The Valentine Democrat. (Valentine, Cherry Co., Neb.) 1896-1898, August 25, 1898, Image 6

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The Custom of the Nations in Dispos
ing of Them
One of the least pleasant incidents
for the individual during the war with
Spain would be to be taken prisoner
Still as Spain makes claim to civiliza
tion it would not be so bad as though
she were an absolutely savage or even
a barbarous country The usages of
civilized nations regarding captives
conform in a general way to these prin
ciples and rules
AJ1 members of an enemy nation are
enemies though all are not treated
alike The general rule obtains that
no use of force againt an enemy is
lawful unless It is necessary to accom
plish the purposes of war and the
practical application of it refined
through centuries ha3 led to exempt
ing many classes from capture
The custom of nations exempts from
capture the persons of the sovereign
and his family officers of the civil gov
ernment women and children farmers
mechanics artisans laborers men of
science and letters and generally all
those engaged In ordinary civil pur
suits unless actually taken in anna
Count Bismarck even maintained in
3870 that the crews cf merchant ves
sels could not be made prisoners
The Geneva or Red Cross convention
exempted hospital and ambulance at
tendants and chaplains attached to hos
pitals and ambulances from capture as
By early custom soldiers when tak
en in war were killed They may be
killed to day in case of absolute neces
sityfor example if prisoners impede
the movements of an army necessary
to its preservation
Later captives were made slaves
After that the custom of holding them
forranseni came into vogue
During the seventeenth century ex
changes of prisoners- became frequent
but exchanging prisoners is not obliga
tory if the captors prefer to hold for
ransom or to leave their own com
rades in the enemys hands
Prisoners are frequently alio wed to
return to their own country on promise
not to engage again in hostilities
against the captors
Perhaps the world will some day ac
knowledge the nobility of -the spy but
it is doubtful if contending forces will
ever cease to hang or shoot him when
he is taken and convicted
War Ghat
The Franco German war cost 3000
Santiago bombardment powder cost
Englands ordnance survey map cost
The army of Gernianj boasts eight
women colonels
Yellow fever killed 11500 Spanish
soldiers in Cuba
A Bed Cross nurse wont a husband
among her patients
Spain has sent to Cuba 1000 tons of
medicines etc in three years
Our oldest vessel still In service the
schooner Polly was built in 1805
To escape from Ceuta jail a prisoner
must swim the Strait of Gibraltar
The demand for cavalry horses has
revived the equine industry in Wyo
Our coast signal service system ex
tends all the way from Bar Harbor to
Profanity is forbidden by both the
army and the navy regulations of the
United States
By the sword of my father is one
of the inostconvincing oaths a French
man can use
The Constitution forbids the Presi
dent leaving the United States while
he is President
The sword of Napoleon was laid un
sheathed on the pillow where rested
his lifeless head
During the siege of Paris no fewer
than 22000000 letters sailed out of the
city in the fifty four balloons
The breaking of the sword in halves
and throwing the weapon at the feet
of an enemy is the expression of insub
ordination the spirit that admits de
feat but remains unconquered
Searchlights are such good targets
for the enemys guns that the Germans
are arranging to throw the light first
on a mirror and thence on the enemy
thereby concealing its real source
Thc Worhls Newspaper Output
The total number of copies of news
papers printed throughout the world in
one year is 12000000000 To print
these requires 781240 tons of paper or
156248000 pounds while it would take
the fastest press in Loudon 333 years
to print a single years edition which
would produce a stack of papers nearly
fifty miles high
Us njt th Same Old Bait
Hello over there What -bait are you
fishing with
One minute A whoppers nibbling
at my hook and Im fishing with bated
breath just now
Yes I smell it now Be over in a
minute Sports Afield
Stono Weighing 150 Ton -A
Now Hampshire railway company
is struggling with the largest block of
stone ever quarried in Concord Its
dimensions are G 16 and 20 feet and it
is estimated -to weigh 150 tons It js
to be used in a monument uow in prep
aration for a Washington order
Not Yet at the Angelic Stage
13he Now that we have been married
two -years do you think I am an angel
He sighingly No not yet Boston
Daily Addition to tho Sea
The quantity of water discharged ev
ery day into the sea by all the rivers
of tbe world has been estimated to be
about thirty six cubic miles
Its only a mans heirs who are ever
really intereated3in his ailments
True she had aspirations to political
uuitv and others there were before Bis
marck who saw in the Prussian state the
possible nucleus around which German
ccoHifttocooKnssRAug Jfm frmriK BISMARCK count hoyos pkucwimimmcK
Prince Otto Edward Leopold Von Bismarck Was the Great
est Statesman of the Present Century
death of Prince Bismarck has
removed the greatest personality
that Europe has seen since the days
of Napoleon I Indeed it may be doubt
ed if even Napoleon was his equal meas
uring the two men by their deeds for the
work achieved by Napoleon has crumbled
away while that of the unifier of the Ger
man empire remains
Prince Bismarck was one of the monu
mental figures of the nineteenth century
Before his time Germany was merely a
geographical nation her unity consisting
alone in her language and her literature
racy He was especially roused by a bill
for the removal of the civil disabilities of
the Jews and he characterized a constitu
tion as a paper government His services
to royalty during the revolution of 184S
earned for him the position of a trusted
adviser of King Frederick William In
1851 Bismarck was appointed representa
tive from the Prussian court to the diet
in Frankfort-on-the-Main which met as
the mouthpiece of the forty odd states of
the German confederation and here he
became intimate with the crown prince
later King William of Prussia and the
first Emperor of United Germany Prus
sia and Austria were then rivals in the
flairs of Germany Austria strmng to
retain her preponderance and Prussia en
deavoring to destroy it and oust her from
any position in the confederation To
this purpose Bismarck closely devoted
From Frankfort Bismarck was sent as
ambassador to St Petersburg in 1859 and
here he remained three years During
this time occurred the Franco Austrian
war in Italy The Prussian army was
mobilized as a matter of defense but took
no part in the contest yet its mobilization
was enough to check Napoleon The mo
bilization also revealed defects in the
army and these were consequently remfr
died In 1862 William who had succeed
ed Frederick William IV in January
1861 recalled Bismarck and sent him as
minister to Paris Bismarck had before
this time become convinced that Prussia
would have to fight with Austria for su
premacy in Germany and with France for
the ownership of the Rhine something to
which Napoleons wild ambition aspired
and in Paris Bismarck had opportunity to
spy into French affairs Within a few
months however he was recalled to take
the position of premier and minister of
forpitrn affairs Bismarpk sit oncp cnt
- I3
unity nugnt crystallize ui u as xis Hnto hot confiicts with the House of Dep
who cut the Gordian tangle of Prussian
Austrian relations in the affairs of the
German States who so guided events
that he destroyed the hegemony of Aus
tria on the jme Jiand ajid the grasping
power and ambition of Napoleon on the
Other who cemented the political unity
of the various and hitherto discordant
German states fashioning the empire as
it is to day and crowning in the palace
of Versailles the King of Prussia as the
Emperor of a new Germany Bismarcks
name natuiaily is synonymous with Ger
man national unity the dream and hope
of hundreds of years and through him
now the possession and privilege of the
Bismarcks Career
Otto Edward Leopold von Bismarck
was born at Schonhausen April 1 1815
His family was an important one in the
affairs of Prussia and its descent can be
traced to medieval times When a year
old Bismarcks parents moved to Pome
rania where they had inherited knightly
estates the leading one being Kniephof
Here Bismarck passed five years of his
childhood but on account of a somewhat
mischievous disposition he was sent at
the age of 6 years to a boarding school
in Berlin the principal of which had the
reputation of being a strict disciplinarian
He proved an intelligent and earnest stu
dent and at the age of 17 was ready to
enter a university The wild student life
of the University of Heidelberg attracted
him and he begged to be allowed to cuter
that institution but his mother refused
sending him instead to Gottingen where
she foolishly thought he might not con
tract the beer habit At Gottingen Bis
marck led a wild and reckless life
Already before entering it be had
fought his first duel and during his uni
versity life he fought twenty eight more
being wounded only once According to
his own account he only attended lectures
twice before he passed his examination
After leaving the university he held sub
ordinate government offices but growing
weary of the dull routine of business he
retired to the estate of Kniephof where
for a time he devoted himself to its care
ful management Then he plunged into
the excesses that had marked his student
career With gay companions he gave
himself to jolly carousals and in the old
mansion none could vie with him in drink
ing Owing to his recklessness he became
known rR mad Bismarck and terrible
talcs were told of his mad adventures
But he had periods of profound disgust
with himself owing to these excesses and
often he retired into the forest with his
dor where he plunged into meditation
Suddenly he gave up his wild courses and
took up the study of- history theology and
Enters the Prussian Diet
After the death of his lather in 1845
the family estates were divided and
Kirii phxrf and Schonhausen fell to the
possession of Bismarck Two years later
Bismarck utarriedTohanna von Putkam
mer and in the sameear he appeared as
a delegate in the UnitedVDiet summoned
by King Frederick WilliXm IV
The Prussian King jvasen at logger
heads with his subjects te latter de
UMiidmg greater rights anil a constitu
tion Bismarck unnosed theSSanting Qf
any concessions by the King an
n liiftnv Tififk mi lilicrnlisju and
uties which had refused to vote an in
creased military budget and he carried
everything with a high hand His
ness and contempt for the members was
unbounded Constitutions he once
said when taxed with governing without
a constitution may be decided in other
countries by a change of ministers but
this is not the custom in Prussia With
us if two political bodies which cannot
to law are unable to agree circum
stances decide which of the two is the
stronger And circumstances did so de-
cide and tne orrussiuu wmiuuei uuM
that Bismarciv u u duuo t
In 1SG3 owing to reasons not necessary
to discuss here Austria and Prussia de
xa on coinc to war with Denmark
The Prussian Parliament refused to vote
awar credit whereupon Bismarck bolil
ly replied Hf weJiod it necessary to go
to war we shall do so with your approval
or without And to war Russia went
Denmark speedily succumbed and part or
her territory was transferred to Prussia
and Austria The war pigmy as it
was sufficient to enable Prussia to com
plete her almost perfect army organiza
tion and avaij was almost immediately
made of the opportunity But it did not
remove the hatred which Bismarcks par
liamentary course had engendered and an
attempt was made to assassinate him
Bismarck was honored by having bestow
ed upon him the order of tho Blaqk Eagler
and he was furthermore made- a Prus
sian count
He Humbles Austria
Meantime through Austrian stupidity
and Bismarckian diplomacy Austria and
Prussia were rapidly drifting into- war
It was the opportunity that Bismarck
had worked for and waited for and when
Austria ruptured the treaty of Gastein
entered into at the end of the Danish Avar
the order for the mobilization of the Prus
sian troops was given Gen Moltke Gen
Itoon Bismarck and King William work
ed in entire accord and so well had Bis
marck done in his diplomatic work that
Italy declared war against Austria at the
same moment as Prussia
While crushing the power of Austria
Bismarck diplomatically played with Na
poleon who at first sought to extend the1
French frontier as it was in 1814 offer
ing for such consideration to let Prussia1
have her own way with Austria and who
then when Austrian power was crushed
on the field of Sadowa sought to gain
Prussian support for the seizure of Bel
gium and Luxemburg Napoleon gained
neither of his objects while he fatally
allowed Austria to be crushed and Ger
many to rise as a powerful and rapidly
uniting nation
In February 1867 the North German
Parliament opened in Berlin with repre
sentatives of twenty two States north of
the Main and in April a constitution was
agreed on and Bismarck was made chan
cellor of the confederation The three
years preceding 1870 were spent by Bis 1
niarck in consolidating the union of North
and South Germany and by Napoleon in
endeavoring to thwart him And then
came- Napoleons- mad declaration of war
There is no need to recapitulate the story
of the terrible avalanche of blood and de
struction that swept over France during
the autumn- of 1870 Napoleon surren
dered his sword on the battlefield of Sedan-
and his dynasty was forever ended
On March 1871 the German army en
tered Paris and the Avar was over
p man unity was- an accomplished fact and
King Wilfiinn I was the crowned Em
peror of the- now German empire Bis
marck received the- title of prince and be
came chancellor
Burt Bismarcks work was not ended
Distinguished Statesman Soldier Diplomat and Unifier of the
German Empire
He had to conserve what he had establish
ed and bulwark Germany against a
French war of revenge The effect of
this policy is found in the triple alliance
of Germany Austria and Italy as it exists
to day
Bismarcks astonishing success in the
Franco Prussian war did not relieve him
of political difficulties at home and in
1877 wearied by parliamentary difficul
ties and ill health he tendered his resig
nation Germany protested against this
act and the Emperor refused to accept his
resignation and Bismarck remained chan
cellor In 1878 two attempts were made
by the socialists to assassinate the Em
peror and this led to the enactment of
harsh laws against that society The laws
were remorselessly administered and tVie
result was extremely trying to Bismavfcfc
He Keaigus His Office
In 18S8 Emperor William ded and
Frederick William between vhom and
Bismarck there was not urtch admira
tion clime to the throneBut he lived
as ruler only a brief firae and then
if I ft M
s -
liam II became Emperor It was then
almost an article of German faith that the
Iron Chancellor as Bismarck was called
would continue to steer the ship of state
It seemed impossible to conceive of a
fresh hand at the rudder But although
between Bismarck and the youthful
er there was a bond of admiration and
although the latter at the beginning
learned to lean upon the unifier of the
German nation differences sprang up be-
tween them William issued an order
tliat ministers were to report to him di
rectly instead as heretofore to- the chan
cellor This was taking power out of
the- hands1 of Bismarck and naturally the
latter rebelled against the edict and ten-
deredi his resignation as chancellor He
lind done this so often when in serious
litical crises only to have his resignation
rejected by lias sovereign that doubtless-
To Herbert tho son of tho
sended the title of bis illustrious fatherand estate
Bismarck thought that William would not
suffer him to sever his connection with
the Government of the nation which he
more than any other- had builded But
William accepted i theresignationi and im
May 1S90 BisniarckYlaid down the cares
of state and retiredtohis estate -of Erodr
He was followed to his retreat
of the German people and the
admiration of Europe But it took years
to heal the breach between him and Wil
liam and it was not until 1894 that the
Kaiser and bis great subject becamereer
onciled Bismarck from his
retreat had inspired bitter attacks
on the Government policy and to the
thousands of peopleifrom all parts ofthe
empire who visited him had delivered
speeches that enkindled political rancor
It was therefore- good politics for- the
Kaiser to seek a reconciliation and in
1893 he took the first step when heeof
fered one of his castles to the agedstates
man that lie might regain his strength
which had been materially impaired
marck gracefully- declined the offerr In
January 1S94 William invited Bismarck
to visit him in Berlin The visit was paid
in January and Bismarcks receptioniby
the people along liis way was such
has- been accorded to rulerr sub
ject The Kaisers greeting was- cordial
in the extreme and the following month
the Emperor paid a return visit to his
great and distinguished subject The en
tire empire celebrated the recouciliation
as ani important historical event
His Domestic Sorrow
Sooni aftenwaird a crushing blow fell on
Bismarck a Mow that made all his sub
j sequent years fidl of loneliness In No-
1894 his beloved wife died She
was nine- years younger than her
bandiandlhad ever been to Mm since theirr
marriage day in 1S47 a faitiif ul and de
voted helpmate In his private life Bisr
inarek was happy and was devoted to his
liomei 0xer him the princess in purely-
domestic- affairs had a great influence
but thfe did not extendi to his political
1 life- Bismarck was fon of nature and
music- and as a musicifca his wife was
accomplished During liis entire life Bis
marck was a lover of liorses and seldom
i rtyassfci xwbjv jaaujL j
pJ mmMmjMMSSmi
nrfl ni W iE2jmn iviu c iijii jli
f mmmmim mm t
since his school days m uernn was ne fuire
nnaccomnanied by one or more large dog
such as mastiffs or great danes He v
a lover of good eating and drinking ind
was a heavy smoker until a few years
ago when he began to suffer from its
A sketch of the great lifeclosed would
be Incomplete without some reference to
the honors heaped upon him by his Coun
trymen When Bismarck began hi3 po
litical career he was by no means a ricif
man He possessed som patrimonial es
tates but the domain of Schonhausen
where he was born had passed crat of his
control In 18G6 after the successful
war with Austria he purchased the Tar
zin estate near Berlin with the donation
that had been accorded him by Prussia
in recompense for his diplomatic skill In
1871 Emperor William presented hifti
with 300000 of the indemnity paid b7
France and with this he purchased the
estate of Friedrichsruhe near Hamburgh
It consists of 20000 acres Then in 1885
on the occasion of his seventieth birthday
I tho nation bomrht back fr7 miblic sub r
li - 0 w m
g scripffon the old family domain of Schon j
Y liausett and presented it to til prince and
princess and their children forever 0m
life eightieth birthday celebratibft in 1S95i
in Which the entire nation toofe part he
waa the recipient of great and rGBjtendent
Nor would a sketch of Bismarak be
complete without reference to his cotonial
policy Under him Germany bmnehed
out as a colonial rival to Great BcfSain
and where formerly she did not have- an
acre of soil- outside the fatherland she
now ranks- as one of the great colonial
powers of the world Her flag floats
from the great lakes at the head wator3
of the Nile- to- the shores of the Indian
ocean Vast areas in southwestern Af
rica and back of the Gulf of Guinea ac
knowledge her sovereignty She is firmly
established on the great island of Papua
and has possession of many of the impo
tant groups theb stretch across the South
Pacific ocean
Summary Off Hia Character
But whatever the success of Bismarck3
political life there- is mucli in it thai
Anglo Saxon civilization will not approve
As a statesman Bismarck was arbitrary-
self willed and unscrupulous-
His political ideas- were those of a bora
i feudalist He governed with the strongr
hand of absolute power aud crushed out
every attempt to- assent the political free
dom of the individual or the masses He-
j was an absolute believes in the divine
J night of kings and- the- throne and the
army were regarded- by him as the only
foundation of the state Sound in his foreign-political
relations- he made blunders-
in- domestic affairs- cheating the people-
with a semblance of liberty and self-government
Viewed in tile fight of history
when- time shall have furnished a truer
persReetive BJsmaPck will stand forth
as a man who was eminently fitted to realize-
the ideal hopes- audi aspirations of
the- German people but as a man with
I many human failings Tt remains to be-
iseen how long Germany shall endur
which he established
Historic horn
Stimraoned Slaves to Labor and Pre
Based the Death of Revenues
There is an old J Battered tin horn in
the possession of an ancient colored
maniatiDaltonvGajfaraand which are
associated iniemories of many deeds of
In thk horn was the
inropertyyofi5Cdl BeaVLoughridge a
wealthy planter of Murray County It
was originally used to summon his
many slaves toworkanBBto meals and
its welcome note at sunset was the
signal foDrthenxtoirestffrom the days
became sep
arated from thee Iougliridge famil y
and from that tirruKuntia few months-ago-was-the
period ofiiiis stirring his
tory Murray County has for years
been-a- stronghold ofl the
Time af tor itiine the revenue
jofficers madei desperate raids on the-
ilficitr distilleriesr killing and being
killed yet -never entineSy subduing the
stubborn mountaineers The mellow
noteof thje oldtinihorn would always
wararthiwhiskyjrebelsfof the approach i
offtlieirr enemies and many a good k
I Tile moonshiners virould station a
IlUsty lunged sentinel Ion some
mountain rockk wjiiich commanded-
a vJew of the valley below and
suspicious symptom in
to send
horn flying audi
the moonshiners themselves scurrying
to- thein itnpvovisfitl fortresses aruedl
toitiie taetliiandireaily to take and rfeit
-life for whatr thoy considered
jrjghts andim the- defense of tfcftirr
UDnrthstoneSi Tojthe revenues
waybone theodlsmal inforination1tftfc
f torn tile- nextr oxag or bramble
might expect a slaying volley
theiR hidflom foes
i The horn is a specif
1 off m notorious gang whul i tvs
irorized tile- jaountry up to vithiJn a
jyear ago Br was used to tthe
forces ofi this gang and was oteii tfiie
I preface- to a bloody conflict bistrweia
them audi tlir laws represen4atiyes
Wheai the- gang was finally
ofi the- hoEia passed into tlieppssosrsion
of old- Ckcle Isaac a fcyiWJi efo
de ratc oegro and the od maja ftften
brings it out and recousJtiSMsrest
ingr history BaltimoreSjipa
First Stand rj Ao njy
The lirst standing avigjv which
there- is any record was organized by
i King Saul 1093 B QThfyQanty of Xer
xes in invading Greeqej numbered
i 1 JQiO000 foot ancH SQpOft horses 4Sd
B G The first sndjng army of mod-
era times was iaintaaaed in Franc
bj Charles VILv4fl Standing armpa
Trare first estriQlishedi In England
Cbarles 1 lffig
KemaarkabGT IrrlgatioiiT
Xo fewer ihan 12000000 acr o
land have bHnia0e fruitful in ear
1 hara deserian eateririseeprej5entiias
perhaps tfej most iemarkable esarn4Ift
of irrigation by lisearis of artesins Wellsi
which cn anyrhere be foui2i
Irijjht in tho Eark Coiaeat
Tho lamp mostly used Africa is
a simple coatrivance Ij a eocoanut
shvll fillel with palm a- hit of rag
ia placed to serve as wick and this
gives all the light thit tlie natives ra
JOO muiiy iJeuHp are iuoKing for
chance to sit dovrn If you e qlongJV
rnn Irpprv in vnnr foof vx r
We greatly admire a rmn AVi10 has
sense enough ijQt to bea tliorousred