staflk. &aA
Saadry Bt usintk sifuni.
hkaiioisaadiiuxrvcwvBa w
f or Amlra &. ksd I
oCHwHt-HMriY,
B.1U.V BSl
FIRST
National Bank!
COZXJ
u.
Aithorised Capital, -jPaid
Im Capital,
Sirplus ail Preflts, -
$250,000
50,000
- 6,000
OFFICXRS SD DIRKCTOR3.
A. ANDERSON, Pres't.
SAM'L C. SMITH. Vice Pres't.
O. T. ROEN, Cashier.
.1. W.EARLY,
HERMAN OEHLRICH.
W. A. MCALLISTER,
O. ANDERSON,
I. ANDERSON.
Foreign and Inland Exchange, Passage
Tickets, ann Real Estate Loans.
23-vol-13-lv
COAL LIME!
.I.E. NORTH & GO.,
DEALERS IN
Coal,
Hair,
Cement.
Rock Spins l!oalt
Carbon (Wyoming) Coal..
Eldon (Iowa) Coal
...$7.00 per Ion
.... 6.00 "
.... 3.50 "
Blacksmith Coal of best quality al
ways on hand at low
est prices.
North Side Eleventh St.,
COLUMBUS, NEB.
14.3m
UNION PACIFIC
LAND OFFICE.
Improved and Unimproved Farms,
Hay and Grazing Lands and City
Property for Sale Cheap
AT THE
Union Pacific Land Office,
On Long Time and low rate
of Interest.
IST Final proof made on Timber Claims,
Homesteads and Pre-emptions.
S5TA11 wishing to buy lands of any de
scription will please call and examine
my list of lands before looking else where
tdTAll having lands to sell will please
call an,d give me a description, term .
prices, etc.
J3TI a so am prepared to insure prop
erty, as I have the agency or several
tir.-'t-class Fire insurance companies.
F. W. OTT, Solicitor, speaks German.
8 AMI! El' C SMITH,
:t0.tf Columbus, Nebraska.
BECKER & WELCH,
PROPRIETORS OF
SHELL CREEK MILLS.
MANUFACTURERS AND WHOLE
SALE DEALERS IN
FLOUR AND MEAL.
OFFICE, COL UMB US, NEIL
SPEICE & NORTH,
GWra( Agents for the Sale of
REAL ESTATE.
Union Pacific, and3ltdland Pacific
R. R. Lands for sale afff om $3.00 to $10.00
per acre for cash, or on fire or ten years
time, in annual payments to suit pur
chasers. We have also a large and
choice lot of other lands, improved and
unimproved, for sale at low price and
on reasonable terms. Also business and
residence lots in the city. We keep a
complete abstract of title to all real es
tate in Platte County.
621
COLUMBUS, NEB.
LOUIS SCHREIBER,
All kiids of-Repairiig deae a
Short Notice. Baggies, Wag-
ohs, etc. Bade to erder,
aad all work Gaar-
aateed.
AIm stll the world-famous Walter A.
Weed Hewers, leavers, Cemhin-
ed Machines, Hamsters,
and Belf-sdmders the
best made.
'Shop opposite the "Tattersall," on
Olive Stn COLUMBUS. 26-m
8KATIN0 AND COURTING.
Twas noonllt-ht, aad the world was white;
Je were a merry part;
We skimmed the glassy field that night.
Yean? blood, and spirits hearty:
We scored the ice In fancy whirls.
Each did bis share of prating
Warm-hearted men and bonny girls
The night we went a-skatin?.
Boaa was there, and that was why
My heart was like a feather:
I crossed her oft, but she slid shy.
We could not come together.
Fortune at last was kind and free
I had for months been waiting
For Just that chance that came to me
The night we went a-akating.
I could not tell you all the game.
For love had made me stupid.
But plump into my arms she camo
A living, breathing Cupid.
She did not fall, she did not scroatn.
She did not start Derutmjr,
We simply both slid with the stream
That night we went a-skating.
Since then we've gone through life as ona.
In every kind of weather
In storm or calm, in rain or sun,
8U11 keeping pace together.
And though there's winter on our brows
Love's power la still elating
We'll no'er forrfe-t the hurried vows
That night we went a-skating.
irflltom Ltfe, in A. 1. Journal.
BEATER HATS.
Tho following" joke " has been going
the rounds of the newspapers for some
weeks pasL " Pa," said a child, thirst
ing for knowledge, " they say that beav
ers are the most industrious of animals.
What do they make?"
"Beaver hats, my child, beaver hats,"
replied the father.
This paragraph, although coming un
der the head of "Fun and Humor,' ' has
soma serious, significant facts connected
with it, which ought to be very suggest
ive to the fathers of this generation.
The "pa" here spoken of is like a num
ber of other "pas" whom we have
seen, "pas" whose minds are so entirely
absorbed in solving the financial prob
lems of business life that they have no
time, or thought, to give to their chil
dren. They see them for only a short
time in the morning, and an hour or so
in the evening, and consequently do not
know their own children, as far as their
peculiarities and characteristics are
concerned. We saw a father a few days
since who could not guess within two or
three years the ages of any of his chil
dren! Yet, he was a good father in the
way of providing for them, and gave
them all the advantages of education
within his power. When the child
spoken of asked his father about bea
vers, it was to him an all-important ques
tion. He was anxious to know what the
industries of these wonderful animals
are. His father gave no thought to the
question; he was probably hidden be
hind the sheets of his voluminous morn
ing paper, engrossed in the current news
report, or market values, or turning
over and over in his mind some contem
plated business scheme, which he hoped
to carry through that day, and only
heard mechanically his son's question.
The word beaver made impression
enough upon his mind to be associated
with hate perhaps he was in need of
a new beaver hat, or had just bought
one. He carelessly answered his boy's
question, and it immediately passed out
of his mind. Not so with the boy, how
ever. He pondered over his father's
answer for an hour, or more, after he
had left the house. The beavers mubt,
indeed, bo very ingenious animals to
make hats. He wonders why ho has
never heard of their wonderful achieve
ments before. Where are their manu
factories and stores? lie finally con
cludes that in the room back of the
stores where hats are sold there must
be a large force of beavers tit work,
making them, and he is determined
upon investigating for himself the next
time he goes down town. But on sec
ond thought, he fears it may be some
time before the opportunity will pre
sent itself, and the subject being quit
too weighty to cany long upon his
youthful mind, he seeks his mother's
counsel.
The mother is in the sewing-room,
very busily engaged at the sewing-machine.
She is barricaded all around her
with a wall two feet high of unfinished'
garments, which are needed in the fam
ily immediately, and must be finished
off that day. As her boy comes into the
room he stumbles over the blocks of
white cloth in his way, to get to his
mother's side. The mother turns from
the long seam which she Ls rapidly run
ning through the machine, to see the
different portions of several garments
which she has placed together all dis
arranged by the thoughtless little feet
in search oi knowledge.
"Do be more careful, Tommy," she
says; " just see how you are disarrang
ing my work!"
"I am sorry," the boy replies, "but.
mamma, do beavers make hats?"
" Hats! why of course not," replie.-:
the mother.
" Well, papa says they do; he told me
so this morning.''
"Oh, you must certainly be mistaken.
Tommy; your father would not tell you
such a thing as that."
"He did for true, mamma," the loy
declared, emphatically. "I asked him
this morning what the beavers made
for Aunt Mary read yesterday about
their being industrious animals, and
papa said they made hats."
"Papa could not have understood
your question," the mother replies;
"his mind must have been upon some
thing else."
"Well, he ought to pay attention to
me when I want to know "useful things,
don't you think so, mamma? What do
beavers do if they don't make hats?"
and Tommy looks intently into his
mother's face.
The mother slackens the speed of her
sewing-machine, while she tells -her lit
tle boy all she knows about beavers,
and even stops to read up the subject of
"Beavers" in the encyclopedia, so as to
be enabled to give her child a full ac
count of what he is so anxious to know.
The boy goes off to his play satisfied,
and the mother returns to her work
with an increase of force to make up
for lost time. She ponders her
husband's answer to his boy's ques
tion over in her heart, and begins to
feel anxious lest her poor husband
is losing his mind or his interest
in his family. Home training seems to
be turned over almost entirely to the
mothers of this generation, and they
eeem to have all the responsibilities of
the bringing up of the .children. We
know that the bread and butter question
of life is a very important one that
business men in these days of competi
tion must be on the alert to get their
hare of business. We know they are
tried in many vexatious ways; that
they have a great deal of wearing work
to do, and come home wear with the
contest But so do the mothers. It is
remarkable what financial problems
they solve! Look out of the window in
the morning, when the street are full
of children going to school, and see how
well-dressed they are. Look at the
boys, with their neat, warm, well-fitting
home-made suits of clothes, which were
nude oat of father's old ones. Look at
the girls, with their pretty combination
fcoHOTea gat of the good parte
of three or four of mother's dresses
which have done service for years past.
The larger number of these children
do not belong to the "well-to-do"
families of the community; they
are from families where the
father earns anywhere from forty, fifty
or sixty dollars a month; and yet, ff
you go into the homes of such peoplo,
how many of them you will find neat,
attractive" and prettily furnished. All
the necessary comforts will be there,
and some of the extras. Perhaps there
are four or five children in these homes,
to be clothed and sent to school every
day. The accomplishment of all this
depends upon the management of the
wife and mother of the family, lalk
about the extravagances of our Ameri
can women! Rather tell of the wonder
ful economy and good financial man
agement of the wives and mothers of
our country. Tho economical women
far outnumber the extravagant women
of this age. The mothers manage the
temporal wants of their children so ad
mirably that it is very easy for tho
fathers to give the training of tho
mental, moral and religious character
of their children over to the mothers,
also. It is a very often-quoted phrase
that " a man is what his mother mado
him." If a boy becomes a noble man,
it is due to the intluences of a good
mother. True, but if a boy turn out a
dissolute, dishonest prolligate, is that
also due to tho mother's training?
We all know the worth and influence
of a good mother, but have fathers not
an equal responsibility and inlluence in
the training of their children? Do the
children not inherit from the father as
well as the mother? When we look
around us we see everywhere the verity
of God's laws. " The sins of the fathers
shall be visited upon thechiUrcn."' Asa
general thing, whore the father has vices
of a peculiar character some of the chil
dren will be addicted to the same sins.
This great question of inheritance is one
we snail not try to explain as it is an
unsolved one, "an intricate one, which
the wisest of us can not unravel. But it
seems to us as important that children
should have a good father as a good
mother; that fathers should be as care
ful to cultivate pure, true, Christian
traits of character as the mothers; that
they should be a3 interested in the train
ing of the children as the mothers. Will
not the father be held as responsible for
the faithful discharge of the sacred du
ties of parentage as the mother will be?
It is very hard when a business man
turns his key upon his office for him to
turn it also upon all worrimenLs and
thoughts of business, and go home un
trammeled with financial cares, to de
vote himself to the happiness and inter
ests of his children. But the man who
has will-power and stamina enough t?
do this is a happy husband and father,
and his family is a happy one in conse
quence. How many children there are
who hear their fathers continually
grumbling over business prospects, and
talking about losses and disappoint
ments, until the sympathizing young
hearts, that should" otherwise be free
and happy, are weighed down with
father's business troubles and trials
Mrs. Susan T. Tern, in Chicago In
terior. Hew She Choked Him Off.
She was a handsome young woman.
This was remarked b' a dozen different
people as she entered the Union Depot,
bhe was going East by the Canada
Southern. This was remarked by a
conceited ycung snip of a fellow who
looked "masher" from the crown of his
hat to tho heels of his gaiters. She had
no sooner purchased her ticket and
taken a seat than he began to circle
around. She saw him and read his
character, and beckoning him to ai
proach she asked:
"Are you going to Buffalo?"
" Yes ah certainly."
"I am glad to hear it. Will you do
me a favor?"
"With all my heart. Command
me."
" I'm afraid my trunk was left at the
hotel. Could I ask you to run up and
see about it?"
" Of course certainl,- only too hap
py!" It was twenty minutes to train time.
He was back in sixteen, his face flushed,
his ears red and his breathing spasmod
ic. He had done some tall running.
The trunk was not there.
" Oh, dear, but would you be so kind
as to look into the baggage-room?"
He would. He did. He ended a
score of trunks around, mado a doen
inquiries for a Saratoga with an "E"
on the ends, and finally returned to tho
waiting-room to say
But she wasn't there! The train was
also gone! A man who had a sore
throat and felt mad at the whole world
informed him that he had no sooner
started for thebaggnge-rooni than she
picked up her reticule and boanled tho
train, her face wearing a happ' smile
and her rosebud mouth gently puckered
up as she hummed: "The chap 1 left
behind me!"
"And it looks to me," added the ill
natured invalid, "as if it Mas a put up
job to choke offyour society."
"Hanged if it wasn't!"" gasped the
other as lie sat down to rest his knees.
Detroit Free Press.
Turkish Character.
In character the Turks are thrift,
sober andfairly industrious; the mount
aineers are an especially hardy and act
ive race. Temperance is enjoined by
their religion, and such insobriety as
exists is limited to the Christians, and
is not general enough to present itself
as a temptation to a foreign workman.
It appears that the quality and consci
entiousness of the work executed is bat
ter in Asiatic Turkey than in other
parts. Nevertheless I find that iu
Epirus the embroidery is noticed as be
ing particularly rich, beautiful and du
rable, the jewelry and diamond setting
very good, but the work of builders,
masons, joiners, carpenters, black
smiths, is quite second-rate and want
ing both in solidity and finish. In this
district the artisans seem to live under
favorable conditions. In Yaniha, the
principal town, a tolerable kind of
house may be purchased for $350, 400,
or rented for $45. There is such
abundance of excellent game in the
country that a hare costs twelve centa,
a brace of wild ducks or partridges
twenty cents onlj. At the cook-shops
a good meat dinner, with wine, may be
had for fifteen cents. These charges,
compared with the rate of wages, prove
that as regards food the laborer has no
reason to complain. French, Italian
and German skilled workmen generally
manage to save considerable money
some of them earning twenty dollar
oer month here easily save ono-half oJ
their wages. The land-owners agrc
in stating that their great impediment
to good farming is the absence of plow
ing, reapine and.thrashing instruments,
which would however be most certainly
imported at once if there were work
men who would properly repair them
when out of order. Constantinople Cor.
Brooiiyn Eagle.
Pompeii, Past and Present.
When the Pompeiians looked from
:he.ir elevated forum as sightly a place
now, aud lacking little but the "pillared
porticoes that surrounded it they saw,
3n their uear northwest, a pleasantly
i::cessible mountaiu, cattle grazing on
t beautiful meadows, which "covered all
aut the summit that was level, but
iterile. The geographer, Strabo, who
ived before and after "Anno Domini,"
aid: "The summit has an appearance
f ashes, and it shows rugged rocks of
ooty consistency and color, as if they
ad "been formed by fire." And, in the
tyle of a modern scientist, he added:
One might conclude from that that the
lountaiu had once burned and possessed
ery abysses, and had become extin-
uished "when the material was spent;
nd just from this cause may be its pres-
nt fertility."
Fifty orsixty years afterwards there
ras no doubt "about Jts nature. Its
lopes began to tremble, and sixteen
ears from that time, in the short reign
f Titus, A. D. 79, iu the most elegant
ra of Roman civilization, when every
ling was just freshened aud new at
'oinpoii the serious damage by earth
uake being repaired with a liberal ap
propriation for the purpose "by the Ro
ian Senate just then, with no warning,
ragic nature spread over the whole a
ide, deep layer of fertile soil, and, in
aany instances, without blurring tho
rescoes or breaking the marble tables,
losed the gates that we shall now enter.
Let us go at ouce to the Forum. It
vas the lively center, and is surrounded
iv public edifices, mostly, religious wc
night call them churches, for that is
vhat they were. It is a sightly spot,
bout one hundred and ten feet above
ea level: and thence we shall seethe
vhole grand spectacle, all we had been
alking about - all the approaches.
We go in the -Sea Gate." ami while
ve rapidh a.-cend bv the best of steps,
he old Pompcian step.- we understand
tow the sea came near this side of the
jity. before the fall of a tremendous
hower of boiling land, ashes and baked
lebblcs. and warm water and stewed
mid. The first fall was the little, clean,
irht pumice stones; that is
vhv
evervthinsr is
so
nice
mil uninjured. Then came ashes.
mil. sifting in, sealed everything up
lir-tight, 1 suppose. Hot water and
leetrilied mud were showered around
n the air and lava was running on the
round, but none of these", either earl
r late in the shower, happened to blow
md How toward Pompeii, viz: The
uva which becomes a solid rock when
t cool-, aud which hardens exceedingly
y age. It did How over Herculaneum
the Italian- write Ercole,' "Erco
ano" and "Ercolanese" instead of
-lereiiles, Herculaneum and Hcrcula
liau and that is why the uncovering of
Ercolano" is not pursued; being diffi
:iilt, laborious and expensive, added to
.he fact of a populous town over it,
jwncd by persons who would be incon
venienced by haviug to abandon their
tomes.
Walking on. we begin to understand,
tNo, that Pompeii was built longer
igo than history can tell of, ever so
lung before the time of the Roman Em
pire on a shelf of lava that was an
ient when Pompeii was young: that
broke ofl'.-ti-eply at the shore, and also
along the low bottom lands of the old
time Santo, non-existent now.
The forifni'' i the public square.
The "piazza" and "plaza" of the towns
oi modern Italy, Spain and Spanish
America are the lineal descendants of
the ancient forum. Then, as now, es
pecially in the smaller towns, the forum
was the civil aud municipal family
lounging hioni, gossiping place, prom
enade resort, declamation opportunity,
the "City Hall Square." The public
edifices around it were finished elegant
ly, and were liberally embellished with
'tattiary, generally of a mythological
lesion, illustrating noted occurrences
.if the long, symbolic stories. These
adilices were all constructed very openly
in the front, making the little forum of
the little city for Pompeii was not
arge a lovely center, an architectural
classical bijou. Nature aided, as nature
let roved, or rather, did not destroy,
furiously robbed, appropriated and pre
served for the benefit of the nineteenth
century thinker. For after learning
what here we can of the details, the art,
architecture and special modes of
Roman Empire times, we have stored
".way a skull bowl full of material for
arefu' thought. The Manhattan.
How Raisins are Made.
Malaga. Valencia ami Smyrna raisins
Jerive their names from the places
whciiiv t!ie come. Of these, the
Stnvrua black raisins are the cheapest;
I he Malaga being held in the highe-t
estimation, and fetching fully a third
more than any other description of
rasius. In Andalusia, in Spain, there
are two di-tinct vines -the Pero
inienez, which was imported in the
fir-.t instance from the liorders of the
Rhine by a German some two hundred
and fifty years ago, and the Mu-cat,
which i- indigenous. Opinion as to the
respective nieril-of the two vines varies;
but their cultivation is conducted in the
-ame wa. manure of great strength
being liberally supplied. The growth
of the vines is dilk-rcnt from those of
Southern Italy. In Andalusia, they
creep along the surface of thejrouud
as -liawberries do, thus gathering all
the atnio-pheric heat; the branches
appear like roots, and the grapes,
though while, have a golden tinge.
The vintage i- very carefully conducted,
the fruit not being all gathered at once,
but the same ground gone over three
times, .-o that all the grapes are proper
ly ripe when picked.
The grapes arc prepared for the
market iu three different ways by
simple drying in the sun; by washing,
and by steam drying. In following
the first method, which is the general
process in Malaga, divisions are con
structed of either brick or stone, in an
inclined position, .exposed to the sun's
rays. These divisions are built in at
one end with a triangle formed of
masonry, and so arranged that the sun
always shines on its contents. The
interiors of these compartments are
thickly spread with fine gravel to absorb
the heat. Directly the grapes are
gathered, they are put into these divi
sions aud are fully exposed to the
intense heat of the Andalusian sun. It
is stated by experienced cultivators that
during the month of August they attain
a temperature of one hundred and
forty-live degrees Fahrenheit. At night
the 'fruit is protected from the heavvy
dews or ram by stout canvas being
stretched over the tops of the divisions.
Some people put on planking instead.
Grapes take a longer time drying in
this manner than by the scalding plan,
as then they are ready in four days;
but dried only bv the sun's heat, th'ey
take ten days". The loss of thne, how
lever, is fully compenstated for by the
economy of the process.
In drying by washing, the following
method is pursued: Furnaces of feeble
draught are built, in which wood only
is used as fuel; a lye is made of the
residue or refuse of the grape, after
pressing, which is either that obtained
from the present year'3 vintage, or
what is left over from tho last The
lye is put into a round kettle, capable
of holding from three hundred to four
hundred litres. The grapes are then
put into wire sieves or colanders with
long handles, and plunged into the lye,
boiling at a temperature of about two
hundred and twelve degrees Fahrenheit.
After the first immersion, the grapes
are looked over to see if the skins are
shriveled enough; if not sufficiently
done, they are" plunged into the lye a
second time. Sometimes a third im
mersion is necessary; but this is rarely
the case.
Drying by steam, is chiefly followed
in the province of Denia, because there
the heat of the sun cannot be depended
upon, as in Malaga. In wet vintage
seasons this plan is also adopted in the
South. In carrying out the process,
the grapes are exposed to the sun's rays
for twenty-four hours, after which they
are placed on boards and carried into a
building with shelves in it from six to
seven feet high. Heat is produced by
steam, which circulates through the
building in an iron tube. The heat is
kept up to one hundred aud sixtv
degrees Fahrenheit, aud valves, which
are placed along the lloor, regulate the
temperature. The drying generally
takes about twenty-four hours; but as
too great a change "of temperature sud
denly experienced would cause injury
to the raisins, they are allowed to cool
gradually in a room built for this
purpose, and adjoining the steaming
department. When quite cool, they
are carried to the stores for packing.
When the drying is thoroughly ac
complished, bywhatever plan pursued,
the raisins, prior to being packed for
e.)ortation, require to be carefully
looked over, and all the broken and
bruised ones removed, as a drop of
moisture from such would very likely
damage a whole box. After this comes
the proper classification, by no means
an easy affair, as merchants and culli
vatorsdiffer, often very materially, on
this subject.
Besides the raisins already named,
may be mentioned Sultans the best
kind to use in making puddings, cakes,
etc., for children Muscatels. Lipari.
Belvedere, Bloom or jar raisins, and
Sun or Soils. The best kinds are im
ported iu boxes and jars, such as Malaga
and Muscatels; while the inferior sorts
are shipped in casks, barrels, frails and
mats. Chambers' Journal.
Heroic Mr. Spilkins.
"No," said Mr. Spilkins to the small
boy who rang his door bell and asked if
he wanted his sidewalk shoveled off,
and who offered to do the job for a
quarter. Spilkins had just been read
ing a book in which a lot of pernicious
aphorisms about the desirability of
economy were set down, such as, "a
penny saved is a penny earned," "a
groat a day is a pound a year," etc;
therefore he said to himself: "I will
save the quarter that the job of cleaning
my sidewalk would cost, and do the
work myself. Besides, the exercise will
be good for me." He told Mrs. S. ot
his resolution, aud she, like all true
wives in these cases, told him that he
was a fool to think of such a thing, aud
that to do the work him-clf would be
ten times what it was worth. But Spil
kins has a mind of his own, aud he put
on his rubber boots aud mummified
himself by means of a louguUter, a com
forter and a fur cap, aud went out to his
self-selected labors. As he emergid
from his door he struck a piece of ice
on the top step and went into the street
Hying and got a lot of snow up his
sleeves and trousers legs and down the
back of his neck; however, a little pro
fanity relieved his mind in this respect
and he fell to work.
The job was harder than he antici
pated, but he stuck to it. aud at last
went into the house agaiu. bathed in
perspiration and triumph. But on sit
ting down to smoke, as was his cu-tom
after anything particular, he found that
in his fall down the steps he had ground
to snuff three twenty-five cent cigars
which he had in his pocket and the next
morning woke up with an intlueuza
which has given him the aspect of the
weeping philosopher and the temper of
a bear ever since. He therefore says
that economy is a fraud and has thrown
his book of maxims into the fire. Bos
ton Journal.
"English as Shells Tau-cht."
Hitherto San Francisco has been
comparatively free from Anglo
maniacs, for, excepting an occa
sional Eastern traveler who elec
trifies the clerks and habitues of the
Palace Hotel office by asking "what he
shall do with the braws-es" when he is
desirous of redeeming bis baggage from
the transfer compain . the Queen s
Euglish has not been inflicted upon the
public ear. But tho-egood days are over,
for far away iu the wilds of the We-t-eru
Addition the principal of a primary
school has undertaken to Anglicize the
mode of speech of the rising Americans
under her charge. A reporter of the
Chronicle saw two little girls returning
from Sunday School e-terday morning,
and was astoni-hed to hear tlini take
leave of each other in tie following man
ner: "Hit's 'awlf-past ten, .ltie, awnd
I mu-t go 'ome. Me mother will be
hangry. Don't forget to come hover
to tne'onse this hawfternoon, Hawnie,"
replied the other; and they parted.
"Who told you to .-ay hawfternoon'?"
the reporter a-ked of one of the little
misses.
"The teacher," she answered. "Hall
the boys and girls have to do that."
"Since when?"
"O, a long time now. Our teacher
says that it is not proper to say 'after
noon.'" "You don't say so," said the aston
ished reporter. "Docs she make you u-e
any other words?"
"O yes; she makes us say awnd,' and
the little girl opened her jaws like a
rock-cod's to give the proper pronunci
ation. "Awnd she sas dawg, too,"
she continued, "awnd" brawss. awnd
cawn't, awnd pawk. awnd mawn. O,
hit's beginning to rwain;" and nbe
scampered off without giving the re
porter an opportunity to ask the name
of the school and its principal. - San
Francisco Chronicle.
It should occasion no alarm that
there were less than five thousand
dollars' worth of diamonds exported
from the Cape from August to Novem
ber of last year. You will be able to get
just as large pieces of paste for five dol
dollars in this country as vou ever did
Detroit Post.
That was a bright prison chaplain
who, when asked by a friend how the
psrishoners were, replied: "All undar
conviction. " Waltham Btserd.
BEIJGIOUS A5D EDUCATIONAL.
The Mormon Church in Utah re
ceives about $2,000,000 a year in tithes.
Indiana has 3,737 church edifice?,
Talued at $12,555,000. She pavs hex
soinisters $1,037,337.
The Congregaiionalist wishes that
ministers afflicted with drawling,
drowsy, clipped or other objectionable
habits'of utterance could have business
talk through a telephone half an hour
each day.
At Mr. Moody's recent meetings in
London the Bible'readings were attend
ed by about 3,000 persous daily, and
the preaching by 5,000. Overflow
meetings were often necessary. Tho
.work has boen highly commended by
the London press.
Minnesota, where a Sunday-school
was first established thirty-seven years
ago, has now 1,444 schools, with 7(5.000
scholars and 11,000 teachers and offi
cers. The net gain last vear was 118
schools of 4,000 scholars and 100 teach
ers. St. Paul Iress.
Free seats seem to be popular in
Massachusetts. The Episcopalians havo
128 churches or chapels; the seats iu
more than half of them are free Of
twenty-two churches in Boston thirteen
of them are free; aud of niue new ones
organized during the pat year in the
State eight are free. liostoii Journal.
Out of the entire population of
1,783,085 in 1880, in Massachusetts.only
seven-tenths of one per cent, were native-born
illiterates, less than that of
any other people in the world. So says
Governor Robinson. And he adds that
"it may be safe to assume that no one
will hold the schools respousible for the
ignorance of men and women born and
reared in foreign countries, or who nev
er crossed the threshold of a Massachu-settsschool-houso."
Poiton Transcript.
The Faculty of Bowdoin College
have established" trial by jury as the
best mode of inforcing college disci
pline. Each class elects a juryman, and
each of the secret societies and the
anti-secret society does the same. The
President is the Judge, but the jury de
cides all questions of fact. The ac
cused is not entitled to plead "not
guilty" unless the plea Is true, and if
he makes this plea falsely he is liable to
be proceeded against for falsehood.
A", y. Examiner.
This is the centennial year of Meth
odism in America. The General Con
ference organization of tho Methodist
Episcopal Church in America took place
in Baltimore in DecemlMsr, 1781. Iu
commemoration of that event the Gen
eral Conference of delegates from all
Methodist bodies will celebrate the cen
tennial in that city next December, and
already preparations; are making for it.
There are now 3,500.009 Methodists in
the United States and thev have churHi
property valued at 70, 000,000. Cin
cinnati Commercial-G a rctte.
Guessing aiid Knowing,
A writer in the Milling World says:
"The man who knows he is making lift'
cents per barrel ou his Hour is apt to bo
better off than he who 'guesses' he is
making 'about' seventy-five cents."
There is a grcatdealof wholesome truth
in the above statement. Too many
manufacturers allow themselves to
guess at what profit they arc making,
instead of actually knowing that fact.
Instances are by no means rare where
men engaged in busine-s think they aro
making money when they are on the
very verge of bankrupted . An old com
mercial agency reporter relates an in
stance in point. He was interviewing a
merchant in one of our Western towns.
In the course of his conversation ho
asked the latter how much he consid
ered himself worth over aiid above all
liabilities. The reply was that he
thought himself worth fully ten thou
sand dollars. His surprise was very
great when the reporter kindly informed
him that were he to be compelled to
close his business at once he would not,
after liquidating his outstanding obliga
tions, be worth a penny, and this asser
tion was made upon facts which tho
merchant himself had disclosed.
There is no excuse for such ignoranco.
With a moderate degree ot care a
man can keep him-elf at all times well
informed as to the statu of his busi
ness. It would not be difficult to find man
ufacturers wlu arc actually selling their
productions at a loss, because they hav
not properly estimated their co&t. The
trouble is that the manufacturers either
do not understand what elements enter
into the cost, or. so understanding, are
too negligent to make the nece-sary
computation. It is easier to gues-, that
materials cost so much. labor -o much,
packing and shipping so much, and
marketing so much, than to tiacc out
the actual expenditures in e.ich de
partment, and to finally arrive at some
thing approaching mathematical ex
actitude. It may be well enough to do tie
guessing-work when the margins of
profit mi) broad and the chances ol
making a fatal mi-takc are not great,
but it is otherwise when go.ds niu-t ba
sold at a close figure. Then it b'eo.nes
necessary for the nuiniifaetiirer to he
fully acquaintaneed with hi- aff.iirs.
In close competition it is e-,-euti:tl
that the actual cost of his goods be as
certained so that he may know how
close he can make his prices. Suppo-e
that he be a maker of locks which a tu
ally cost eight cents apiece to produce.
If he is offered nin cents for them he
can make the sale and still re-erve a
profit; btit suppose iu-tcad of knowing
the cost he guesses that it is nine cents,
he may lose this trade by refusing au
offer which he thinks is below the cost
of production. On the otherhand, sup
pose that he uupssks that his locks only
cost seven cents and is offered seven
and a half cents for a quantity, which
offer he accepts because lie thinks that
he may get out whole in the transac
tion lie will be likely to find himself
in the condition of the oid lady who
sold eggs for eight cents per dozen that
cost her ten cents, who, whrn interro
gated as to how she could make money
m such a trade, replied that she did so
by carrying on a very large business.
If the manufacturer finds that he is un
able to compute the cost of his produc
tions, it should be his first business to
employ some one who can. It will not
do to make mistakes in suou an impor
tant matter.
Obviously we are speaking in this
article of but a small fraction of the
manufacturing fraternity. The major
ity have au intelligent idea of not only
the cost of the completed articles of
manufacture brought out in their works,
but also of the cost of the several parts
thereof aud of the material of which
they are composed.
Indeed, there are many concerns
where it is absolutely essential that this
should be the case, and if all other man
ufacturers were as particular, the list of
failures, which now presents such for
midable proportions," would b greatlv
4ctta9d, Industrial World.