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About The Columbus journal. (Columbus, Neb.) 1874-1911 | View Entire Issue (April 26, 1882)
IS6CED EVKRY WEDNESDAY,
M. K. TURNER & CO..
Proprietors aid Publishers.
tATE OF ADTEXTMIXC.
STBusiness and professional carda
of five lines or leas, per annum, five
T3 For time advertisements, apply
at this office.
JSTLegal advertisements at statute
ISTFor transient advertising, ' see
rates on third page.
SSJ'All advertisements payable
tSTOFFICE Eleventh St., up stairs
in Journal Building.
Six months 1
Y0L. XIL-N0. 52.
COLUMBUS, NEB., WEDNESDAY, APRIL 26, 1882.
WHOLE NO. 624.
C. H. Van'Wyck, U. 5. Senator, Neb
Alvix siuXDfcas,U.S. Senator, Omaha.
E. K. Valxxtixb. Rep.. West Point.
T. J.-M.AJORS, Contingent Rep., Peru.
Albixos Nasce, Governor, Lincoln.
. J. Alexander, Secretary of State.
John Wallichs, .Vuditor, Lincoln.
G.'M.Bartlctt, Treasurer, Lincoln.
C.J. Dilworth, Attorney-General.
W. V. VT. Jones, Supt. Public Inatruc.
U. J. Nofoes. Warden of Penitentiary.
S hTgouK7, I Prison 1"P"-
J. O. Carter, Prison Physician.
H.P. Mathewson, Supt. Insane Asylum.
George B. Lake.) . ; i,,..
Amasa Cobb, f Associate Judges.
S. Maxwell. Chief Justice,
FOURTH JUDICIAL DISTRICT.
G. W. Poet, Judge, Yorx.
M. B. Ree-e, District Attorney, Wahoo.
M. B. Hoxie. Register, Grand Island.
Win-Anyan. Receiver, Grand Island.
State Senator. M. K. Turner.
Representative. U. W. Lehinnn.
J. G. Hiirpin. County Judge.
John atauner, Countv Clerk.
J. W. Early. Treasurer.
D. C Kavanaiigb, Sheriff.
L.J. Crmer, Surveyor.
Joseph Rivet. '- County Commissioners.
H.J. Hudson, )
Dr. A. Heintz. Coroner.
J. K. Moncrief "Mint, of Schools.
Byron Millett. J , . ,..
J. R. Meagher, Mavor.
A. B.Coffrotb, Clerk.
J. B. DeNmin. Treasurer.
W.N. Hensley, Police Judge.
J. E. North, Eneineer.
1st Ward .John Ricklv.
G. A. Shroeder.
2rf Ward Pat. Havs.
3d Ward 1. RamB?n.
A. A. Smith.
ColHMbuM Pent Oflice.
Open on Sundays irm 11 a.m. to 12m.
and from 4:3 to 6 p. M. Business
bqurs except Sunday 5 a m. to 6 P.M.
Eastern inaiN close at 11 a. m.
Western mail- close at -4 :1ft P.M.
Mail leaves Columbus for Lost Creek,
Genoa, St. Edward. Albion. Platte
Center, Humphrev, Madison and Nor
folk, every day (except Sundays) at
4:35 p. m. " Arrives at 10:55.
For Shell Creek and Creston, on Mon
days and Fridays, 7 a. M., returning
at 7 P. M., same days.
For Alexis, Patron and David City,
Tuesdays. Thursdays and Saturdays,
1 p. m 'Arrives at 12 M.
For Conklinc Tuesdays and Saturdays
7 a. m. Arrives 6 p. m. same davs .
U. 1. Til
Emigrant, No. 6, leaves at
Passeng'r, " i, " "
Freight, ' S, " "
Freight, " 10. "
6:25 a. m.
11:00 a. m.
2:15 p. m.
4:30 a. m.
Freight, No. 5, leaves at 2:00 p.m.
Passeng'r, " 3, ' "... 4:27 p. m.
Freight, 4 9, " " 6:00 p. m.
Emigrant, 7. " " .. 1:30 a. m.
Every day except Saturday the three
Hies leading to Chicago connect with
U P. trains at Omaha. On Saturdays
thare will be but one train a day, as
hown by the following schedule:
O.. N. & B. H. ROAD.
Time Schedule No. 4. To take effect
June 2, 'SI. For the government and
information of employees only. The
Company reserves the right to vary
therefrom at pleasure. Trains daily,
Outward Bound. Inward Bound.
Columbus 4:33 p.m.j Nor folk... 7:26 a. m.
LostCreck5:2l ' Munson 7:47 4
PI. Centre 5:42
i Madison .8:26 "
i numphrev&:05 4
PI. Centre 9:4S '
Columbus 4:45p.m. .Albion 7:43 a.m.
Lost Creek5:31 -
Genoa ...46:I6 "
Genoa . 9:14 "
B. & M. TIME TABLE.
Leaves Columbus. ...5:45 a.m.
44 "Bellwood 6:30 "
44 David Citv, 7.20 "
44 Garrison. ;. 7:46 44
44 Ulvsses, 8:55 44
44 Staplehurst, S:.V 44
44 Seward, 9:30 4I
44 Rubv, 9:50 44
44 Mllford. . . 10:15 '
44 Pleasant Dale, 10:45 "
, " Emerald, 11:10 4
Arrives at Lincoln, 11:50 M.
Leaves Lincoln at 12:50 p. m. and ar
rives in Columbus 7:00p. m.
Makes cloe connection at Lincoln for
all points eaxt, west and south.
H. XTJERS fc CO.,
Sew Brick Shop oppolte Hdnlx'i Pre? Stor.
ALL KINDS OF WOOD AMD IRON WORK OH
WAGONS AND BUGGIES DONE
ON SHORT NOTICE.
Eleventh Street. Columbus, Nebraska.
1. J. MARMOT, Prtp'r.
Nebraska Ave., South of Depot,
COL.ITJI MfJS, ITEM.
A new house, newly furnished. Good
accommodations. Board by day or
. week at reasonable rates. .
targets m Flrst-Clsus Table
Meals, 25 Cts. Ldgingi....25 Ctt.
ULW, reajl estate
W. S. GEEE.
MONET TO LOAN in small Iota on
farm property, time one to three
ears. Farms with some improvements
nought and sold. Office Tor the present
st the Clotner House, Columbus, Neb.
A XDERSOX Ac KOEJ,
BANKERS, Collection, Insurance and
Loan Agents, Foreign Exchange and Pas
sage Ticket! a specialty.
p OK ELI IIS A SULlTAf,
A TTORNEYS-A J -LA W,
Up-stairs in Gluck Building, 11th street,
Above the New bank.
f OH J..HAIGHA.T
JUSTICE OI THE PEACE AND
TT J. HUifSOA,
NOT A RY P UBLIC,
12th Street, t doors west of Haamoad Ho as,
Columbus, Neb. 491-y
yW. 91. . THU8T03I,
Office over corner of 11th and North-st.
All operations tirst-class and warranted.
UlCAtiO BARBEK SHOP!
HENRY WOODS. Prop'k.
Evervthinc in first-class style.
Also keep the best of cigars. 516-y
A TTORXE TS AT LA W,
Oflice up-stairs in McAllister's build
ing. 11th St. W. A. McAllister, Notary
J. M. MACKAKLAND,
Attcrtsy ui Knary Psi?:.
B. B. COWDKRY,
LAW AND COLLECTION OFFICE
MAC1 JlRXjAWD COWDBRT,
Columbs, : : : Nebraska.
TI7 .UTEKM, M. !.,
AVili attend to all calls night and
Office with O. F. Merrill, east of A A N.
Depot. "! 3mo
llth St., nearly opp. Gluck's store,
Sell Harness, Saddles, Collars, Whips,
Blankets, Curry Combs, Brushes, etc.,
at the lowest possible prices. Repairs
promptly attended to.
Justiceof the Peace and
ATTORNEY AT LAW, Columbus
Nebraska. N. B. He will give
cloie attention to all business entrusted
to him. 248.
T OD1S SCHREIBER,
BLACKSMITH AND WAGON MAKER.
All kinds of repairing done on short
notice. Buggies, Wagons, etc., mad to
order, and all work guaranteed.
33"Shop opposite the 4 TattersalL,"
Olive Street. --.25
A4..1EB1 St WEMTCOTT,
Are prepared to furnish the public w'th
good teams, bucgies and carriages for all
occasions, especially for funerals. Also
conduct a feed and sale stable. 49
IS prepared, with
FIRST -CLASS APPARATUS,
' To remove houses at reasonable
rates. Give him a call.
IOTICE XO TEACHKK8.
J. E. Moncrief, Co. Supt.,
Will be in bis office t the Court House
on the first . Saturday of ' each
aonthu-for the jmrpose f examining
applicants for teacher's certificates, and
for the transaction of any other business
pertaining to schools. " 567-y
Wines, Ales, Cigars and Tobacco.
X3fSchilz"s Milwaukee Beer constant
ly on hand.ffa
Eleventh St., Columbus. Neb.
pBK. CAKE. SCHOTTE,
Speaks German, English and Scandi
navian. Office at Dowty. Weaver & Co's drug
store. Columbus, Nebraska.
Dn. BOTCH1LL ft KAJLTm,
IDIIUL i ML mSfflUTL
Surgeons 0., N. fc B. H. R. R,
Asst. Surgeons U. P:R'y,
JS. MURDOCK So SON,
a Carseater and Contractor.
Have had as extended experience, .and
will guarantee satisfaction in work.
All kinds of repairing done on short
notice. Our motto is, Good wo,rk and
fair prices. Call and irive us an oppor
13th St., one door west of Friedkof it
Co. store, Columbus. Nebr. 483-y
Restaurant and Saloon!
E. D. SHEEHAN, Proprietor.
fWholesale nd Retail Dealer in For
eign Wines, Liquors and Cigars, Dub
lin Stout, Scotch and English Ales.
&"Eentucki Whiskies a Specialty.
in their season, by the case
can er aisn.
llth ftrt, Ssmtk of Xksrt.
Manufacturer and Dealer in
CIGAE2 AND TOBACCO.
Store on Olite St., near the old Post-ojflee
Columbia JTobraaka. 447-ly
Mrs. BI. S. Drs&lce
SFMEVCI AD SIJ91.nEI
MILLI1E1Y ill FAICY G8B1S.
TST A FULL ASSORTMENT OF EV
ERYTHING BELONGING TO A
ebrasia Avenue, two doors north
BEGKER & WELCH,
SHELL CREEE MILLS.
MANUFACTURERS AND WflOL
SALE DEALERS IN
FLOUR AND MEAL.
OFFTCE. COL UXB US. NE Ti.
Dr. A. HEINTZ,
HISS. MEBICIIES. CIEHICALS.
Fine Soaps, Brushes,
PERFUMEEY, Etc., Etc.,
And all articles usually kept on hand by
Physicians Prescriptions Carefully
Eleventh street, neir Foundry.
COLUMBUS. : NEBRASKA.
SPE1CE & NORTH,
General Agents for the Sale of
Union Pacific, and Midland Pacific
R. B. Lands for sale at from $3.00 to $10.00
per acre for cash, or on fire or ten years
time, in annual payments to suit pur
chasers. We have also a large and
choice lot of other lands, improved and
unimproved, for sale at low price and
on reasonable terms. Also business and
residence lots in the city. We keep a
complete abstract of tltleto all real es
tate in Platte Countv.
WHOLESALE & RETAIL
ALSO DXALKR3 IN
Crockery, Hlassware, Lamps, Etc.,
and CfMtrv Fredice of
THE BEST OF FLOUR AL
WAYS KEPT OX HA1D.
JSTGoodi" delivered free of charge
any part of the city. Terms cash.
Corner Eleventh and Olive Streets,
DEALER IX ALL KINDS OF
KEEP CONSTANTLY ON HAND
WELL SELECTED STOCK.
Teas, Coffees, Sugar, Syrups,
Dried and Canned Fruits,
and other Staples a
rt r the Clay.
I AM ALSO
Farm and Spring Wagons,
of which I keep a constant supplv on
hand, but few their equal. In atyle" and
quality, second to none.
CALL AUD LEAJUT PRICZS.
Cor. Thirteenth and K Streets, near
A. d: N. Depot.
THE FARMER'S LAMENT.
When I tell how it came about, an' I became
Yer see it w:rc in Sixty, when this 'ere town
That I came 'ere to settle, an' my riches were
I oo't a farm, 'twnrnt on the belt, an' then be
gan to tod:
But, do my best, I could not get a single show
My gula were ehrht in number, an' each one
had to be fed.
So I 'lowed, to lijrhten up a bit, I'd try to get
I knew to catch a husban' yer mus' bait the
hook, with 4Tnon.":
But bein' poor, I cast about to see what could
I bribed the villajre paper to put it in the pub
That old Bo Inn had struck it rich, an' now was
an oil prince.
The paper did the business, an' it pays to ad
vertise. Whether publishing the facts, or the stalwort
est of lies.
He did the thing up nicely, as reporters al
An' made it fit a neatly as a pretty school
He said I was a miser, an' that iu my cellar's
I bad hidden 'about three millions in solid
chunks o' gold
I s'pose ycr've seen molasses how it gathers
in the tiies?
That s how the men came tumbltu arter Han
nah. Jane and Lire.
An' it wasn't thirty days when my lip did
As I saw a broker 'lopln' with my eurhth and
I thought I'd got It all arranged, but trouble
I bad the girls to feed aguin, an they each fed
a man I
Genrye A. Clarke.
THE DARK DAT OF 1SS1.
New England experienced Tuesday
(September 6) the same atmospheric
phenomena which distinguished the
famous "Dark Day'' of 1780; in lesser
degree its characteristics were repealed,
and over very nearlv the same extent
of country. In this city the day began
with a slow gathering of fog from all
the water-courses in the earlv hours.
the thin clouds that covered the sky at
midnight seemed to crowd together and
descend upon the earth, and by sunrise
the atmosphere was dense with vapor, extent of countrv. Certain tempera
which limited vision to very short dis- tures are necessary, too high tempera
tances. and made those distances illu- ture below or too low ones above would
sory; and as the sun rose invisibly be- create currents that would drive thefo
kind, the vapors became a thick, brassy j away: the difference in temperature
canopy through which a strange yellow between above say several thousand
light pervaded the airand produced the feet and below, was perhaps not
most peculiar effects on the surface of ' more than ten degrees. The light,
the earth. This color and darkness when analvzed bv the spectroscope,
lasted until about three o'clock in the ' was verv peculiar. The spectrum on
afternoon, once in a while lightening, j ordinarv davs, about, sav, three inche
and then again deepening, so that dur- long, had only a length of about one
ing a large part of the time nothing l inch: blue and violet wir(a!mnfmnt.
could be done conveniently in-doors
wunout artuiciai iignt. ine unusual
complexion of the air wearied and
pained the eyes. The grass assumed a
singular bluish brightness, as if every
blade were tipped with light. Yellow
blossoms turned pale anil rrav. a row
of sunflowers looking ghastly; orange
nasturtiums lightened; pink roses
flamed, lilac-hued phlox grew pink, and
blue flowsrs wprp. trans fnrmeil infrw raA
Luxuriant morning-glories that had
been blossoming in deep blue during
the season now were dressed in so'endid '
magenta; rich blue clematis donned
an equally rich maroon; fringed geu-
tians were crimson in the fields. There
was a singular luminousness on every
fence and roof-ridge, aud the trees
seemed ready to tly into fire. The light
was mysteriously "devoid of refraction.
One sitting with'his back to a window
could not read the
shadow fell upon it-
newspaper if his
he was obliged to
turn the paper aside to tho light. Gas
was lighted all over the city, and it
burned with a sparkling pallor like the
electric light. The electric lights them
selves burned blue, and were perfectly
useless, giving a more unearthly look to
everything around. The darkness was
not at all like that of night, nor were
animals affected by it to any remarka
ble extent The birds kept still, it is
true, the pigeons roosting on ridge
poles instead of Hying abont, but gen
erally the chickens were abroad.3 A
singular uncertainly of distance pre-1
3iieu auu commonly tne distances
beemeu suuner man reauty. v nen in
the afternoon the snn began to be visi
ble through the strange mists, it was
like a pink ball amidst yellow cushions
just the color of one of those mysteri
ous balls of rouge which we see at the
drug stores and which uo woman ever
i. am .
buys. It was not till between five and
. v, .. ....., tllc -uu uau suuicieiiuy
dissipated the mists to resume its usual j
clear gold, and the earth returned to its ,
very-day aspect: the grass resigning its
unnatural brilliancy aud the purole dai-
MMT n ninf Thnf t-ha snn 1....4 n..H:: il i
Bies no longer lainring into pink. The
temperature throughout the day was
very close and oppressive, and the phy
sical effect was one of heaviness and
What was observed here was the ex
oer'.ence of all New England, so far as
leard from, of Albany and New York
City, and also in Central and Northern
New York. We have dispatches and
letters from Portland, Me., from Bos
ton, Providence. Norwich. New Haven,
New York, Utica and all over Southern
Vermont, Connecticut and Western
Massachusetts. Schools were dis
missed in various places, a, indeed,
study was perforce suspended in those
which kept up theirsessions; and many
factories also let out their hands when
their facilities for lighting were insuffi
cient. The Bachelder Shoe Factory
at North Brookfield was one of them,
and the Hartford Carpet Comp iny at
Thompsonville where it is said "the
operatives were afraid the final trump
was going to sound. If there was anv
danger of this it was a very proper
thing to do; for no one could possibly
? , -..-. . . . . I
ubw mo trump wnne tne mills were
There were traces of super- i
Various quarters. Natlirallv .
many associated the
strange darkness I
with the removal of President Garfield.
and some felt as if it signified his death.
Others thought of the end of the world,
as so many did on the celebrated dark
day of 101 years ago.
That "Dark Day" par eminence was
Hay 19, 1780, when, after several days
of close, hot weather, characterized by
a thick, smoky atmosphere, between
ten and eleven o'clock in the forenoon
the skies thickened, and a fearful dark
ness set in which lasted until the fol
lowing midnight, or from twelve to
fifteen hours. This darkness covered
all New England, extending west as
far aa Albanv, southward along the
coast, and to the east and north as far
as white settlements extended. Birds
topped singing, and fowls went to
roost, the cocks crowed at midday as
if it were midnight, animal showed
terror, and the superstitious howled.
Then it was that Abraham Davenport,
i the Connecticut Legislature.said
that he proposed to be found at his duty
If the day of judgment did come, and
moved that candles be brought in.
Prof. Williams, of Harvard College,
made record that day of a steady fall
hi the barometer, and noted many of
th phenomena of color we have de
scribed as occurringy esterday. The dark
ea of the following night was tremen
dous, so that there was literally no
light, and though the full moon 'rose
early ia the evening, the heavens and
the-earfe were indistinguishable. The
explanation which, has received most '
credence since thej U that the peculiar (
state of the atmosphere was due to the
coincidence of heavy clouds of smoke
from forest tires with an extradrdinary
moisture, which combined to shut out
aU but the yellow light. This explana
tion applies very well also to the dark
day of October, 1816, whan a similar,
though less severe and extensive dark
ness, was known in New England, and
another day of the sort which was ex
perienced in Michigan in 1862. -When
iliramichi was burned over in 1825, a
great district in Canada and Maine was
visited with similar obscuration. There
have been forest fires of considerable
extent recently in various parts of the
country, whose smoke has
been heaw i
in OUr air. and th nnmhinntinn cith n I
unusual precipitation of vapor probably Plumed to take the work at Cook's In
caused the phenomena of yesterday. ', let when he. left lfc tae previous season.
Charles Mayr, of this city, a man ol
known scientific attainments, offers the
fol owing extremely interesting expla
nation: 44 To produce a weather like the one
Tuesday several conditions are abso
lutely necessary; first an almost abso
lute calmness of the atmosphere; sec
ond, a high degree of saturation of the
atmosDhere with moisture, and third,
a cloudless sky; probably it might only
occur in the fall or spring, that with
those conditions still a fourth is sup
plied, a relative colder temperature
in the upper regions of the atmosphere.
It seems to me exceedingly probable
that the peculiar state was brought
about in this way: During the foregoim'
days the air was very moist and warm
almost no wind was blowing; during
the night from the 5th to the 6th the
upper reg;ons of the atmosphere cooled
so far as to form a little fog high up.
which slowly grew until about ten
o'clock the 6th it had its greatest
depth, perhaps several thousand feet:
no wind blowing, the formed fog was
was not carried awav or upwards, and
' thus a layer of very line but very deep
J fog fonued over probablv an immense
ing, while red, yellow and green were
these colors, red.
The mixture ol
vellow and green.
produced the peculiar yellow tinge.
The moisture line in yellow was very
strong. More blue and violet would
have "killed" tllPnrprriilincr ,-ollnto- anil
produced our common daily liht to
which we are used. Verv peculiar was
, the effect of this light on grass; it had
n Aa-ml- Mr:l, ,:,-, ,i. :.!.. u:
. hnt a snhicctiva mntrast innMrmrp
j . uiii uiucuu wiic, nuitu aa uumiug
-- j - v v m a wu m U U Vfc LA1i m
f Tlio roro rn rirriirtK Iia vArk n A,.
The rays to which the green grass owes
its color were all present in this pecul
iar light, but the surrounding obiects
J had lost some of their blue and vioiet
color elements; they appeared too yel
low and by "contrast" the dark grass
appeared to our eye with a more olue
ish tinge, because blue is the contrast
color of yellow. Water-vapor at a cer
tain stage of condensation lets onlv the
, red, yellow and green through. " The
light has nothing to do with3 comets.
northern lights, or the end of the world
all of which theories found their be
lievers during the remarkable forenoon.
Spriyiqfield Mass.) Republican.
The Excess of Femininity.
How to get the excess of shirts upor
the shirtless backs is a sort of typical
problem in political economy. In thh
entire country there are more male;
than females, but the latter, like ah
other gifts of heaven, are distribnteo
very unequally. Their number, to 100,
t 000 mi p is 9fi.-il0 .iirainst 0.7 sm ;n
i o r r rAi
ic u. in seventeen states thev out
j , j ..yw
number the males, the District of Co
lumbiawhere they are thickest, stand
ing as 112 to 100 counting as a State.
"Society," office-seeking, lobbying,
and, perhaps, some undefined other
thing, draw them to the Capital, where
they are relatively more numerous than
r r " . r- .t
in ioiv. iMgnc oi tnese seventeen are
among the once slave States. Next to
the District. Rhode Island stands at the
head in respect to excess of femininitv,
slio-htlv lpadinrr own MLquhtiatt'a
r o -
and in each the excess of females has
increased during the decade; Connecti
cut, North Carolina, New Hampshire,
South Carolina, New York, Virginia
and Alabama stand next, and these ten
make the group where the females are
as 102 to 106 or more per 100 males.
In eight States females are 90 to 94, and
one of these is Utah, where there has
been a considerable relative decrease of
females; in six, all of them far Western,
females are 80 to 90 per cent, of males;
in five, two of them Territories, they
are 50 to 70 per cent; in Idaho,
Nevada. Wyoming, Arizona and
Montana they are less than
half the number of males. In
every Atlantic coast State, except Del
aware, the skirt outnumbers the panta
loons by actual count; in every State it
does so in material fact and influence.
Of the Gulf States Alabama and Louisi
ana only show an excess of females. Of
course, "the frontier States, to which
the movement of population is most
active, show the largest excess of
males, and this is especially true where
mining and grazing are the principal
occupations; two-thirds of the popuia-
tion binr males in Montana- Amnni
Idaho and Wrnminv Voor rr;
-. w .. j w . A..UTT MAVfUlU.
still a-Territory, has a permanent class
of Mexican settlers, and Utah is an ex
ception. Nineteen States and Terri
tories where males were in excess in
1870 have increased their proportion of
females, and sixteen where males wure
in excess show a larger excess of males
now; ten where females were m excess
show an increased proportion of fe
males, and eight where thy weru in
excess show a decreased excess now.
New England and the Middle Atlantic
States increase the proportion of fe
males by migration of the males, and
an influx of females drawn by the facto
ries, but foreign immigration in part
counteracts this. In the Gulf and
South Atlantic States, where outside
influences have been least at work, na
ture has been evidently trying to re
store the normal equilibrium between
the sexes disturbed by the war. In
most of the newest States and the Ter
ritories the equilibrium has made prog
ress, though still not reached.. I'.
The Comm'ssioner of Agriculture
of Virginia makes the sensible sugges
tion that every person in that Stateover
10 years of age should celebrate the
Yorktown centennial this year by plant
ing a tree (walnut is recommended)
somewhere- in the yard, field, road
side or forest. The idea is a good one,
so good that its application should not
be limited to this year, nor to the State
of V irginia.
la tfee tTiltt af Alaska.
Iran Petroff, Special Agent of the
Census Bureau for Alaska, completed
his work in the field last September and
has reached Washington. Mr. Petroff
is the gentleman who last year made a
journey of eight thousand miles in
Alaska and among the Aleutian islands,
twenty-five hundred miles of which was
through a portion of Alaska never be
fore penetrated by civilized man. Thi
journey was made for the Census Bu
reau, and was entirely successful. The
islands and the western portion of the
peninsula of Alaska, so far east as
Cook's Inlet, were examined, and the
data required for the census publica
tions were secured.
For last summer's work Mr. Petroff
uu LUS&.C uia way aiuug lug cuasb iu-
' ward the east to Sitka. In this he was
only partially successful, and for very
i good reasons, as the following story of
Ills adventures will show:
I Having collected his supplies at the
island otKodiak, he set sail in a schoon
er, early in the season, for the northern
ahore of Cook's Inlet. The vessel had
"been out about an hour when she struck
upon a sunken reef not marked in any
chart of the locality, speedily filled and
sunk. Her cargo, including his prop
erty, was a total loss. The passengers
and crew were rescued and returned to
Eodiak, where a new outfit was pro
cured, and after a short delay a second
and more successful attempt to reach
the mainland was made.
Mr. Petrofx and party made their way
with canoes along the norther a coast of
Cook's Inlet to and around its head, a
distance of about one hnndred miles.
and then struck out overland for Priu
and supplies. This portage had onlv
once before been made. This region is
one' of the most inhospitable and repel
lant on the earth. Two large glaciers,
one eight and the other fifteen miles
wide, were crossed, the passage being
one of great difficulty and many dan
gers. One of these glaciers, the smaller,
reached and terminated in the sea; but
the other had formed for itself a deep
valley in front of the terminal moraines,
being of great size. At that season of
the vear there was a continuous noise
like "thunder caused by avalanches of
c on ;na. f.v. fiA:4, ..,,:.
snow and ice from the high mountains
on each side of the glaciers. The com
fort of the travelers wjis seriously inter
fered with by numerous accidental ice
Prince William's Sound was reached
1st of June, at which time the
bcusuu ttw so ua.c-h.waru iuui no oiaue
- . -. ..... . 1 I 1 .!. 11 .J
of grass or green thing was to be seen.
The ground was frozen so solid that it
was difficult to fix the tent-poles in their
places. The country around Prince
William's Sound is very forbidding in
appearance. Stones and" large boulders,
brought down by glaciers of former
ages, cover the greater portion of the
earth, the remainder being swamp or
bog. Upon the mountain sides, at a
distance, there is timber which with an
almost impenetrable undergrowth
reaches up a short distance above the
In coasting along the sound in his ca
noe Mr. Petroff passed the face of a gla
cier twenty miles wid.e, from which
large nieces of ice, small bergs, in fact.
were constantly breaking off and float- j
ing out io sea. maKing passage very
perilous. His canoe was in a sinking
condition when he reached Xuches
Island. In this place there are two
stores. and considerable trade is carried
on with the natives for a long distance
up and down the coast.
Having completed his preparations,
Mr. Petroff started from Nuchek, with a
crew of four Inuit3 and a half-breed in
terpreter, for Copper River, fifty miles
distant. He ascended the river to the
nrst village, Alaganok, inhabited bv ing, for which it is dimcult, if not un
Nbrth American Indians. As he landed", possible, to find a remedy. Surely
however, and before he approached the morning is the time for work" when the
village, his Inuits became alarmed and i
deserteu him iu a body, lhe natives
were rejoiced at this state of affairs, and
flattered themselves that they would
keep the traveler and his stores among
them to be preved upon at their leisure.
He sought to hire a crew of Indians to
assist him on his journey, but they de
maded 44 a large gold piece every day
for each man employed." The" boat
was a large one. and the Indians fancied
it would be impossible for their visitors
With his inter-
to escape without help.
preter alone he decided to make the
tempt, and when night came they cut
loose and floated down stream. The
channel through the delta to the sea was
a difficult one, but it was safely passed; !
and when the coast was reached sails
were set for a return to Nuchek. Be
fore reaching the island the boat ran
upon sunken rocks and was wrecked.
Tho turn mn wp?o runted nfThv nitivo I
who saw them trom the shore, but much
of their property was lost. I
Mr. Petroff now decided to await the '
WV . . V. w g..... WH J ..... . .j.
arrival of the Kolosh Indians
distant point on the coast, who usually
come once a year to Nuchek with furs
to trade for the molasses used in mak
ing their favorite intoxicant. He start
ed, accompanied by his favorite inter
preter, with a party of Koloshes from a
village near Cane Yaktag, and reached
their village with his stores in safety.
Here, however, he found himself a pris
oner. The barbarians, like those on
the Copper River, and with much bet
ter reason, fancied they had a
which it would be a sin to part
They not only refused to accompany
the travelers further, but refused to let
them proceed by themselves. Their
pretext was that they had trouble with
miners and feared their visitors would
betray their hiding place and their
weakness, and thus bring on attack
from their enemies. The Indians be
came insolent, and from the first stole
all they could lay their hands on. After
a time they began a series of annoyances
calculated to provoke their visitors with
a view of putting them to death and
thus securing everything.
The interpreter was a cowardly fel
low, and one day gave up to thechief.
upon his demand, Mr. PetrofTs
breech-loading rifle. The chief fired
off the piece and brought it to the
owner to be loaded again. He took it.
and, pretending to load it, managed to
put the mainspring of the lock out of
place, rendering the piece unserviceable.
l"he chief was greatly enraged and
hostilities became more imminent. A
shot t time afterward the chief demand
ed Mr. Petroff's tent for his own use,
which request was firmly refused.
Thereupon the Indians sent ofl all their
women and children a most ominous
proceeding and one which was inter
preted as a sure foreboding of bloody
work at least in intention.
The traveler determined to postpone
ao longer his attempt to escape. All
the large canoes fit for seagoing had
been sent away; but the case was a des
perate one, and the captive secretly se
lected the best of those remaining aad
the place oi iu concealment.
After cooking and eating their supper
the two men retired to their tent as
usual, and tied down the flaps in front.
Mr. Petroft drew his knife and cut a
long slit in the back and directed the in
terpreter to load himself with such sup
plies as he could carry and go out. The
fellow's heart failed hfin. and it was only
by drawing his pistol and threatening
to blow his brains out that Petroff se
cured obedience. The escape was mado
in safety, and the two men made their
way by night along the coast toward
Mr. Petroff was a prisoner with the
Koloshes from the 8th of August till the
28th of September. When he effected
his escape it was too late in the season
for further explorations, and he made
his way by trading vessels to San Fran
cisco. " The Government vessels had re
turned without tidings of him, and the
report had gone forth that he had per
ished. Upon his arrival at San Fran
cisco, he went one evening to the meet
ing of a scientific society, of which he
was a member, and found that one of
his fellow-members was just on the point
ot delivering a memorial aUuress upon
his life and services. N. Y. Tribune.
Morn in? Work.
P?r'iaps. on the whole, moderately
eariv is'ng is now a commoner practice
.s than it was forty years ago. It
strange that the habit of lying in
urs after the sun is up "should
ive obtained a hold on the multi
f brain-workers, as undoubtedly
it had in times past. Hour forhour, the
intellectual work done in the early
morning, when the atmosphere is a-? yet
unpoisoned by the breath of myriads of
actively moving creatures, must be, and,
as a rratter of experience, is incompar
ably better than that done at night. The
habit of writing and reading late in the
day and far into the night, "for the
sake of quiet," is one of he most mis
chievous to which a man of mind can
addict himself. .When the body is jaded
the spirit may seem to be at rest, and
not so easily distracted by the surround
ings which we think lessobtrusive than
in the day; but this seeming is a snare.
When the body is weary, the brain,
which is an integral part of the body,
aud the mind, which is simply brain
wnction. are weary too. II we persist
n working one part of the system be
cause some other part is too tired to
trouble us, that cannot be wise manage
ment of self. The feeling of tranquillity
which comes over the busy and active
man about 10:30 or 11 o'clock ought not
, It L- iac, th .,.., of IoBP1-nir nf
I SX r k tii- fH ijl n j ii n tMtnntin n.alv
' ' - - - --- '
vitality consequent on the exhaustion of
the physical sense. Nature wants and
calls for physiological rest. Instead of
complying with her reasonable demand
the night-worker hails the "feeling" of
mental quiescence, mistakes it for clear
ness and acuteuess. and whips the jaded
organism with the will until it goes
on working. What is the result? Im
mediately, the accomplishment of a
task fairly well, but not half so well as
if it had been performed with the vigor
of a refreshed brain working in health
from proper sleep. Remotely, or later
on, comes the penalty to be paid for
unnatural exertion that is, energy
wru2 from exhansted or weary nerve
centers under pressure. This penalty
takes the form of 4 -nervousness," per
haps sleeplessness, almost certainly
some loss or depreciation of function in
one or more of the great organs con
cerned in nutrition. To relieve these
pected cause the" brain-worker very
maladies springing irom this unsus-
likclv has recourse to the use of stimu
lants, possibly alcoholic or it may be
simply tea or coffee. The sequel need
not be followed. Night wore during
student life and in after years is the
fruitful cause of much unexplained.
though by no means inexplicable suffer-
whole bodv is rested, the brain relieved
from its tension, and mind power at it
The InTeation of the Teleseepe.
Some of the most important discover
ies have been made accidentally; and it
has happened to more thau one inventor,
who had long been searching after some
new combination or material for carrv-
m? oat a pet i(lea hk upoa the riht
lufiig at i.ul u mure uuuiuk. a. luutvT
instance of this kind was- the discovery
of the principle of the telescope.
Nearly three hundred years ago there
was living in the town of Middelburg.
on the island of Walcheren, in the Neth
erlands, a poor optician named Hans
Lippersheim. One dav,
in the year
his shop, his
1608, he was working in
children helping him
wavs. or romping about
themselves with the tools and object
lying on his work-bench, when suddenly
his uttle girl exclaimed:
44 Ob, papa! See how near the steeple
Half startled by this announcement,
the ho, est Hans looked up from his
work, ri ius to know the cause of the
child's Aniaenient. Turning toward
aw that she was looking through
js, one held close to her eye,
other at arm's length; and,
is daughter to his side, he no
ticed thac the eye-lens was plano-con-
cave (or flat on one side and hollowed
out on the other), while tne one held at
a distance was plano-convex (or flat on
one side and bulging on the other).
Then, taking the two glasses, he re
peated his daughter's eperiment, and
soon discovered that she had chanced
to hold the lenses aparr at their exact
focus, aad this had produced the won
derful effect that .she had observed. His
quick wit and skilled invention saw in
this accident a wonderful discovery.
He immediately set about making use
of his new knowledge of leases, and ere
long he had fashioned a tube of paste
board, in which he set the glasses firmly
at their exact focus.
This rough tube was the germ of that
great instrument the telescope, to which
modern soienee owes so much. And it
was ou October 22, 1608. that Lipper
sheim sent to his Government three tel
escopes made by himself, calling thera.
4 instruments by means of which to see
at a distance."
Not long afterward another man,
Jacob Adriansz, or Metius, of Alkmaar,
a town about twenty miles from Amster
dam, claimed to have discovered tho
principie of the telescope two years ear
lier than Hans Lipperheim;" and it is
generally acknowledged that to one oi
these two men belongs the honor of in
venting the instrument. But it seems
certain that Hans Lippersheim had never
known nor heard of the discovery made
by Adriansz. and so, if Adriansz had
not lived we still should owe to Han:
Lippersheim's quick wit, and his little
daughter's lucky meddling, one of th
most valuable and wonderful of humaa
invention. SL NichoUu.
KELIGIOCS A! EDUCATIONAL.
All the Sunday-school lessons
1882 will be in the Gospel of Mark.
The average yearly income of the
public school teachers in Maryland ia
It is understood that, on the 1st of
January next. Rev. T. M. Po?t vrill
close his pastorate, now of more than
thirty years' stauding. over the Yirst
Congregational Church of St Louis.
One of the evidences of the powerof
the Gospel upon heathen savages bseen
in Tapitenea, one of the Gilbert Islands,
where the people have gathered and hur
ried all their weapons of war. have passed
Erohibitory liquor laws, and imposed
eavy fines on those guilty of Sunday
labor or desecration.
The growth of the Methodists as s
sect has probably been without prece
dent in rapidity. Their first preach
ing house " dates from t7JW, at Bristol.
England. But before that an unused
foundry in London was so used. Tlie
worship in Methodist chapels in En
gland to-day is divided into that of tho
Liturgical and non-LiturgicaL Wes
leyanlsm combines both, and in many
Wesleyan chaoels the service differs but
little from that ot the Episcopal Church.
An Engli-h paper describes the
prison life of Rev. Mr. Green, the ritu
alist. Under the easternmost window
of his apartment is an altar, with a gilt
cross above it, and candles. Several
forms are ranged around the sides of
the room and Mr. Green at times, when
a number of his parishioners and friends
v;sit him, practices his functions as a
clergyman uninterruptedly in the way
most congenial to "him. Upon the
northern wall of the room is alo a gilt
crucifix, while above the large fireplace
are suspended rows of Easter cards.
When Stephen Girard died, fifty
years ago, he little thought of the
magnitude to which his bequest for the
foundation of a college for orphans
would grow. The college commenced
with three hundred orphan pupils. It
now contains one thousand, and ac
commodation for still more is in course
of construction. Its finances have been
managed with the greatest fidelity and
judgment, and its gro?s revenue for
1880 was 88';,75;i The real estate he
left to the college, especially the coal
mines, has increased in value beyond
all expectation. History furnishes no
example of a college, whose success
has been so great- It was opened for
the reception of pupils in 18-18. The
buildings thus far have cost about $2,
000,000. the main one. in the form of a
Corinthian temple, being 16'J feet long.
Ill feet wide, 97 feet high, and is said
to be the finest specimen of Greek
architecture of modern times.
Trading in the Arctic Regions.
We went ashore on Diomede Island
and greatly enjoyed a stroll through the
streets and houses of the various Es
quimaux village here. It is built on
the bald, ragged side of the island,
where the slope is almost cliff-like, in
steepness and rockiness. The winter
houses are wood-lined burrows under
ground, entered by a tunnel, and warm
and snug like the nest of a field-mouse
beneath a sod, though terribly thick
and rancid as to the air contained in
them. The summer houses are square
skin boxes above ground, and set on
long stilt poles. Neither the one nor
the other look in the least like houses
or huts of any sort, but those made of
skin are the queerest human nests con
ceivable. They are simply light, square
frames made of drift poles gathered on
the beach and covered with walrus hide
that has been carefully dressed, and
stretched tightly on the frame like the
head of a drum. The skin is of a yel
low color and quite translucent, so that
one feels when in it as if inside a huge
blown -bladder, the light sifting in
through the skin by the top ana all
around, yellow as a sunset. The entire
establishment is window, one pane for
ine rooi, wuicn is aiso ine ceiling, anil
one lor each of the four sides, without
cross and sash-bars to mar the brave
simplicity of it all.
Most of the inhabitants, of whom
there are perhaps about a hundred, had
just returned from a long voyage in
their canoes to Cape Prince of Wales.
Kotzebtie Sound and otherpoints on the
American coast, for the purpose . of
trade, bringing b:ick ivory and furs to sell
to the Tsch-ikchis of Siberia, who in turn
will carry these articles by a round
about way nearly a thousand miles to
the Russian trading po-t.and bring back
goods to trade back to the Diomede
merchants, through whose hands they
will pass to the Cape Prince of Wares
natives,and from these to several others
up the Inland River, down the Col
ville, to Barrow, and ea-tward :is far aa
the mouth of the Mackenzie River. The
Diomede merchants are true middle
men, and their village a half-way house
of commerce between Northeastern
Asia and America- The extent of the
dealings of these people, usually regard
ed as savages, is truly surprising. And
that they can keep warm and, make a
living on this bleak, fog-smothered,
storm-beaten rock, and have time to be
get, and feed, and train children, and
give them a good Usquiraaux education,
tearh them to shoot the bow, throw the
bird-spears and make them, teach them
to make and u.-e those marvelous
kyacks, kill seals, bears, walrus, hunt
the whale, c ipture the differetit kinds
of fishes, manufacture different sorts
of leather, dress skins and make them
into clothing, build those strange
houses, teach them to carry on trade,
make fire by rubbing two pieces of
wood together that they can do all
this, and still have time to be sociable,
dance, sing, gossip and discuss ghosts,
spirits, and all the nerve-haking mar
vels of the Shaman world, shows how
trulv wild, and brave, and capable a
people these island Esqu.maux are.
John Mint's Letter to San Francisco
The love of the Welsh people for
their language is remarkable. It is
now 350 ears since Wales was fully
incorporated with England politically,
and, to a considerable extent, socially
but the old Celtic tongue is still spoken.
Not even the overwhelming necessity
of education in English has converted
it into a dead language. Englishmen,
are incline to call such adherance to
the relic of a bygone age obstinacy. A
Government Committee reported not
long ago that this pertinacity was a pro
nounced hindrance to the progress of in
struction in the higher schools. Satis
factory prosecution of the studies
of the classics, of English literature,
even of the natural sciences, requires
ready use of the English language. The
facility which English boys gain 3t an
early age in the use of their mother
tongue a large majority of the Welsh
never acquire, because in their social re
lations, their religion and their daily
life, Welsh is exclusively used. In some
respects this is inconvenient, but no
one who ever visited Wales, and be
came acquainted with the habits of the
people, can wish it were otherwise.
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