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About Valentine Democrat. (Valentine, Neb.) 1900-1930 | View Entire Issue (Sept. 22, 1904)
Mukden , tlie ancient royal city of
the Mauchus , is the focal point for the
world-wide attention centered in the
Russo-Japanese war. In successive
stages the field of operations has swept
across Manchuria. Liaoyang recently
Avas the stage for great events. The
battle fought there , even though but
fragmentary facts are known , is con
ceded a place among tlie world's great
military struggles. Kuropatkin , in a
masterly retreat , forced upon him by
the strategy of the enemy , cove-rod for
ty miles of sodden roads , saving his
army and artillery from total disaster
and reached Mukden. Will he make
a stand here , or will his weary army
lake up the march again to a position
' -farther north ? This is the. question of
the hour. A few miles north is Tie
Pass , a position adapted by nature for
defensive operations. This , say ru
mors , is in reality to bo the scene of
the next great battle. In fact , a des
perate battle has already been reported
iherc , but this is now denied.
Mukden , which in times of peace has
At least LMW.OOO inhabitants , is situated
in the center of an immense alluvial
plain , about three miles from the Ilun-
ho , a tributary of the Liao river. It is
about forty miles north of Port Ar
thur , forty-two miles north of Liao
yang and 3oO miles south of Harbin.
-General Kuropatkin discovered , early
in March , that Harbin was too far
north to serve as a military base for
the campaign in Southern Mancuhria ,
and lie selected Mukden for his head
quarters , because it is favorably situ
ated on the railway and on the Pekin
The city of Mukden has an outer
.wall of mud , and a lofty quadrangu
lar inner wall three miles in circuit ,
"built of brick. Hanked by lofty towers
-and pierced by eight gates protected
ly lofty brick bastions. This wall , on
which three carriages could drive
abreast , protects the commercial and
official part of the city , and is densely
crowded. Mukden , besides being the
great grain emporium of Manchuria ,
is tlie center of the Chinese fur trade ,
and attracts buyers from all parts of
the world. It is the ancient royal city
of the Manchus , and the former burial
place of tlie rulers of China. About
the city and about the tombs .centers
the veneration of China's millions.
Aside from this , Kuropatkin may
not only avoid battle at Mukden , but
may be compelled to abandon all hope
of further resistance until after the
i\vinter nonths. His army , repeatedly
defeated , is badly demoralized , say ru
mors. Its morale cannot but have
"been affected , and though its valor has
freen unmistakably proven , the task of
again facing the fanatical desperation
of the Japanese might prove too se-
.vere a strain. Two months of autumn
remain for fighting. Nevertheless , it
is more than probable that the battle
of Liaoyang marks the last important
struggle of the present year. The rains
oiow prevent operations. The plan
of the Japanese will not develop until
"transportation becomes possible over
the roads. A determined advance on
the part of the enemy will in all prob
ability be followed by a prompt north-
rward movement on the part of Kuro
In that event , the winter will find
this situation : The main Russian army
will be centered at Harbin , with the
Tear guard at Tie Pass. The main
Japanese army will be quartered in
and about Liaoyang , with its advance
guard at Mukden. Rumors have come
FIELD MARSHAL OYAMA , THE HERO OF LIAOYANG.
tually develop. Meantime , ancient
Mukden rivets attention.
It is impossible to ascertain what
has happened during the last week be |
tween Liaoyang and Mukden , except
in the broadest outlines , and even as
to these there is uncertainty. We
know that Kouropatkin has been
THE SITUATION AT I'OKT ARTIIUB.
withdrawing his 'army northward , but
how far he has taken it we cannot
tell. "We know that Kuroki has been
in touch with his rear guard to the
east at least part of the time.
We have had it officially stated sev
eral times that the entire Russian
nrmy was in Mukden or north of
there , and concurrently we have had
COURSE WHICH THE RUSS8AN
BALTIC FLEET WILL TAKE ,
KNOUrt OUTC B LTicmtt ,
. ALTItRMVmC . . . . . . . . . ROVITtS *
.4. --------jmm . & &
t. : / ,
The course that the Russian Baltic
fleet , which has started for the far East ,
will probably take is indicated in the / / * / -A.Af
map. The length of the journey is more O C < W
than half the distance around the world ,
lor 12,270 nautical miles or 14,110 stat
ute miles separate Port Arthur and
Oonstadt by the shortest sea route. At an average steaming rate of ten knots ,
not including many stoppages for coaling , it would take fifty-one days for the
fleet to get within sight of the beleaguered fortress. Between Gibraltar and
( Port Arthur there are at least twenty ports at which , in time of peace , the ships
oould coal , but the ports being in neutral hands this is forbidden in present cir
cumstances. Any adverse weather will cause great delay , for the larger ships
must hold back for the small craft , of wliich there are many in the new fleet.
from 'Tokio of a winter campaign.
Those familiar with the rigors of the
Manchurian winters doubt that such
course could be seriously considered.
Japan could well afford to grant a pe
riod of rest to an army which has
accomplished fairly marvelous things
In seven mouths of fighting.
All is speculation , however , and no
definite word may be uttered until the
armies again move and their plans ac-
scraps of information to indicate that
the movement was not yet completed.
Rumors even of pitched battles fought
by the Russian rear guard are still
coining. We may disregard as mani
festly erroneous all stories from hys
terical correspondents and army ofli-
cers in Mukden of fighting close in to
that city , and we can similarly disre
gard the report that Kuroki's and
Oku's forces are respectively twenty-
seven and twenty miles to the east
and west of Mukden.
The other day there appeared three
circumstantial accounts of the battle
of Liaoyang , telegraphed in by corre
spondents who had been present Two
of these correspondents were with
Oku's , or the left , army , while one
was with Kuroki's , or the right , army.
All three of them agree that the battle
was fought with desperate bravery
on both sides. The Russians exhibited
a new ability to hold the Japanese.
Oku , on the left , assaulted again and
again on one occasion thrice during
twentj'-four hours. He lost regiments
at a time , yet he kept on.
In the opinion of the Chicago Trib
une , if the Japs had tried to take Liao
yang exclusively by direct assault
they would have failed. But the flank
ing movement of Kuroki , who threat
ened to get behind the Russians , com
pelled them to evacuate the town. The
critics who have eyes only for Glut's
army , and see it battered and bruised
in its direct assaults , must not forget
that Kuroki could not attempt his
flanking movement from the east un
less Oku should press the south in
sufficient numbers to keep a larje
number of Russians employed theie ,
and so prevent them from being sent
to interfere with Kuroki's flank march.
But the Japanese did not surround
and capture the Russian army. That
is a thing not often done.
Kuroki , inarching from his bridges
across the Taitze , had twice as far to
go to reach the railroad above Liao
yang as Kouropatkin , who was in
Liaoyang and on the railroa'd. In ad
dition , Kouropatkin has steam to in
crease his mobility , while Kuroki must
plow his men and transports over
wretched , muddy footpaths. Small
forces in good positions could delay
Kuroki ; there were no forces on the
railroad to check Kouropatkin.
In every war of history a victory
such as Oyama won has been called
"sweeping. " He forced the Russians
out of a strongly fortified place ,
chased them to Mukden , forty miles
northward , and it is reported that they
are still going , and propose to make
for Tieling , forty miles north of Muk
den. This retreat is directly away
from Port Arthur.
The Port Arthur situation remains
obscure. There has been some hea > y
fighting. The Japs gained a few ad
vantages , though probably at a heavy
cost The Russians are now forced to
distill sea water because the Japan
ese have cut off the last remaining
fresh water spring of the Russians ,
which was at Fort Etse. Etse and the
adjoining forts are not occupied by
either side , since these positions nre
dominated by batteries of both sides.
War News in Brief.
Russian officials state that the loss to
Kuropatkin's army at Liaoyang was less
than 17,000 men , 4,500 being killed.
The Japanese are said to be levying
taxes in Manchuria and to have taken
entire control of finances and customs in
Much bushwhacking is going on upon
the road south of Mukden , and many
Russian soldiers have been killed from
the fields of Chinese corn.
Oyama reports that a large Russian
force faces him south of Mukden and
that the Russians are fortifying both
banks of the Liao river at Tie Pass.
Chinese bandits again are active , fre
quently attacking the Russian railroad
line north of Mukden. Bushwhacking
causes constant losses to the Russians.
Information coming froman authorita
tive source in St. Petersburg is that the
Russians will winter at Harbin , but the
fact that there probably will be two
months of good weather for military op
erations before extreme cold weather seta
in leaves room for a revision of this pur
pose in ths light of events that may
SPEAKS ON THE1SSUES
ROOSEVELT'S FORMAL LETTER
President in a Twelve Thousand Word
Document Defends His Administra
tion of the Affairs of the Nation De
clares Protection Necessary.
President Roosevelt's formal letter ac
cepting the presidential nomination of
the Republican party has been given out.
It is 12,200 words long.
President Roosevelt defends the last
seven years of Republican control. He
declares that the Democrats attack Re
publican policies and acts of the last
seven years by misrepresenting what has
been done. He then proceeds to review
those acts in detail , and scatters through
his 12,000-word letter scores of interro
gation points , asking the Democrats
what they are going to do different , or
what different they would attempt if
charged with power. As to Panama , he
says he would be derelict in his duty if
he used a false construction of the con
stitution as a "shield for weakness and
timidity , or as an excuse for govern
mental impotence. "
The letter charges the Democrats with
insincerity in and conflict of criticisms
iu matters such as the settlement of the
coal strike find the prosecution of the
merger suit that shows no chance for co
herent action or constructive legislation
if they are given power. As to the money
question he declares the only real way
to keep the question from becoming un-
settled is to keep the Republican party
In defense of the protective tariff poi
icy the President says that some Demo
crats seem anxious to prove that it is
safe to give them partial power , as they
could do no mischief then. In connec
tion Avith the tariff he discusses the
trusts , and says the evils connected with
them can be reached only by rational
effort , along the lines taken by Congress
and the executive during the last three
years. The tariff is made the leading
feature of the letter.
It is set forth that the present execu
tive thinks the present regular army is no
larger than the country requires , and as
to the Philippines he says that to retrace
our steps Avould he to give "proof of an
infirm and unstable national purpose. "
Points from tlie Letter.
Following are leading paragraphs from
the President's letter :
It is difficult to find out from the utter
ances of our opponents what are the real
issues upon which they propose to wage
this campaign. It is not unfair to say
that , having abandoned most of the prin
ciples upon which they have insisted dur
ing the last eight years , they now seem at
a loss , both as to what it is that they real
ly believe and as to how lirmly they shall
assert their belief in anything. In fact , It
is doubtful if they venture resolutely to
press a single issue ; as soon as they raise
one they shrink from it and seek to explain
It away. Such an attitude is the probably
inevitable result of the effort to improvise
convictions ; for when thus improvised it la
natural that they should be held in a ten
There is not a policy , foreign or domes
tic , which we are now carrying ont which
it would not be
disastrous to icverse or
We base our appeal upon what we have
done and are doing , upon our record of ad
ministration and legislation during the last
seven years , in which n-e have had com
plete control of the government.
If continued in power we shall continue
our foreign policy and our handling of the
navy on exactly the same lines in the fu
ture as in the past.
The fundamental fact is that in a popu
lar government such as ours no policy i3
Irrevocably settled by law unless the peo
ple keep in control of the government men
who believe in that policj' as a matter of
On some of the vital questions that have
confronted the American people in the last
decade our opponents take the position
that silence is the best possible way to con
vey thL'ir views.
To say that action against trusts and
monopolies should be limited to the appli
cation of the common law is equivalent to
Baying that the national government should
take no action whatever to regulate them.
Undoubtedly it would be possible at the
present time to prevent any of the trusts
from remaining prosperous by the simple
expedient of making such a sweeping
change In the tariff as to paralyze t ie In
dustries of the country. The trusts would
cease to prosper , but their smaller com
petitors would be ruined and thevage -
workers would starve , while it would not
pay the farmer to haul his produce to mar
The expenditures of the nation hnvc been
managed iu a spirit of economy as far re
moved from waste as from niggardliness ,
and in the future every effort will be con
tinued to secure an economy as strict as !
consistent with em'ciencj- .
So far from having "sapped the founda
tions" of free popular government at home
by the course taken in the Philippines , we
have been spreading its knowledge and
teaching its practice among the pooples'to
whom It had never before been more than
an empty name.
At no time in the history of this or anj
other country has there been an era so pro
ductive of material benefit alike to work-
ingmen and employer , as during the seven
years that have just passed.
THE TRENT CANAL.
Shortens Distance Between Canada' *
"Wheat Fields aud Liverpool.
The Trent Valley canal in Canada is
nearing completion. It will unite Geor
gian Bay with Lake Ontario , via Lake
Simcoe , the Kawartha lakes and the
Ontonahee and Trent rivers. The canal
proper will be only twenty miles in
length and will cost 910,000,000. This
uninterrupted water course from Lake
Superior to England will make the dis
tance between Canada's western wheat
fields and Liverpool 700 miles less than
the present course via the great lakes
and the Erie canal. The boats will have
a capacity of SOO tons while those on
the Erie average about 240 tons. These
advantages would speedily take away
much of the Erie's business. But the
voters of New York State , to forestall
this competition , have emphatically de
cided to expend $100,000,000 in enlarg
ing the Erie so that it can accommodate
barges of 1,000 tons' capacity.
From Far end Near.
Senor Eusebio Santos , a Spaniard liv
ing in Brooklyn , thrives on a diet of
John F. Finerty of Chicago was elect-
id president of the United Irish League
it New York
A parcels post convention has been
: oncluded between the United States and
Sfonvay , to take effect Oct. 1 nert.
The large packing plant of Street &
Ikrcoran at Buffalo , N. Y. , was destroy
ed by fire , the loss being estimated at
CHICAGO TRAIN HELD UP.
Eanclita Blow Safe on the lioclc Island
Near Letts , lov/u.
Five bandits robbed tlie Chicago-
Kansas City limited train on the Rock
Island Roadshortly after midnight
Tuesday morning at a place known as
Whisky Hollow , about six miles ouz
of Muscatine , and near Fruitlaud ,
Iowa. The train , known as No. 11 , Is
a through train to Texas , and the rob
bery was committed at the end of a
sharp curve , and exactly where a sim
ilar hold-up was plotted two years ago
by the Chicago car barn bandits.
The statements of express officials
are that the bandits obtained no mon
ey , though the safe was blown open
and the contents were taken. It Is
asserted that the safe contained mer
chandise of some value and company
papers in transit , etc. , but no cash.
As the train rounded a curve the
engineer saw a red lantern on , the
track , and immediately stopped. The
engine , the express car and the bag
gage car were boarded by the robbers ,
apparently five in number. A fusillade
was fired along the sides of the train
to prevent interference by passengers.
The messenger of tlie express car was
compelled to open the door. The car
safe was dynamited and the contents
itaken , after which the engine crew
was compelled to return to the pas
senger coaches , the engine was cut olt
and the robbers ran it west through
Letts to within two miles of Colum
bus Junction , where it was left stand
ing on the track.
MAY STAY SIX WEEKS ,
Russia . Transport Lena Given Time to
The Russian transport Lena has been
allowed six weeks to make necessary re
pairs to her boilers , and at the end of
that time she must depart from the port
of San Francisco unless , in the opinion
of the fleet engineer of the Pacific squad-
ion , stationed at San Francisco , her re
pairs absolutelj" require more time than
'has ' bsen allowed to put her into a sea
worthy condition. This decision , though
subject to revision , disposes of the case
for the present , although the Japanese
consul general at San Francisco is not
satisfied with it , insisting that the Lena
should leave port immediately , on the
ground that she is at San Francisco to
spy on transpacific ships.
Within the bay and close to shore
numerous Japanese residents watch the
vessel through field glasses. Aside from
the diplomatic situation is the danger ,
it is said , of a. second Maine disaster.
Reports are heard of threats that a
well-manned boat may put out under
cover of darkness , with explosives
enough to sink the cruiser and kill her
men oOO in all. A counter-plot of Rus
sians is also suspected. Watch is be
ing made by a force of marines under
Midshipman Davis for quantities of arms
or ammunition which might be smuggled
to the Lena from secret agents of the
Czar. Not a pound of coal will be al
lowed her until the government acts on
Lieutenant Commander W. C , Her
bert , engineer in charge of the Pacific
squadron , found that the Lena's boilers
are in bad condition , after an inspec
tion. They had been overtaxed in the
long and hurried trip across the Pacific ,
although even this trip is as yet unex
MAINE GIVES 31,000.
Republicans Say Plurality Io Larger
After one of the most exciting cam
paigns for nearly a quarter of a century
the Republicans of Maine have elected
their candidate for Governor , William T.
Cobb of Rockland , by a plurality over
his Democratic opponent , Cyrus W. Da
vis of Waterville , estimated at 31,000.
The vote was the largest ever polled.
The returns show a Republican gain over
1900 of 15 per cent and a Democratic
gain of 31 per cent , on which basis the
Republican plurality for Governor is es
timated at about 31.000. In 1900 it was
34,132. The Republicans carried every
county with the exception of two. They
elected the four members of Congress
Allec , Littlefield , Burleigh and Powers.
Burleigh ran ahead of his vote of two
years ago and Powers 2,300 behind.
In Androscoggin county , the home
county of Senator Frye , the Democrats
succeeded in winning for the first time
in many years , electing all the county
officers. The present sheriff , the Rev.
C. S. Cummings , a Methodist preachf ,
who was elected sheriff on the Republi
can ticket , and who since his election
has rigidly enforced the prohibitory
liquor law , was defeated with the rest.
In Portland the present Democratic sher
iff was re-elected , receiving a larger plu
rality than two years ago.
Republican pluralities in the Maine
September elections in the most recent
presidential years are as follows :
190i 31,000 1S92 12,503
1900 34,132 1883 18,053
1S9G 48,246 1SS4 19,815
WHEAT AGAIN CLIMBS.
Rise in Price Causes Excitement on
Chicago Board of Trade.
Excitement such as has not been wit
nessed on the Chicago Board of Trade
hi years developed Tuesday when May
wheat touched $1.18 and the 'heavy ' hold
ers refused to sell even at that figure.
The wheat pit was a pandemonium ,
crazy brokers and their clerks fighting
with the desperation and abandon of a
street mob , as the price went up from
the opening of $1.15 % . It was the wild
est day the board has seen , not only
during the bull movement , which has
been on for weeks , but since the days
of the Leiter "corner. "
The excitement spread to the galleries
and men and women stood excitedly
watching the juggling of fortunes in the
pit below them. Millions upon millions
of bushels were sold , but the selling was
done by holders who wanted to take
profits , and the wheat was snapped up
by shorts anxious to cover.
Killing frosts reported from the North
west in districts where the wheat is still
tmcut were principally responsible fon
the upward rush in prices , although for
eign markets were also up on the open
One Hundred Years Ago.
A complete change took place in the
government of the Batavian republic.
The cotton crop of Georgia was ruin
ed by caterpillars.
The American squadron captured
near Tripoli two vessels laden with
wheat for that city.
The Governor of New Brunswick
was forced to order out the troops to
quell a riot among oyster strikers at
Seventy-five Years Ago.
The Spanish army , under General
Barrados , surrendered to the Mexicans
under Santa Anna at Tanipico.
An exciting debate took place in the
French Chamber of Deputies on the
subject of the slave trade.
The anniversary of Perry's victory
on Lake Erie was celebrated by a pub
lic ball and parade at Newport , R. I.
The peace of Adrianople was de
clared. Turkey agreed to recognize the
independence of Greece and relinquish
to Russia the northeast coast land oC
the Black Sea.
Fifty Years Ago.
The People's Provident Assurance
Society of England was established.
The allied French and English forces
were suffering much from disease and
"Sevastopol , " Count Tolstoi's first
book , was issued.
Fifteen hundred deaths occurred of
cholera in London.
Commodore Perry sailed from Hong
kong for tlie United States.
English and French forces were
landed in the Crimea.
Forty Years Ago.
In accepting the Democratic nomina
tion for the Presidency of the United
States General George B. McClellan
said anent the "peace platform" of tho
party that "the re-establishment of the
union in all its integrity was an indis
pensable factor of settlement. "
General Sherman ordered all civili
ans to leave Atlanta and offered them
General Grant , from Virginia , and
General Sherman , from Atlanta , wrote
open letters urging the North to "fill
the quota of volunteers called for.
Secretary Stanton announced that a
draft would be put into effect in all
States and districts in which the quota
had not been filled.
Thirty Years Ago.
Colorado for the first time went
Democratic , the territory sending a
delegate of that party to Congress.
A call was issued for a convention
of the Republicans of the reconstruct
ed States to be held at Chattanooga ,
Twenty persons were killed and fifty
injured in a wreck on the Great East
ern Railway , near Nor\vlch , _ England.
Twenty persons were killed and half
a hundred wounded in a fight between
the New Orleans police and a mob that
was clamoring for the abdication o
Francois Pierre Guillaume Guizot ,
eminent French statesman and writer ,
died In Paris.
Seventy-four cotton mills in England
were closed by a strike of 13,000 en >
Twenty Years Ago.
Parisians were excitedly demanding
that the government declare war on
The resignation of the Marquis of
Ripon as Viceroy of India and the pro
motion of the Earl of Dufferin to the
post were announced by the British
A number of lives were lost and
much property was destroyed by floods
on the Chippewa and tributary rivers
The Illinois State fair closed at Chi
cago with a deficit of $10,000 for the
Antagonism between clericals and
liberals in Belgium threatened to re
sult in civil war.
Tammany Hall , in an exciting meet
ing , indorsed the nomination of Gro-
ver Cleveland , Democratic candidate
Ten Years Ago.
The Republicans carried the Maine
State election by a plurality of 38,000.
A fatal wreck on the Chicago and
Northwestern line near Barrington ,
111. , was caused by a cyclone blowing
freight cars into the main line , ovec
which a passenger train was passing.
At a fruit celebration at Grand
Junction , Colo. , the 8,000 participants
were declared to have eaten fifteen.
tonB of fruit
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