Western news-Democrat. (Valentine, Neb.) 1898-1900, June 22, 1899, Image 3

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iStnrtlinjj Kcvelationa Brought Out by
the Senate Investigating Committee
Enormous Amount of Fraudulent
and Poisonous Products Produced.
If there is any pure food manufac
tured or sold in this country , the Senate
'Pure Food Investigating Committee ,
which took testimony in Chicago , did
-not coiue across it The evidence in
the bands of that committee tends to
show that nearly all the commoner
articles of food are adulterated by the
manufacturers , and some of them with
deleterious and dangerous substances.
One of the witnesses , Dr. II. II. Wiley ,
chief chemist in the Department of
Agriculture , went so far as to tell the
committee that 90 per cent , of the
liquid and solid foods consumed by the
people of the United States are adul
terated. And Dr. Wiley said this state
ment was based on his personal Inves
tigation. He had , so he told the committee -
. mittee , examined and tested almost
every article of food and drink bought
ernment officials , 13 chiefly the result ,
but wholesale loss of life has occurred.
In a report made by A. J. Weflderburn ,
a special agent of the Agricultural De
partment , he calls attention to many
cases of death. The deleterious sub
stances are usually used through ignor
ance , one case of record being that in
which death resulted from the use of
chrome yellow , not only to the custom
er , but also to the vender and the mem
bers of his family.
Coffee is perhaps the most extensive
ly adulterated article. Consumers do
not take the trouble to find out wheth
er their coffee is genuine or not. Arti
ficial coffee beans used to be manufac
tured with consummate care , but now
adays raanj' producers do not attempt
to imitate the beans except in color and
size. Spurious coffee beans were for
merly imported from Germany in large
quantities and to some extent from
France. But American manufacturers ,
realizing the profit to be made in the
trade , entered the field and noAV make
better imitations than any that are to
be imported. Flour or almost any
cereal is mixed with molasses and
molded to resemble the bean and then
roasted and colored. Sometimes chjcory
or burned sugar forms apart of the
compound , which , although almost
worthless , is not harmful when com-
and sold in the country , and he ex
plained to the investigators the results
of his tests.
Tor instance , he found "pure" aico-
iiol that had been made-of menthol and
wood sap ; brandy that had'beeu man
ufactured of burnt sugar and water ;
thread that had been made of potato
-flour , and even then adulterated with
alum and sulphate of copper , sub
stances dangerous to the health of the
consumers of that sort of bread ; cider
snade of tartaric acid and colored with
caramel ; candy made of glucose and
artificial essences and colored with
poisonous substances ; canned goods
wMch had been preserved with salts of
-copper ; butter which had been manu
factured from ordinary animal fats
and starch , and in which there was an
excess of salts ; beer that had been
* nade of burnt sugar , licorice , quassia
and grains other than barley ; cheese
-that had been made of oleomargarine ,
-'with salts of mercury in the rind ; cocoa
and chocolate that were compounded of
sugar , animal fats , flour and starch and
ferruginous earths ; cayenne pepper
that was made of ground rice and flour
and salt and a sprinkling of- red lead ;
flour that was made of alum and
ground rice ; cinnamon that was made
of cassia and plain sawdust ; ginger that
was manufactured of mustard and
ttimeric ; gin that was composed alto
gether of a mixture of water and sugar
and alum and turpentine ; honey in the
comb that was made of glucose and
cane sugar , with the comb molded of
posed of such simple substances , but if
mineral matter be added the product is
often poisonous to some degree. A few
years ago in France the Government
seized a factory which emploj'cd sul
phate of iron in its mixture.
Imitation coffee beans can be distin
guished easily from the genuine by a
careful examination. Molded as they
are , the artificial beans present a uni
formity of structure , which is entirely
foreign to the real beans. Again , arti
ficial coffee beans will nearly always
sink when put in water , while genuine
coffee floats. There are several simple
and good tests for ground coffee. When
a little of the coffee is taken and press
ed between the fingers or squeezed in
the paper in which it is bought , and it
will not form a coherent mass , it is
pretty sure to be genuine , but if the
grains cake they are not coffee. Even
chicory grains will stick to each other ,
for they are comparatively soft and
open , and adhere without difficulty
when squeezed. In water chicory and
cereals will soften quickly like bread
crumbs , while coffee will take a long
time to soften ; genuine coffee grains
will float , as will the whole beans , but
hicory or any other s"weet root will
eon sink. Chicory or caramel will
cause a yellowish or brownish color to
diffuse rapidly through the water , but
pure coffee will not tint the water for
a long time. Such tests are so simple
that there appears little excuse for not
trying them. Yet manufacturers sell
to dealers tons of artificial coffee ,
Poor milk. Magnified 530 times. Starch granules of wheat flour. Indian corn flour. Used as adulGood milk. Magnified 530 times.
Magnified 320 times. terant of wheat flour.
{ paraffin ; lard that was made of starch
and cottonseed oil and stearine , and
containing alum and caustic lime ; mustard -
tard that was compounded of flour and
ttmieric and chrornate and sulphate of
lead ; artificial milk that was sold as
'pure condensed milk" and made of
iburut sugar , annette and water ; fruit
"jellies that were made of gelatine and
apple parings and flavored with arti
ficial essences ; mace that was made of
bread dust and Venetian red ; pickles
put up in salts of copper and alum ;
Cruit preserves that were made of the
common pumpkin and colored with
.dangerous substances ; sago made of
potato starch : powdered sugar , the
base of which was rice flour , and
which contained also salts of lead and
tin , gypsum and marble dust ; tea that
was made of common leaves and treated -
ed with gypsum , china clay and soapstone -
stone ; vinegar that was made of burnt
.sugar and sulphuric and hydrochloric
acids ; wines made of artificial alcohol
and water and colored with anilines.
From the testimony of the witnesses
'before the committee it would seem
'that ntore time and ingenuity are ex
pended in producing a counterfeit arti
cle than would be required to get na
ture to produce the real thing. The
profit is in producing it in large quan
tity from waste substances. This is a
.sort of utilization of the by-product
that the country cannot stand for any
length of time without serious deter
ioration of the physical and mental
strength of its people , and the status of
these crimes and fit punishments for
them will undoubtedly be fixed as a re
sult of the'report of this committee.
Many Adulterants Poisonous.
Many of the adulterations are of such
. .a character a ! to injure the pocket of
the consumer rather than the health.
Commercial fraud , according to the tes
timony of the national and State gov-
which is accepted unquestionlngly as
the genuine article.
purious Stuff Is Possible.
Both manufacturers and retail grocers -
cers make enermous profits , for their
fraudulent coffee can be made for as
little as 3 or 4 cents a pound. Often
the flour , crackers or cereals which
enter into its composition are so badly
damaged that they could be utilized
in no other way. There is , besides ,
much huckstering in real coffees , and
lower grades are frequently mixed
with the higher. Thus Maracaibo and
La Guayra coffees are mixed with Java
and Mocha coffee and the mixture sold
for pure Java or pure Mocha.
Cheap cream of tartar has been
proved to be composed largely of tar
taric acid and terra alba. This terra
alba , or white earth , imported from the
shores of the Mediterranean , has been
used as a food adulterant to a fearful
degree. It is , when pulverized , a white
and almost impalpable powder , taste
less and looking like a fine starch. Its
presence is frequently detected in pow
dered sugar , which may account for
the fact that housekeepers do not find
powdered sugar altogether satisfactory
for cooking purposes. Pure cream of
tartar will dissolve in hot water , but
terra alba will not ; therefore to test it
put a teaspoonful into a tumbler of hot
water , allow it to stand for a few mo
ments , aud then see whether there is
any sediment. If tlie sediment is large ,
terra alba is probably present. If it
does not dissolve , leaving the water
clear , add a few drops of tincture of
Iodine to the water. If pure , the color
will remain snchanged ; but if starch is
present the water will turn bright blue.
The usual adulterants of tea are
"spent" or exhausted tea leaves , leaves
of other plants like tea , sand and vari
ous materials used for coloring the
leaves. Coloring Is common and la
called "facing. " It generally consists
In coating the leaves with powdered
soapstoue , with lead , or plumbago , if
they are to be black , or with the pow
dered soapstone with indigo or Prus
sian blue if they are to be green. Often
the facing adds materially to the
weight of the tea. In England the use
of exhausted leaves Is much larger
than it is in this country. Spent leaves
are bought up from hotels and coffee
houses at merely nominal prices , and
are dried and faced before being re
sold. They are easily detected by their
frayed and irregular appearance and
by the small proportion of soluble mat
ter remaining in them.
The substitution of other leaves for
those of the tea plant is also more
common in England than in the United
States. Yet even in this country it is
well known that foreign leaves can
easily be detected by spreading out a
few of the leaves from the bottom of
the teapot. The lanceolate , spear-head-
like shape of the tea leaf , together with
its serrated margin , distinguishes it
from that of any plant used to counter-
feitit. As a rule facings can be detected
only by chemical tests. Green teas are
oftener adulterated than black teas.
Tea is often colored , and if the decoc
tion made by the housekeeper becomes
'Coffee adulterated with chicory Black tea. Yonng tea. Greeii tea. Beech. Elder. Hawthorn. Genuine coffee ,
and roasted beans. Small black ten. Elm. Wild plum.
highly colored after being boiled a few
minutes adulteration may be sus
List Practically Unlimited.
The list of articles adulterated and
their adulterations is practically un
limited , as was stated by Prof. Wiley
in his testimony before the Congres
sional Committee. The adulteration of
coffee and tea will serve as types. It is
stated that most of the spices sold are
wholly fraudulent , as are most of the jel
lies. Perhaps half of the alcoholic liquors
are prepared from neutral spirits doc
tored and colored to have the taste
and appearance of the liquor demand
ed by the consumer. A type of this
adulteration is the recipe given for
"pure country cider. * ' It is : To each
gallon of water add one-half pound of
granulated sugar , acidulate with tartaric -
taric acid , and flavor with oil of apple ,
$ reviously put in alcohol , color with
caramel , and to twenty gallons of the
mixture add two gallons of genuine
country cider.
Frequent cases have been reported
of late years of sickness arising.from
the use of canned meats. The cause
seems mainly to have been improper
methods of canning , or the use of meat
that was tainted before being canned.
According to A. J. Wedderburn , of the
United States Department of Agricul
ture , but little risk will be run by the
purchaser who carefully examines the
outside of the cans which he buys. The
heads of the cans should be slightly
concave , which shows that they were
hot when sealed. If the heads are con
vex it shows that decomposition has
commenced in the can.
j Jhe total Value of the food supply of
e United States has been estimated
at $5,000,000,000. According to Dr.
Wiley's estimate , 90 per cent , of this is
adulterated , or $4,500,000,000. Accord
ing to the American Grocer's figures ,
which are the most favorable , not more
than 10 per cent , of the adulteration is
harmful or injurious to the health.
Taking these statements , the result
shows that there is $450,000,000 worth
of poisonous food products put annual
ly on the country and $4,050,000,000 of
fraudulent products.
Very Busy.
May and Edith are sisters , 4 and 5
years old respectively. May had been
very naughty , and mamma had taken
her over her knee to administer cor
poral punishment , when Edith sudden
ly pushed the door ajar and peeped in.
Turning her chubby face as far round
toward her sister as her peculiar posi
tion would admit , May said very
gravely :
"Go out , Edie ; don't you see I'm
busy ? "
It is nedless to add that mamma
granted a respite. "
The great naval celebrity was on his
way to the safe-deposit vaults with
several installments of prize-money.
"Hello ! " exclaimed an intimate friend ;
"what have you there ? " "These , " re
plied the celebrity , "are the 'fortunes
of war' that you read so much about. "
Washington Star.
Practical people should quit referring
to a woman's husband as her "choice. "
There are too many cases where he was
not a choice , but a necessity. "
Dislikes Social Functions and
Her Husband and Nature.
Mrs. John P. Altgeld , wife of the ox-
Governor of Illinois , is a tall , dignifled
woman , and , like Sirs. McKinley , is
some what of an in
valid. Illness , not
age , has silvered
the hair that once
was midnight
b'lack , writes a
Chicago corre
spondent. This
has only the effect
of further soften
ing a face that is
MRS. ALTGELD. wonderfully pa
tient and beautiful. Her eyes are gray , '
her features are delicate and her mouth
expressive. Her face is a mirror which
speaks for every emotion she feels.
She has a poet's sensitive apprecia
tion of nature and at last has realized
the ambition of her life , to live "near to
nature. " For years she has tried to
persuade Mr. Altgeld to move into the
country , where they could have trees
and grass and where "even the dirt is
clean , " as she expresses it. It is only
recently , however , that her wish has
been realized , and now she lives in a
charming home in Rogers Park. She
spends most of her time sitting on the
broad veranda of her home , watching
the leaves develop on the trees , which
grow in abundance in that locality ,
weaving little imaginary stories about
the golden dandelions blooming on the
lawn and breathing the country air ,
laden with perfume of lilacs and wild
currants. The roses have already be
gun to bloom again in her cheeks , and
she will soon be her old self again un
der the magic influence of her sur
roundings , airs. Altgeld has no chil
dren. She loves her home and prefers
the society of her husband to that of
any outsider. While she was the first
lady of the State is was necessary for
her to entertain and go into society ,
but she has no taste for that kind of
life. She dresses quietly , with a slight
dash of color here and there , "just for
cheerfulness. " While she does not en
ter into politics , she takes a keen in
terest in Mr. Altgeld's successes and
failures , and it is safe to say she has
even been the ex-Governor's inspira
tion in everything he has undertaken.
Some scorn to have the idea that ad
vertising is an exact science that un
less a man has studied it he cannot
make a success of it. They are wrong.
Advertising is , , not an exact science.
We know that the experts make it pay
and Ave know that others who are a
long way from experts make it pay ,
too. When done in the right way and
spirit , and placed in the right medi
ums , and stuck to perseveringly , it
pays always. That is about all we
know about it. It is so far from an
exact science that no man can come to
another man and show him just how ,
or where , or when an ad. will pay.
These are things an advertiser must
find out for himself , and the finding out
takes time and is a difficult process. A
man is liable to get lost , but if he does
he may be sure that there is a way out ,
and that if he keeps pounding away he
will find it sooner or later. Shoe and
Leather Gazette.
If you toot your little looter and then lay
aside your horn.
There's not a soul in ten short days will
know that yes were born.
The man who gathers pumpkins is the
man who plows all day ,
And the man who keeps a humping is the
gent who makes it pay.
The man who advertises with a short and
sudden jerk
Is the man who blames the printer be
cause it didn't work.
The gent who gets the business has a long
and steady pull
And keeps the local paper for years and
years quite full.
He plans his advertisements in a thought
ful , honest way ,
And keeps forever at it until he makes it
He has faith in all the future , can with
stand a sudden shock ,
And like the man of Scripture has his
business on a rock.
Kingslt/y ( Iowa ) Times. *
Taught a Lesson by an Old Man from
the Country.
He bore the customary resemblance
to a rural visitor. There was the chin
beard and the clean-shaven upper lip
and the trousers that fell just below his
ankles. No wonder the foppishly garbed
youth at the end of the car snickered
aloud when he entered.
All during the ride up Lincoln ave
nue the young man smiled at the aged
gentleman opposite him. The latter
fell to reading a newspaper , but now
and then he would look over the top of
it and meet the taunting eyes of the
young man.
All of a sudden he laid the paper
aside and arose from his seat. He grab
bed one of the "hold-on" straps and
tugged at it frantically. The conductor
did not notice his attempt apparently
to stop the car , but it nearly drove the
young man into hysterics. "Oh , what
a Rube ! " the old man heard him mut
ter , and then as though the efforts of
the aged gentleman had softened his
heart he said : "I'll do it for you , " and
rising he pulled the motonnan's bell.
When he had tugged it the regular way
the old man resumed his seat.
The car came to a standstill at the
corner. The conductor opened the rear
door , but no one inside moved.
"I guess It was that 'young feller
over there , * * answered the old man ,
nodding toward the youth.
"D'ye wanter git off ? " inquired the
conductor , with a snap.
"Why , no , " stammered the youth.
"I thought tfiat the elderly gentleman
did , and I rang the bell for him. He
was pulling one of those straps. "
Every one saw the position the old
man had placed the young man in and
all eyes were turned on him.
He reddened. "What did you do it
for ? " asked the conductor , turning to
the aged passenger. "I jest wanted to
show a thing or two to that young cox
comb over there , " was the reply. And
he added as the youth ducked for the
open door. "I guess I did it. " Chicago
Very aged persons are often afflicted
with itching of the skin without a rasher
or manifestation of skin disease. This
is generally due to weakened nerves ,
and may be mitigated by baths in
warm water faintly tinged with car
bolic acid one teaspo'onful of acid tea
a gallon of water.
Medicines do not very greatly change
the effects of varicose veins in the leg.
About the best alleviant is a silk elas
tic stocking. This evens the pressure
in the limb and prevents the veins from
dilating excessively.
Thin-blooded children who arise with
headaches and dizziness in the morn
ing may be greatly benefited by the
administration of a half-teaspoonful of
solution of albuininate of iron after
A great many nervous people are
alarmed at the presence of a fluttering
feeling in the throat when they get ex
cited "a lump that cannot be swal
lowed. " The lump is an imaginary
one , due entirely to a slight constric
tion of the gullet , and may be miti
gated with valerian or almost any mild
" 3kin foods" are generally humbugs.
There are no foods for the skin differ
ing from foods for the entire body.
Some persons , anxious to fill out the
cheeks , rub on cod liver oil , but it is
the rubbing only that develops the.
muscles of the face. Freedom from ,
worry and plenty of rest , are the great
complexion savers.
Calloused feet are produced by ill-
fitting shoes and prolonged standing.
They should be pared only when abso
lutely necessary , as frequent paring
favors rapid growth. Soak the feet in
hot alum water , one teaspoonful to the
quart , every night , and protect the
callous by a thin ring of felt.
Electrical Furnace Produces a Tem"3
peratnre that Breaks the Record.
The highest temperature yet pro
duced by man has been reached by an
especially constructed furnace at the
Columbia University. Prof. Tuckerm ,
to whom belongs the honor of the ex
periment , had been working for years
on the idea so successfully carried out
and has finally generated heat 20 de
grees higher than the record made
some time ago by Prof. Moisslon of
Paris. The heat of the sun is esti
mated at 10,000 degrees. The heat
generated at Columbia was 0,500. The
effect was tremendous. The electrical
furnace was charged with a current of
unusual power , which was so high that
under it steel , hard quartz and even
platinum were vaporized. As for or
dinary crucibles , they disappeared at
once in a little puff of smoke. It is
difficult to appreciate the degree of
such heat without some comparisons.
Scalding water means a temperature
of 212 degrees Fahrenheit and red-hot
iron 800 degrees. Steel melts at 3,000
degrees and boils like water at 3,500
degrees. Commercially the experiment
is very useful because it has shown
that diamonds of marketable size and
purity may be made artificially. Fur
ther , it has given to commerce two
products of almost incalculable value
calcium carbide and silicium car
The .Lunatic's Repartee.
Some visitors were being shown
through Kew lunatic asylum , Victoria ,
a few days ago , and , coming opposite
the clock in the corridor , one of them ,
looking up quickly at his watch , said :
"Is that clock right ? " "No , you idiot , "
said a patient standing by ; "it would
n't be in here if it were right" Mel
bourne Australasian.
Flinty Coats for Plants * .
If two pieces of sugar cane are
rubbed together in the dark they will
make a tiny light. This comes from
the fact that every reed or cane or
leaf of grass has a hard , flinty outside
skin , which helps them to stand
straight up and also keeps the tender
inside from-being eaten up by many
of the insects.
There is this to the everlasting
credit of the farmer's wife : She is kept
so busy that she doesn't dress her boy
in long curls after he has put on
"pants. "
Business men are bothered so much
with schemes that some of them con
demn them all without investigation.
Between two evils some folks have
no choice ; they embrace them both.
Poioonpns Wall Paper.
The announcement of Dr. E. M.
CJhamot , of the chemical department of
Cornell University , that nearly all wall ,
paper sold at the present time contains
arsenical poisons , some "of them In
large quantities , casts a shadow over
the spirits of the housekeeper who has
Just had her rooms repapered. What
renders the blow still more severe Is
the assertion that there is no basis for
the popular belief that green paper
contains the most arsenic. Dr. Cha-
inot's investigations were prompted as
a result of the several cases of arseni
cal poisoning which were said to have
been causcO by contact with paper-
covered walls , the most severe one be
ing traced to red wall paper.
Milk Fieve Kasy to Clean.
A milk sieve , the bottom of which ,
can be removed for the purpose of
cleaning , was patented a short time
ago by Carl Thiel , oC
Lubeck. The sieve
part can be readily
interchanged , and
the same sieve can
also be used for oth
er purposes there
fore by introducing
a plate with larger
MILK SIEVE. holes. A ring of
spring steel holds the sieve plate in po
sition , and it is but a moment's work
to take out the spring and the sieve by
pressing on the two hooks bent up
ward , as shown in the cut. For medic
inal use this sieve is invaluable , and It
is also manufactured with double and
filtering sieves.
Suearas Food.
A lump of sugar represents about as
much nutriment as an ounce of potato ,
but while the potato will be eaten only
because hunger prompts , the sugar ,
because of its taste , may be taken
when the appetite has been fully sat
Sugar is a useful and valuable food.
It must , however , be remembered that
it is a concentrated food , and there
fore should be eateli in moderate quan
tities. Further , like other concentrated
foods , sugar seems best fitted for as-
similiation by the body when supplied
with other materials which dilute it or '
give it the necessary bulk.
To Can Asparagus.
Wash the spears and scrape off any
tough outer scales , cut to the length of
a fruit jar ; pack the jar closely , fill
with cold water , add a little salt , and
put the lid on loosely. Place the jar in.
hot water reaching to the brim and boil
for three hours , adding enough hot wat
er to that in the jars to keep them full ;
close the lids tightly and put in cool , *
dry , dark place. Asparagus freshly cut
and in good condition should be used
only. To prepare for the table pour off
the water and either place the aspara
gus in boiling water for a few minutes
or put the open can in boiling water un
til hot.
Canned Rhubarb. ' -
Select young pinkish stalks , wash J |
and cut , but do not peel , add a small *
amount of cold water ( not nearly
enough to cover ) , and boil up quickly , : j
sweetening to taste , and seal while hot. f"
Many can it unsweetened , but it is far - )
safer to use the sugar. This makes -i
excellent winter pies , and is keenly relished - *
ished as sauce during late spring , J
when the apples begin to grow flavor- „ '
less. As in canning pineapples , only
a wooden or silver knife and spoon
should be used" , the acids turning both
fruit and steel knives black. A porce
lain or agate kettle is necessary.
Care of the Sick.
When a patient has been confined to
the bed for some time it will often be
found a great relief to backache to
tuck a smooth pad of cotton under the |
small of the back. A pillow under the
knees at times will also rest one a
great deal.
"To turn a patient easily on a
drawn sheet a yard wide , " says a trained -
ed nurse , "loosen the drawn sheet at
each side of the bed. then draw the
sheet gently in whichever direction
preferred. It is better to have two
people to do this. "
Spiced Khubarb ,
Sprinkle 2J/ pounds rhubarb peeled
and sliced thin with 1 pound sugar. Let
stand over night and in the moriiig
drain off the syrup into a preserve ket
tle , add one cup sugar , half cup water
and half cup vinegar. Tie in small
cheesecloth bag half teaspoon each of
cloves , mace , allspice and ginger and
one teaspoon cinnamon ; boil until the
consistency of syrup , then add the rhu
barb and cook until clear. This is a
valuable addition to the winter's stores.
Half pint dry bread broken in small
pieces , soften with boiling water , and
add one tablespoon butter. Beat two
egss with two tablespoons sugar , mix
with bread , then add one cup fresh or
canned fruit and any preferred flavor
ing. Bake twenty minutes. Serve
warm or cold with the following sauce :
One cup sugar , one egg , heaping table
spoon butter , tablespoon flour. Beat ,
all together , add boiling water until ,
like thick cream , flavor as preferred.
Rhubarb Pie.
The following is sufficient to fill two
pies. They should have both upper
and under crusts : One cup chopped
rhubarb , one cup sugar , one cup chop
ped raisins , juice of one lemon , butter
size of an egg and one egg. Mix all