Cherry County independent. (Valentine, Cherry Co., Neb.) 18??-1896, March 12, 1896, Image 3

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experiments follow
ed as they have been by the efforts
of other savants along the same
lines together with wide newspaper dis
cussion have given popular thought and
common conversation a tendency toward
rhe scientific and the abstruse Roentgen
rays X rays cathode rays ultra violet
jags ipiif
rays the words are as familiar to the ear
us the alphabet Stated briefly Prof
Wilhelm Konrad Roentgen has found a
jieans whereby articles behind opaque
substances or contained therein may be
photographed and their position accurate
ly defined The pictures thus obtained
are light often shadows only on the plate
Their character is determined by the rela
tive density of the inclosing matter If
the envelope present slight obstruction to
the X rays the impression of the object
whose photograph is sought is proportion
ately distinct It is easy to see that this
discovery may be put to great practical
use and it has for that reason excited an
interest almost universal
It is difficult to describe the Roentgen
discovery and mode of procedure in such
terms as may be popularly understood
To photograph any object of course tliere
must be light In the Roentgen method
this is furnished by what are called
Crookes tubes In brief they may be
described as glass cylinders from which
the air lias been partially exhausted In
each end of each tube is placed a disk
one of which conveys an electric current
to the interior of the tube and the other
carries it away making the return wire a
battery It is believed that the glass
sorbs 95 per cent of the light so that it is
a great point in their manufacture to have
- lis
nvwcfijrjtr s
Famous inventor of the Crookes tube
in diameter and is placed on an angle as
if intended to act as a reflector
The generation of the light says Mr
Edison takes place when the proper flu
orescence is obtained within the tube and
it is caused by the action of the electric
fluid in disturbing the molecules of rare
fied air The cathode disk does not make
the light but propels it with great force
against and through the glass of its prison
and anvthing else that may intervene be
tween it and the sensitive plate which is
to register its rays
With the Crookes tube at hand and
with a battery containing enough elec
tricity to last during the experiments the
scientist now devotes his attention to the
securing of a sensitive plate which will
register an image of the object to be pho
tographed So far the ordinary dry
plates used by an amateur or professional
have foeen used with success The unex
posed plate is put in a dry plate holder
This furnishes protection from the day
light Any article which it is desired to
secure an image of is procured All tee
light is shut out from the laboratory or
wherever the experiment is to be made
The proper wire connections are made
with the battery and tubes Directly un
der the glass is placed the dry plate still
in the holder It is unnecessary to draw
the slide for the X rays will penetrate
wood or Eteel as readily as they will pass
through a piece of glass Between the
glass and the dry plate is placed the ob
ject to be photographed It is laid on the
slide of the holder Lenses or reflectors
are unnecessary as will be explained
later When everything has been placed
carefully and all is ready the electric
current is flashed on For a moment it
creeps along the tube and flares up Soon
it becomes steady and its rays spread
out upon the image Down through the
envelope the rays fall They cut their
way through every fiber straight down
until they fall upon the sensitive plate
and register their passage If an object
such as a bone or piece of metal stands
in the way then and only then do they
pause and their interruption is shown by
the delicate plate being unaffected If a
bullet is imbedded in the flesh and here is
where the first practical benefit to sur
gery has been found by the new art the
impression is left The time of exposure
varies When it has been sufficiently ex
posed the current is shut off and the plate
taken to the developing room There the
process used by any amateur is carried
out The plate is first developed in the
ruby light and it is then fixed with
hyposulphite of soda It can then be ex
posed to daylight without any fear of be
ing changed The negative if the experi
ment has been a success will show a thin
outline of the enveloping medium and a
lighter shade for the article whose photo
graph or shadow is desired It will be
understood that in the developed work the
conditions of the negative are reversed
the inclosing substance is represented in
the lighter shade the interposed denser
object in the darker
Prof Roentgen when lie ascertained
the effects producible by the X the un-
Horn handled razor in its case of cloth covered
cardboard Photographed by A A Swinton
through a piece of hlack vulcanised liber 0212
inch thick
known rays was pursuing a line of in
quiry in continuation of a series of experi
ments by Geissler Gassioit Ilittorf and
Grookes He progressed from the points
at which they had stopped and in later
laboratory work in Europe and America
Km I
w f
tfW SA
I Imported Crookes Tube II Tube for Experiments in Vacuum in Tube
frith Which Edison Will Make the Brain Photograph IV Edisons Ordinary
them as thin as possible Tliomas A Edi
son makes very thin ones and he claims
that is a point of superiority lie applies
the term fluorescent tubes to those of
his own manufacture
In his experiments he uses two alum
inum disks one representing the anode or
positive pole and the other the cathode
or negative pole The positive or anode
disk or electrode is suspended by a small
wire close to the mouth or top of the bulb
The cathode or negative disk is fixed in
the center of the bulb It is half an inch
it is found that the results obtained by
Roentgen have been improved upon The
earlier explorers in this field regarded
the rays as proceeding directly from the
cathode Roentgen holds otherwise He
confesses himself at somewhat of a loss
to describe these rays and their full prop
erties but is confident that they do not
proceed directly from the cathode but
issue only from that part of the Crookes
tube where the cathode rays strike the
glass wall It is as if the true cathode
rays were decomposed and those which
Prof Roentgen denominates the X rays
pass on while the other components of
the cathode rays are exhausted or ab
sorbed in the glass In the earlier experi
ments early is used in a relative sense
only as all this Roentgen information
measures its existence by weeks in the
first attempts at the new photography it
was necessary to expose the plates for a
long time more than an hour in some in
stances Before any results were produc
ed The perfection of the appliances kept
pace with the interest of The subject and
Prof Wittman of the high school at
Buda Pesth has reduced the time neces
sary to obtain a well defined Roentgen
photograph to three minutes under ordi
nary circumstances and thirty seconds
under perfect conditions
No substance is impervious to this new
form of radiant energy Matter against
which ordinary light rays beat helplessly
and from which they are thrown with a
power apparently greater Lhan their strik
ing force are as open gates for the X
rays On this point Roentgen the pioneer
The most strikiug feature of this phenom
enon is that an Inlluence capable of exciting
brilliant fluorescence is able to pass through
the black cardboard cover which transmits
none of the ultra violet rays of the sun or
of the electric arc and one immediately in
quires whether other bodies possess this
property It is soon discovered that all bodies
are transparent to this influence but in
very different degrees A few examples will
suffice Taper is very transparent The
fluorescent screen held behind a bound vol
ume of 1000 pages still lighted up brightly
the printers ink offered no perceptible ob
stacle Fluorescence was also noted behind
two packs of cards a few cards held be
tween apparatus aud screen made no per
ceptible difference A single sheet of tin
foil Is scarcely noticeable only after several
layers have been laid on top of each other
Is a shadow clearly visible on the screen
Thick blocks of wood are also transparent
fir planks two or three centimeters thick
are but slightly opaque A film of aluminum
about fifteen nillimcters thick weakens the
Effect very considerably Jouch It does not
entirely destroy the fluorescence Several
centimeters of vulcanized India rubber let
the rays through Glass plates of the same
thickness behave in a different way accord
ing as they contain lead flint glass or not
the former are much less transparent than
the latter If the hand is held between the
discharge tube and the screen the dark
shadow of the bones is visible within the
slightly dark shadow of the hand Water
Sir H
ilk wH
Photo by Dr Miller Toronto
bisulphide of carbon and various other
liquids behave in this respect as if they were
very transparent I was not able to deter
mine whether water was more transparent
than air ISehind plates of copper silver
lead gold platinum fluorescence is still
clearly visible but only when the plates are
not too thick Platinum OJ millimeters
thick is transparent silver and copper
sheets may be decidedly thicker Lead lH
millimeters thick is as good as opaque and
was on this account rften made use of A
wooden rod of 120x20 millimeters cross sec
tion painted white with lead paint on one
side behaves in a peculiar manner When
it is interposed between apparatus and
screen it has almost no effect when the X
rays go through the rod parallel to the
painted side but it throws a dark shadow
if the rays have to traverse the paint Very
similar to the metals themselves are their
salts whether solid or in solution
The reports of Prof Roentgens ex
periments produced a great activity
among students everywhere Newspa
pers and scientific journals were filled
with reports of the labors and new discov
eries made Tliere is not an institution
of learning or a laboratory worthy the
name in America where the Roentgen
method of photography has not been put
to practical test One remarkable dis
covery was made incidental to some ex
periments in New York Prof Max Os
tenberg of Columbia College desiring to
photograph the framework of a mouse
drowned the creature in a bucket of water
The animal remained under water fifteen
minutes after it had ceased to struggle
It had been effectually dead more than an
hour when the apparatus was finally ar
ranged It was laid upon the plate and
subjected to the powerful rays from the
Crookes tubes and after an hour of ex
posurerevived sufficiently to struggle to
its feet and crawl about the plate Nat
urally this phenomenon excited much in
terest as a new quality of the Roentgen
rays was disclosed The possibilities of
benefit to humanity in case the rays are
found upon further examination to pos
sess the revivifying power are vast
Edison the wizard has plunged enthu
siastically into the new study and has
largely invented his own apparatus The
Crookes tubes he thought dissipated
too much of the new energy and he made
some for himself They are thinner and
give better results Prof A W Wright
of Yale is one of the siost hard working
scientists who has entered into the new de
partment of research and has strikingly
confirmed all of Roentgens experiments
Prof Wrights experiments were made
witfli a great variety of substances and it
was found that strong impressions were
obtained upon a photographic plate even
when it was inclosed in an opaque wrap
ping of black paper and covered with a
pine board half an inch thick
Prof Ilenry A Bunstead of the Shef
field School at Yale has also ardently
pursued the investigation of X rays along
with Prof Wright Mr Bunstead has ex
perimented on several animals lie first
took a mouse and the photograph shows
the skull quite clearly but the bones are
riiotogrfph taken by Professor Cox of Mon
treal showing where a bullet was lodged which
has been extracted from the leg of a man who
was shot on Christmas Day
not at all well brought out With a fish
and a frog Mr Bunstead also obtained
good results The backbone of the fish
is easily distinguishable as is also the
bladder In the frog the leg bones are
clearly visible Mr Bunstead obtained
good photographs of coins in a heavy
leather case The coins were mixed in
with a lot of visiting cards and the case
was placed beneath a pine board an inch
thick He also obtained a good photo
graph of a pair of eyeglasses placed be
neath a board and of the kernels of Eng
lish walnuts All these experiments were
made in broad daylight and the exposure
of the negative lasted about an hour in
each instance
Prof Rike and Dr Miller of Toronto
together with others have made careful
experiments They have photographs
clearly defining the ibony structure of ttie
frog and another showing the ease with
which X rays penetrate wood A coin
a bradawl and a chisel were exposed The
tang of the awl where it enters the wood
can be traced easily The wood is in half
shadow Prof Eugene Haanel of the
jt fwemm 5tf vXBZ2yBZ
Syracuse University had marked succesB
in photographing the interior of a frog
Prof Haanel and other scientists of de
gree predict that Edisons attempt to
jihptograph the brain will never prove suc
cessful They think he may get the in
terior line of the skull but the brain be
ing less dense will not furnish a suffi
cient resistance to the rays
What of Roentgen and how did ne
make his great discovery He has a chair
in the department of physics in the Wurz
burg University A short time ago he
was unknown except to his fellow inquir
ers into the phenomena and laws of nat
ural philosophy This discovery was
brought about by pure accident Prof
Roentgen while experimenting in a dark
room with a Grookes tube through which
an inductive electric current was passed
was greatly astonished to find that a pho
tographic plate inclosed in wooden slides
which had been lying in the same room
revealed some strange impressions which
could not possibly be attributed to the in
fluence of ordinary light from without
Struck with the curiousuess of this phe
nomenon for which no possible reasons
seemed to exist Prof Roentgen experi
mented again under exactly the same
conditions and found that the photo
graphic plate could have been reached
only by a light which was capable of
penetrating wood -a substance which hith
erto has always been considered opaque
Further trials showed not only that such
light existed and was generated in a
Crookes tube but that it possessed the
faculty of penetrating many other sub
stances such as organic tissues paper
etc while certain metals and bone sub
stances calcium phosphate did not lose
their opacity Prof Roentgen further
succeeded in obtaining photographic im
pressions of- metallic objects which had
been inclosed in a wooden box and also
of the skeleton of a living hand Then
he gave his findings to the world
A Touching Scene Witnessed on a
New York Car
A pathetic incident occurred in a
BroadAvay cable car one evening re
cently Two men boarded the car at
Chambers street They were broad
shouldered athletic looking men and
one familiar with professional ath
letes would have recognized in one a
ball player well known in the Na
tional League and the other a well
known prize fighter The men were
chatting and did not pay much atten
tion to the way they were jostled as
the car filled up rapidly It was early
in the evening and the theater crowd
was moving
At 14th street the ear stopped and
two young women got on They were
handsomely dressed and had a general
look that would cause one to take
them for actresses They were at once
recognized by the men mentioned The
two men sprang to their feet and greet
ed the young women warmly The
car was filled and many were stand
ing Just as the pugilist got on his
feet a man who was standing pushed
a friend gently into the seat just va
cated The pugilist turned angrily and
laid a strong hand upon the man who
had just seated himself and said in a
firm voice
Excuse me sir I meant that seat
for this lady
It looked ominous to those who saw
the gleam in the eye of the pugilist
The man addressed said hastily
I beg your pardon Excuse me
Even as he spoke he was trying to
rise but as he did he felt in front of
him in uncertain manner The pugilist
looked searehingly into his face and
then caught him by the shoulder firm
ly but gently and pushed him back
into the seat saying
Thats all right old man you keep
the seat
Then he turned to the young woman
and said quietly
Youll have to stand Blanche the
poor chaps blind New York Trib
Clean Stables
Start into the winter with clean sta
ples and keep them in that condition
We always hear that stock of all kinds
are more liable to contract disease in
winter than summer and no doubt
many ills that stock contract in winter
may be traced to filthy stables and bad
ventilation Clean stalls and good bed
ding make stock healthy
The North Kingdom
Norway is more properly Norea
meaning North Isle It is called by
the natives The North Kingdom
Mrs Wickwire You dont know
what a grief it is to have a husband
who thinks he is funny Mrs Watts
What is the trouble dear I asked him
last evening to bring home some good
up-to-date literature and he brought
a bundle of almanacs Indianapolis
Mr McCann I am building a house
and am only using lumber from the
zero forests of Michigan FriendWhy
so Mr McCann Because trees that
can stand zero all winter ought to make
a warm house so they ought Truth
should older people be corn
led to be childish and play with
dctyls at Christmas
The Siate Auditor Reports a De
crease of Over 9000000 in Mort
gaged Indebtedness fjr 1S05
Farmers Getting Out of Debt
Mortgaged for Millions
State Auditor Moore has completed the
record of the mortgage indebtedness of
Nebraska for the year ending December
51 I8d5 The total farm town and city
ind chattel mortgages filed for that year
how a decrease of 91S89770i from that
t the yen- of 18Jl To offset this how
jver there is a corresponding decrease in
he total amount of satisfactions the sat
sfactions of farm town and city and
chattel mortgages for 1805 being 9289
57742 less than for the same period in
1891 The total decrease of farm mort
gages is 411802275 total decrease of
shattel mortgages 323728752 In town
and city mortgages for 1895 there is a de
arease of nearly 2000000 and a corre
sponding decrease in the amount of satis
factions The number of sheriffs deeds
and other deeds in foreclosure are about
the same for the two years
Two Inches Reported in Many Sec
tions of the State
Irvington Feb 29 Two inches of
snow have fallen since last evening with
indications of more Ground in fine con
dition to receive it
La Platte Feb 29 Sarpy County was
treated to a snowfall of two inches today
The moisture was needed
Fremont Feb 29 Nearly two inches
of snow fell here last night and this morn
ing It was very damp
Bennington Feb 29 Fully three inches
of snow fell here last night and to
day it being the first snow of any conse
quence this winter
Wahoo Feb 29 About two inches o
snow fell here this morning and indica
tions are that more will fall to night
Dunbar Feb 39 Snow commenced
falling here about 4 oclock and continued
ill forenoon with prospects of lasting all
Old Feb 29 All day yesterday a fu
rious storm of wind was raging from the
northwest and to day there are indications
of snow
Norlh Bend Feb 29 The first snow in
this vicinity since December 1 commenced
this morning
Weston Feb 29 A fine shower fell
last night followed by a fall of six inches
of snow This moisture was much
needed as the ground was very dry and
dusty Some of the farmers in this local
ity have finished sowing wheat and the
rain and snow last night puts the soil in a
most favorable condition
Peru Feb 29 Snow to the depth of
four inches fell here last night and it is
still snowing
Plattsmouth Feb 29 A heavy snow
commenced falling at an early hour here
this morning and continued steadily until
noon when the snow slacked up and a
Ueavy mist set in Winter wheat has a
jtand never heard of here before The
ground seems in splendid condition the
moisture extending down as deep as eight
sen inches The creeks through this
20unty that have been dry all summer and
fall have for some unknown cause
began sending a clear current of water
along their dusty banks
Fort Calhoun Feb 29 Snow fell lasf
night in this vicinity to the depth of about
two inches no wind accompanying
Selling Fire Water to Indians
On complaint of United States Indian
Agent Clements of Santee Agency Dep
uty United States Marshal Tomlinson
arrested Adam Farester proprietor of the
brewery at Niobrara on the charge of
selling beer to Indians He bad his hear
ing before the United States Commissioner
who bound him over to the United States
district court in the sum of S300 whicn he
secured There has been for the past two
years a reckless liquor traffic going on
with the Indians the claim having been
that the Indians having had their lands
allotted to them and are voters are free
So drink if they see fit A te3t case is
ialked of this point never having been
Tully settled There is considerable un
pleasantness about it since the fines
have been but nominal and the bootleg
ging and liquor traffic have continued for
- quarter of a centnry without any let up
Buildings Burned at Arapaho l
At Arapaho fire destroyed the Bennett
block the Reynolds block and a small
one story frame building The fire orig
inated in Deans drug store in the Bennett
block His loss on stock is about 3000 to
4000 with 2000 insurance A Mr Hills
family who lived up stairs lost its entire
house furnishings including all wearing
apparel Tliere was no insurance on the
Reynolds building Tliere was a slight
loss on the drug stock with 500 insurance
on the building On the Bennett block
there was no insurance
Two Girls Collide with a Car
Misses Shickley and Mills young un
married women residing at Lincoln had
a narrow escape from death on the street
car track In company with another
young woman from Grand Island they
tried to cross the track in front of an ap
proaching car Misses Shickley and
Mills lost their heads ran back and forth
and were struck and knocked down by
the car They both suffered severe scalp
wound and bruises about the body but
Misrepresenting Nehraska
Frequent reports are received from the
eastern and middle states that persons are
soliciting aid for Nebraska sufferers and
making deplorable statements about ex
isting want and destitution The repre
sentations are untrue and the solicitors
are almost without an exception impos
tors and areacting without proper author
ity The secretary of the State Board of
Agriculture has made exhaustive in
inquiries throughout the state and ascer
tained that no relief is needed
Abolish Terminal Charges
The first step of the railways toward
satisfying Nebraska cattle shippers was
taken when the Missouri Pacific withdrew
all terminal charges at the Omaha stock
yards This has been a great source of
trouble as shippers thought it unjust
The Bock Island also abolishes terminal
Given Membership in A R A
The Cass County Agricultural Society
has been given membership in the Ameri
can Racing Association and is making
great preparations lor the races to be held
at Plaltsmouth in September
Terrible Trip of a Woman
A few days ago as Mr and Mrs Philip
Gleich who live near Doniphan were re
turning home their team became fright
ened and upset the buggy Mr Gleich
was thrown out on his head and shoulders
and sustained a few slight bruises but
Mrs G eich was less fortunate Her foot
and knee became entangled in the wheel
an I she was dragged for a distance of
one and one half mile3 and crossing
seven bridges over the hard rough oak
planks Every particle of clothing was
torn from her body and her entire body is
covered with bruises Both limbs and abdo
men were lacerated and bruised but Im
possible as it may seem no bones wore
broken The worst injuries are internal
During the entire trip she remained con
scious The team after iumiing this dis
tance ran into a barbed wire fence
throwing one of the horse3 and holding
him fast
This was near the residence of a Mr
Gallagher lie hearing the struggling
horses went out to investigate She wa3
then unconscious and was carried into tho
house and a physician called
Stamford Citizens Indignant
The citizens of Stamford aud vicinity
have become very indignant over the mat
ter of some parties living near that place
who are continually writing to Iowa and
Illinois for aid claiming that their fam
ilies are destitute and in a starving con
dition It is said these parties are known
and if they do not desist sending such
libelous and misleading letters to other
states for the sake of personal gain they
will be prosecuted That part of Nebras
ka has plenty to spare this year without
soliciting aid
Litigation Over a Wrecked Mill
At a special sessiou of the district court
atBIoommgton the most important mat
ter to come up is the Franklin mill case
Last spring during the high water the
dam was washed out and the mill fell in
to the river Nothing was done toward
getting it out until a month ago when
the judge appointed a receiver The
property was sold at auction and now the
numerous judgments and mortgagors
come into court all claiming first right
Norfolk Gets the Trophy
The Governors Cup which created so
much trouble in state militia circles the
last encampment has been made the sub
ject of a general order by Gen Barry
Under the order the cup is to be delivered
to the Moore rifles at Norfolk in accord
ance with the award made at Hastings
The rifles are in good shape to retain the
trophy and as soon as their new armory
is built will have the very best faoilities
for drilling
Seeding Well Advanced
A little over three inches of snow has
fallen in the vicinity of Holdredge the
past week The ground there was in good
condition before and this wet it down so
that small grain will sprout and grow
without any moisture for some time
Quite a good deal of seeding has been
done already the ground in all instances
being in a very fine condition in fact it is
in the best condition that it has been smco
Awful Death of a Farmer
While Peter Stonberg a farmer living
nine miles west of Stromsburg was out
ting corn stalks the horses he was driv
ing became unmanageable and in the
runaway Stonburg fell in front of the
cutter aud became entangled in the knives
and was horribly mangled When the
horses were stopped by neighbors it re
quired some fifteen minutes to extrioate
the body from the machine He lived but
a few minutes after being released
r Omaha Canal Knocked Out
The supreme court has disposed of what
is known as the Omaha canal case By
the terms of the opinion the act of the
r legislature of last winter under which it
was sought to submit a proposition for the
voting of bonds i3 declared null and void
The opinion wa3 written by Commissioner
Ryan concurred in by Justice Norval and
Harrison Commissioner Irvine not sit
ting and Chief Justice Post dissenting
Frozen to Death While Injured
Coroner Holyoke of Lincoln held an in
quest over E G Johnson near Martel
whose body was found in the public road
The investigation disclosed the fact that
he was moving his household goods and
was thrown from his wagon He was
stunned by the fall and expired from the
Pupils Given a Scare
While the chemistry class was experi
menting in the Bloomington high school
laboratory with acid a scholar applied a
match to one of the tubes and an explosion
followed Prof Bowers was badly cut in
the face and considerable damage done to
the laboratory
Death Sentence Commuted
Gov Ilolcomb has commuted the deatn
sentence of John B Walker the Dawson
County murderer to imprisonment for
Nehraska News Notes
J F Bradshaw has succeeded J T
Miller as postmaster of Superior
Tramps burned a Union Pacific box
car at Central City
Gustav Anderson of Bellevue was fined
10 and costs for whipping his aged
A young Cass County farmer lost 400
in the gambling joints of South Omaha
Fred Worfel of Hastings has been aa
judged insane and sent to the asylum at
Lake Quinnebaug near Tekamah is
threatened with annihilationby the Mis
souri Eiver
Thousands of dollars worth of hay was
destroyed by the overflow of the Platte
Eiver caused by the ice gorge at Schuy
Samuel Sanders who owns a large farm
west of Plattsmouth marketed two pork
ers the combin ed weight of which was
Central City people object because the
Union Pacific fast mail passes through
their town at the rate of fifty miles an
Albert and Norteii Askerman young
boys of Council Bluffs were arrested Sun
day at Ashland charged with burning a
house in Iowa
H F Hubbard a commercial man oj
New York City died suddenly in a Ne
braska City hotel
A tin box filled with gold dust valued
at 300 was uncovered by William Austin
while digging a foundation for his home
near Plaltsmouth
William Grim who mysteriously disaj
peared from Bellevue last summer and
who it was thought had committed sui
cide has turned up in Chicago
Yeteran soldiers of Holt Brown Eock
Keya Paha and Boyd Comities will hold
a reunion at a date to be fixed at the meet
ing of a committee at Lnnrr TMno n
i June 3