The McCook tribune. (McCook, Neb.) 1886-1936, December 08, 1893, Image 7

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^ Cleveland Believes That Tariff
Reform Should Be Pushed.
This Work Has lleen Ci'nUJod to the
Democratic Party and a Failure to Give
Relief Will Be Sheer Recreauoy—Work
of Departments Reviewed—Hawaiian
Question Will Be Treated In a Future
Washington, Dec. 4.—Following is
President Cleveland’s message read to
both houses of congress;
To the Congress of the United States:
The constitutional duty which requires
the president front time to time to give to
congress information of the state of the
union and recommend to their considera
tion such legislation as lie shall judge
necessary, is fittingly entered upon by
commending to the congress a careful
commendation of the detailed statements
and well supported recommendations con
tained in the reports of departments who
are chiefly charged with the executive
work of tlifr government. In an effort to
abridge this communication as much as
is consistent with its purpose, I shnll sup
plement a brief reference with the con
tents of these departmental reports by the
mention of such executive business and
incidents as are not embraced therein,
and by such recommendations as appear
to be at this particular time appropriate.
Our Foreign Relations.
While our foreign relations have not at
all times during the past year been en
tirely free from perplexity, no embarrass
ing situations remain that will not yield to
the spirit of fairness and love of justice
which, joined with consistent firmness,
characterizes a truly American foreign
My predecessor having accepted the of
fice of arbitrator of tlie long standing
missions boundary dispute, tendered to the
president by the Argentine Republic and
Brazil, it lias been my agreeable duty to
receive the special envoys commissioned
by these states to lay before me evidence
and arguments in behalf of their respec
tive governments. The outbreak of do
mestic hostilities in the republic of Brazil
found the United States alert to watch
the interests of our citizens in that coun
try, with which we carry on important
commerce. Several vessels of our new
navy are now, and for some time have
been stationed at Rio de Janeiro. The
Struggle being between the established
government, which controls the machinery
of administration and with which we main
tain friendly relations, and certain officers
of the navy employing the vessels of their
command in an attack upon the national
capital and chief sea port and lacking as
it does the elements of divided adminis
tration, I have failed to see that the in
surgents can reasonably claim recognition
as belligerents. Thus the position of our
government has been that of an attentive
ut impartial observer of the unfortunate
conflict. Emphasizing our fixed policy of
impartial neutrality iu such a condition
of affairs as now exists I deemed it neces
sary to disavow in a manner not to be
misunderstood, the unauthorized action
of our late naval commander in those
waters in saluting the revolted Brazilian
admiral, being indisposed to countenance
an act calculated to give gratuitous sanc
tion to the local insurrection.
The vexatious question of so-called le
gation asylum for offenders against the
state and its laws was presented anew iu
Chile by the unauthorized action of the
late United States minister in receiving in
his official residence two persons who had
failed in an attempt at revolution and
against whom criminal, charges were pend
ing, growing out of a former abortive dis
turbance. ^ The doctrine of asylum as ap
plied to this case is not sanctioned by the
best precedent, and when allowed, tends to
encourage sedition and strife. Un ler no
circumstances can the representatives of
this government be permitted under the
ill-delined fiction of extraterritoriality to
interrupt the administration of criminal
justice m the countries to which they are
accredited. A temperate demand having
been made by the Chilean government for
the correction of this conduct, the minis
ter was instructed no longer to harbor
Chinese Registration.
The legislation of last year known as
the Gearv law, requiring the registration
of all Chinese laborers entitled to resi
dence in the United States, and the de
portation of all not complying with the
provision eff the act within the time pre
scribed, met with much opposition from
Chinamen in this country. Acting upon
the advice of eminent counsel that the law
was unconstitutional, the great mass of
Chinese laborers, pending judicial inquiry
as to its validity, in good faith declined to
apply for the certificates required by its
E revisions. A test upon proceedings by
abeas corpus was brought before the su
preme court, and on May 15, 1893, a de
cision was made by that tribunal sustain
ing the law. It is believed that under the
recent amendment of the act extending
the time for registration, the Chinese la
borers thereto entitled who desire to re
side in this country, will now avail them
selves of the renewed privilege thus af
forded of establishing by lawful pro
cedure their right to remain, and tha.t
thereby the necessity of enforced deporta
tion may to a great degree be avoided.
The Amaliipa Incident.
Upon receiving authentic information
of the firing upon an American mail
steamer touchingat the port of Amalapa
because her captain refused to deliver up
a passenger in transit from Nicaragua to
Guatemala upon demand of the military
authorities ot Honduras, onr minister to
that country, under instructions, pro
tested against the wanton act and de
manded satisfaction. The government of
Honduras, actuated by a sense of justice
and in a spirit of the' utmost friendship,
promptly disavowed the illegal conduct of
its officers and expressed sincere regret
for the occurrence.
The reproduced caravel, Santa Maria,
built by Spain and sent to the Columbian
exposition, has been presented to the
United States in token of amity and in
commemoration of the event it was de
signed to celebrate. I recommend, that in
accepting this gift, congress make grate
ful recognition of the sincere friendship
which prompted it. Important matters
have demanded attention in cur relations
with the Ottoman norte.
The firing and partial destruction, by an
unrestrained mob. of one of the school
buildings of Anatoly college, established
by citizens of the United States at Marso
•van, and the apparent indifference of the
Turkish government to the outrage, not
withstanding the complicity of some of its
officials, called for earnest remonstrance,
which was followed by promises of repara
tion and punishment of the offenders. In
demnity for the injury and permission to
rebuild was given, registration of the
school property in the name of the Amer
ican owners was secured, and efficient pro
tion guaranteed.
Information received of maltreatment
suffered by an inoffensive American
woman engaged in missionary work in
Turkish Koordictan was followed by such
aepresentations to the porte as resulted in
the issuance of orders for the punishment
Of her assailants, the removal of a delin
quent official, and the adoption of meas
ures for tha protection of our citizens en
The Hawaiian Ouestlon.
It is hardly necessary for me to state
that the questions arising from our rela
tions with Hawaii have caused seriousem
harrassinent. Just prior to the installa
tion of the present administration the ex
ist, mg govern meat of Hawaii had been sud
denly overthrown and a treaty of annexa
tion had been negotiated between the pro
visional government of the islands and the
United States and submitted to the senate
for notification. This treaty 1 withdrew
for examination and dispatched Hon. James
H. Blount of Georgia to Honolulu as a
special commissioner to make an impar
tial investigation of the circumstances at
tending the change of government and of
all the conditions bearing upon the sub
ject of the treaty. After a thorough and
exhaustive examination, Mr. Mount sub
mitted to me his report, showing beyond
all question that the constitutional gov
ernment of Hawaii had been subverted
with the active aid of our representative
to that government and through the in
timidation caused by the presence of an
nrmed naval force of the United States,
which was landed for that purpose at the
instance of our minister. Upon the facts
developed, it seemed to me the only hon
orable course for our government to pur
sue was to undo the wrong that had been
done by those representing us and to re
store as far as practicable the status exist
ing at the time of our forcible Interven
tion. With a view of accomplishing this
result within the constitutional limits of
executive power and recognizing all our
obligations and responsibilities growing
out of any changed condition brought
about by our unjustifiable interference,
our present minister at Honolulu has re
ceived appropriate instructions to that
end. Thus far no information of the ac
complishment of any definite results has
been received from him. Additional ad
vices are soon expected. When received
they will he promptly sent to congress, to
gether with all other information at hand,
accompanied by a special executive message
fully detailing all tile facts necessary to a
complete understanding of the case, and
present a history of all of the material
events leading up to the present situation.
Condition of Naiional Finances.
The secretary of the treasury reports
that the receipts of the government 11 out
all sources during the fiscal year ended
June 30, 1803, amounted to $401,716,501.04,
and its expenditures to $459,374,674 29.
There was collected from customs $205.
355,016.73, and from internal revenue $101,
027,623.93. Our dutiable imports amounted
to $421,856,711, an increase of $52,453,907
over the preceding year, and importations
free of duty amount d to $4-14,544,211, a de
crease from the preceding year of $13,455,
447. Internal revenue receipts exceeded
those of the preceding year by $7,147,445.32.
We exported merchandise during the year
amounting to $847,665,194, a decrease of
$1S2,612,954 from the preceding year. The
amount of gold exported was larger than
any previous year iu the history of the
government, amounting to $108,6S0,844,
and exceeding the amount exported dur
ing the preceding year by $38,485,517. The
sum paid from the treasury for sugar
bounty was $9,375,130.88, an increase over
the preceding year of $2,033,053.09.
It is estimated upon tne b isis of present
revenue laws that the receipts of the gov
ernment for the year ending June 30, 1894,
will be $430,121,305.38, and its expendi
tures, $458,121.365.38, resulting in a de
ficiency of $28,000,000. On the first day of
November 1S93, the amount of money of
all kinds in circulation or not included in
treasury holdings was $1,718,544,682, an
increase for the year of $112,404,947. Esti
mating our population at 67,426.000 at the
time mentioned the per capita circulation
was $25.49. On the same date there was in
the treasury gold bullion amounting to
$96,657,273, and silver bullion, which was
purchased at a cost of $128,261,553.
Silver Purchases.
The purchases of silver under the
law of July 14, 1890, during the last fiscal
year, aggregated 54,008,162.59 Hue ounces
which cost $45,531,374.83.
The total amount of silver purchased
from the time that law became operative
uutil the repeal of its purchasing clause
on the first day of November 1893, was
163,674,590.46 fine ounces which cost $155,
Between the first day of March 1873, and
the first day of November. 1S93, the gov
ernment purchased under all laws 503,
003,717 Hue ounces of silver at a cost of
The silver dollars that have been coined
under the act of July, 14. 1890, number
36,087,285. The seignorage arising from
such coinage was $6,977,008.39, leaving on
hand in the mints 140,699,760 fine ounces
of silver which cost $120,578,218.
Our total coinage of all metals during
the last fiscal year consisted of 97,280,875
pieces, valued at $43,OSS. 178.80, of which
there was $30,038,140 in gold coin, $5,343,
715 in silver dollars, $7,217,220.90 in sub
sidiary silver coin and $1,1183,103.90 in
minor coins. During the calendar year
1892 the production of precious metals in
the United States was estimated to be
1,596,375 fine ounces of gold of t he com
mercial and coinage value of $33,000,000,
aud 58,000,000 fine ounces of silver of the
bullion or market value of $50,750,000 and
of the coinage value of $74,989,900.
It is estimated that on the 1st day of
July, 1893, the metallic stock of money iu
the United States, consisting of coiu and
bullion, amounted to $1,213,559,161, of
which $597,697,685 was gold and $615,861,
484 was silver.
National Ranks.
One hundred and nineteen national
banks were organized during the year end
ing Oct. 31, 18,>3. with a capital of $11,230,
000. Forty-six went into voluntary liquid
ation and 158 suspended. Sixty-five ot the
suspended banks were insolvent, 86 re
sumed business and 7 remained in the
hands of bank examiners with prospects
of speedy resumption.
The total number of national banks in
existence on the 31st day of October, 1893,
was 3,796, having an aggregate capital of
$695,.558,120. The net increase in the circu
lation of these banks during the year was
$36,886,972. The recent repeal of'the pro
vision of the law requiring the purchase of
silver bullion by the government as a
feature of our monetary scheme, has made
au entire change iu the complexion of our
currency affairs. I do not doubt that the
ultimate result of this action will be most
salutary and far-reaching. In the nature
of tuiugs, however, it is impossible to
know at this time precisely what condi
tions will be brought about by the change,
or what, if any, supplementary legislation
may, iu the light of such conditions, ap
pear to be essential or expedient. Of
course, after the recent financial perturba
tion, time is necessary for the re-establish
ment of business confidence. When, how
ever. through this restored confidence, tue
money which has been frightened into
hoarding places is returned to trade and
enterprise, a survey of the situation will
probably disclose a safe path leading to a
permanently sound cumncy, abundantly
sufficient to meet every requirement of
our increasiug population and business.
In pursuit of this object we should reso
lutely turn away front alluring and tem
porary expedients, determined to be con
tent with nothing less than a lasting and
comprehensive financial plan. In these
circumstances I am convinced that a
reasonable delay in dealing with this sub
ject instead of being injurious will in
crease the probability of wise action.
Jlonetary Conference.
The monetary conference which assem
' bled at Brussels upon our invitation
was adjourned to the 20th day of
November in the present year, for
1 the considerations jnst stated and the fact
that a definite proposition from us seemed
1 to be expected upon the reassembling of
the conference, led me to express a will
ingness to have the meeting still further
postponed. It seems to me that it would
■ - : -r--- , . . ,-jv .a.. J. :
bo wise to g:7e general authority to the
pre'-ident to invite other nations to such
a conference at any time when 1 iere
should be a fair prospect of accomplishing
an i io;rnational agreement on tile subject
of coinage. I desire also to earnestly sug
gest the wisdom of ameiuiin : the existing
statutes in regard to the issuance of gov
ernment bonds.
The authority now vested in the secre
tary of the treasury to issue bonds is not
as clear as it should lie and the bonds
authorized are disadvantageous to the gov
ern nent, both as to the time of their ma
turity and rate of interest.
The superintendent of immigration,
through the secretary of the treasury, re
ports that during the last fiscal year there
arrived at our ports 440,793 immigrants.
Of tiles ■, 1,063 were not permitted to land
under the limitations of the law, and 577
were returned to the countries from
whence they came, by reason of their hav
, ing become public charges. The total ar
rivals were 140,034 less than for the previ
ous year
The secretary in his report gives an ao
count of the operation of the marine
hospital service and of the good
work done under its super
1 vision, preventing the entrance and
, spread of contagious diseases. The ad
| monitions of the last two years touching
I our public health and the demonstrated
dan f the introduction of contagious
, diseases from foreign ports has invested
I the subject of national quarantine with in
creased interest. A more general and
harmonious system than now exists,
; acting promptly and directly everywhere
I and constantly operating by preventive
means to shield our country from the in
vasion of diseases and at the same time
having due regard to the rights and duties
• of local agencies, would, 1 believe, add
greatly to tlie safety of our people.
Quiet Tear For the Army.
The secretary of war reports that the
strength of the army on the 30th day of
September last was 25,778 enlisted men
1 and 3,144 officers. The total expenses for
this department for the year ending June
! 30, 1803, amounted to $51,060,074.89. Of
this sum $1,992,581.95 was for salaries and
contingent expenses, $33,877,828.35 for the
support of the military establishments,
$6,077,033.18 for miscellaneous objects and
$20,518,631.41 for public works. This latter
sum includes $15,396,876.46 for river and
harbor improvements and $3,366,141.20 for
fortifications and other works of defense.
: The total enrollment of the militia of
! the several states was on the 31st of Octo
ber of the current year 113,597 officers
and enlisted men. The officers of the
army detailed for the inspection and in
structions of this reserve of our military
force report that increased interest and
marked progress are apparent in the dis
cipline and efficiency of the organization.
Neither Indian outbreaks or domestic
violence has called the army into service
during the year, and the only active mili
tary duty required of it has been in the
department of Texas, where violations of
the neutrality laws of the United States
and Mexico were promptly and efficiently
dealt with by the troops eliciting the
warm approval of the civil and military
authorities of both countries.
Some Changes Recommended.
The report of the attorney general con
tains the usual summary of the affairs and
proceedings of the department of justice
tor the past year, together with certain
recommendations as to needed legislation
on various subjects. I canuot too heartily
i indorse the propositiou that the fee sys
| tern, as applicable to the compensation of
United Status attorneys, marshals, clerks
of federal courts and United States com
I missiouers, should be abolished with as
little delay as nossible. It is clearly in the
interest of me community that the busi
ness of the courts, both civil and criminal,
shall be as small and as inexpensively
transacted as the ends of justice will
The system is therefore thoroughly Jvic
ious which makes the compensation of
court officials depend upon the volume of
such business, aud thus creates a conflict
between a proper evecutive of the law and
private gain, which cannot fail to be dan
gerous to the rights and freedom of the
citizens, an irresistable temptation to the
unjustifiable expenditure of public funds.
If in addition to this reform another was
inaugurated which would give to United
States commissiouers the final disposition
of petty offenses within the grade of mis
demeanors, especially those looming under
tne internal revenue laws, a great advance
would be made towards a more decent
administration of the criminal law.
I also heartily join with the attorney
general in recommending legislation fix
ing degrees of the crime of murder within
federal jurisdiction as has been done in
many of the states, authorizing writs of
error on behalf of the government in
cases where final judgment is rendered
against the sufficiency of an indictment
or against the government unon any other
question arising before actual trial,' limit
ing the right of review in cases of felony,
punishable only by fine and imprisonment,
to the circuit court of appeals and making
speedy provision for the construction of
such prisons and reformatories as may be
necessary for the confinement of United
States convicts.
Deficiency Due to Free Mail.
The report of the postmaster genera!
contains a detailed statement of the oper
ations of the postoffice department during
the last fiscal year and much in
teresting information touching this im
portant branch of the public service. The
business of the mails indicates with abso
lute certainty the condition of the busi
ness of the country and depression in
financial affairs inevitably and quickly
reduces the postal revenues. That there
is a larger discrepancy than usual between
the postoffice receipts and expenditures is
the expected and unavoidable result of
the distressing stringency which has pre
vail.-.! turuugnout the "country during
mucti of the time covered by the postmas
ter general’s report. At a date when
better times were anticipated it was esti
mated 7 bis predecessor that the defi
ciency i the 30th day of June, 1893, would
be a lit'. • over $1,500,000. It amounted,
however, to more ttiau $5,000,000. At the
same tim- and under the influence of like
anticipations, estimates were made for
the cur’—ur fiscal year ending Jnne 30,
1894, whicti exhibited a surplus of revenue
over expenditures of $872,245.71, but now,
in view of i.. . actual receipts and expendi
tures during .fiat part of the current fiscal
year already expired, the recent postmas
ter general estimates that at its close, in
stead of n surplus, there will bea deficiency
of nearly $8,two,000.
The postoffice receipts for the last fiscal
year amounted to *75,896,933.16, and its ex
penditures to $81,074,104.90. This post
office deficiency would disappear, or be im
mensely decreased, it less matter was car
ried free through the mails, an item of
which is upward of 300 tons of seeds and
grain from the agricultural department.
The total number of postoflioes in the
United States on the 30th day of June,
1893, was 68,403, an increase of 1,284 over
the preceding year. Forty-two free deliv
ery offices were added during the year to
those already existing, making a total of
610 cities and towns provided with free de
livery on Jnne 30, 1893. Ninety-three
other cities and towns are now entitled to
this service under the law, bnt it has not
been accorded them on account of insuffi
cient funds to meet the expense of its
establishment. I am decidedly of the
opinion that the provisions of the present
law permit as general an introduction of
this feature of mail service as is necessary
or justifiable, and that it ought not to be
extended to smaller communities than are
now designated.
Tne railway mail service not only adds
to the promptness of mail delivery at all
rir«* • . -•**t.’M/.i*nn*iearatu « -urn*jutrujMxnuu*.' ■ i axi va
offices, but it is the especial instrumental
ity which pul* the smaller and way places
in the service on an equaiity in that re
Bard with the larger and terminal olli es.
This branch of the postal service has th ere
fore received much attention from the
' postmaster general, and, though it is grat
ifying to know that it is in a condition of
high efficiency and great usefulness, I am
led to agree with the postmaster general
that there is room for its further improve
ment. There are now connected with I he
postoffit* establishment 28,334 employes,
who are vithin „he classified service. The
head of this great department gives con
clusive evidence of the value of civil serv
ice reform, when, after an experience that
renders his judgment on the subject ab
solutely reliable, he expresses the opinion
that without the benefit of this system it
would be impossible to conduct the va&t
business intrusted to him.
Satisfactory Progress In Construction.
The report of the secretary of the navy
contains a history of the operations of his
department during the past year and ex
hibits a most gratifying condition of the
personnel of our navy. He presents a
satisfactory account of the progress which
has been made in the construction of ves
sels, and makes a number of recommen
dation, to which attention is especially in
Dnring the past six months the demands
j for cruising vessels have been many and
1 urgent. There have been revolutions call
| ing for vessels to protect American inter
| est in Nicaragua, Guatemala, Costa Rica,
Honduras, Argentine and Brazil, while
the condition of affairs in Honolulu has
required the constant presence of one or
more ships. With all these calls upon our
navy, it became necessary in order to
make up a sufficient fleet to patrol the
Bering sea under the modus vivendi
agreed upon with Great Britain to detail
to that service one vessel from the fish
commission and three from the revenue
Progress in the construction of new
vessels has not been-as rapid as was an
ticipated. There have been delays in the
completion of unarmored vessels, but for
the most part they have been such as are
constantly occurring, even in countries
having the largest experience in naval
ship building. The most serious delays,
however, have been in the worK upon
armored ships. The trouble has been the
failure of contractors to deliver armor as
I agreed. The difficulties seem now, how
! ever, to have been all overcome, and armor
i is being delivered with satisfactory
promptness. As a result of the experience
; acquired by shipbuilders and designers,
and material men, it is believed that the
dates when vessels will be completed can
now be estimated with reasonable accur
acy. Great guns, rapid firing guns, tor
pedoes and pow’der are being promptly
since 1886 congi'ess has at each session
authorized the building of one or more
vessels and the secretary of the navy pre- j
sents an earnest plea for the continuance
of this plan. He recommends the author
ization of at least one battleship and six
torpedo boats.
While I am distinctly in favor of con- 1
sistently pursuing the policy we have in
augurated of building up a thorough and
efficient navy, I cannot refrain from the
suggestion that the congress should care
fully take into account the number of un
finished vessels on our hands and the de
pleted condition of our treasury in consid
ering the propriety of an appropriation at
this time to begin new work.
The Subject of Pensions.
The secretary of the interior has the
supervision ot so many important sub
jects that his report is of especial value
and interest. On the 30th day of June,
1893, there were on the pension rolls 966,613
names, an increase of 89,944 over the nurn- |
ber on the rolls June 30, 1893. Of these, 1
thei-e were 17 widows and daughters of
revolutionary soldiers, 86 survivors of the
war of 1812, 5,425 widows of soldiers of
that war, 21,518 survivors and widows of
the Mexican war, 3,882 survivors and wid
ows of Indian Wars, 284 army nurses, and
475,645 survivors and widows and children
of deceased soldiers and sailors of the war
of the rebellion. The number of persons
remaining on the rolls June 30, 1893, who
were pensioned under the act of J une 27,
1890, which allows pensions on account of
death and disabilities not chargeable to
army service was 4.591,555.
The number added to the rolls during
the year was 123,634 and the number
dropped was 33,690. The first payments
on pensions allowed during the year
amounted to $33,576,549.98. This includes
arrears or accumulation between the time
from which the allowance of the pension
dates and the time of actually granting
the certificates. Although the law of
1890 permits pensions for disabilities not
related to military service yet as a re
quisite to its benefits a disability must
exist incapacitating applicants from the
performance of manual labor to such a
degree as to render them unable to earn a
The execution of this law in its early
stages does not seem to have been in ac
cord with its true intention, but toward
th* close of the last administration an
authoritative construction was given to
the statute and since that time this con
struction has been followed. The dis
covery having been made that many
names had been put upon the pension
roll by means of wholesale and gig intic
frauds, the commissioner suspended pay
ments upon a numuer of pensions wuieh
seem to be fraudulent or unauthorized
penning a complete examination. This I
understand is the practice which has for a
long time prevailed in the pension bureau.
1 am unable to understand why frauds
in the pension rolls should not be exposed
and corrected with thoroughness and
vigor. Every name fraudulently put upon
these rolls is a wicked imposition upon
the kindly sentiment in which pensions
have their origin. Every fraudulent pen
sioner has i-'.'niue a bad citizeu, every
false oath in support of a pension has
m "le perjury more common, and false
.a i undeserving pensioners rob the peo
, pi not only of ti.eir money, but of tne
I p riotic sentiment vliich the survivors of
. tl. war, who fought for the pre- rvatiou
lot te union, ought to inspire. Thousands
| of iighborhoods have Heir well Known
. fr dulent pensioners, id recent aevel
| oj ents by the bureau esv tblished appall
ii: conspiracies to accomplish pension
1 fr Js. By no means tin least wron.
dc ■ is to brave and deserviu. pensioners.
I wi certainly ought not to be ondemned
to such association.
I Those who attempt in the 1 iin of duty
I to rectify these wrongs should u be uc
1 cused of enmity or indifference :o the
i claims of honest veterans. The sum ex
pended on account of pensions for tin
year ending June 30, 1803, was 8156,74 ',
467.14. The commissioner estimates th . i
i 1165,000,000 will be required to pay pen
sions during the year ending June 30, 1894.
| Our Indians number about 24S,000 aau
most of them are located on 161 reserva
• tions, containing 86,116,531 acres of land,
. about 110,000 of these Indians have, to a
large degree, adopted civilized customs.
Lands in several territories have been al
i loted to many of them. The law pro
1 viding, that except in especial cases, army
1 officers shall be detailed as Indian agents,
it is hoped, will prove a successful expen
! ment.
The Public Domain.
The vast area of land which, but a short
■ time ago constituted the public domaiu, is
. rapidly falling into private hands. It is
certain that the intention of the govern
ment to supply from its domain homes to
the industrious and worthy homeseekers
is often frustrated through speculators.
Yet it is difficult to thwart their schemes.
The recent opening to settlement of the
lands in th* Cherokee outlet, embracing
i an «rea of 6.500,000 acres, notwithstanding
I the utmost care in framing the regula
| tions governing the selection of locations ,
i r —i,wm
and notwithstanding the presence of
United States troops furnished an exhibi
tion, though perhaps in a modified degree,
of the mad scramble, tho violence, and the
fraudulent occupation which have ac
jompauied previous openings of public
I concur with the secretary in the belief
that these outrageous incidents cannot be
entirely prevented without a change in the
laws on the subject and I hope his recom
mendations in that direction will he favor
ably considered._
Secretary Morton', Economic Policy.
The report of the secretary of agricul
ture will he found exceedingly interesting
especially to that large part of our citi
zens intimately concerned in agricultural
On the 7th day of March, 1893, there
were upon its pay rolls, 2.4:(9 employes.
This number nas been reduced to 1,850
persons. In view of a depleted public
treasury and the imperative demand of
the people for economy in the administra
tion of their government, the secretary
has entered upon the task of rationally
reducing expenditures by the elimination
from the pay roll of all persons not
needed for an efficient conduct of the
affairs of the department. Dining the
first quarter of th.- present year the ex
penses of the department aggregated #045,
976.76, as against $402,931.4; for the cor
responding period of the fiscal year end
ing June 00, 1890. The secretary makes
apparent nis intention to continue this
rate of reduction by submitting estimates
for the next fiscal year less by $994,28)
than thos; of the present year.
The regulations of 1892 concerning Texas
fever have been enforced during the last
ye a r, and the largest stock yards of the
country have been kept free from infec
tion. Occasional local outbreaks have
been largely such as could have been
effectually guarded against by the owners
of the affected cattle.
W hue contagious pleuro-pne—monta 111
cattle has been eradicated, animal tuber
culosis, a disease corresponding and more
dangerous to hum m life tbau pleuro
pneumonia, is still prevalent. Investiga
tions have neen made during the past year
as to the means of its communic ition and
the method of its correct diagnosis.
The exports of agricultural products
from the Unit al States lor the fiscal year
ending June 30, 1893, attained the enor
mous figure of $800,000,000 in round num
bers, being 78.7 per cent of our total ex
ports. Of pork products the total exports
were $84,000,000, of which Great Britain
took $53,000,000. In breadstuff's, cotton
and minor products, like proportions sent
to the same destinations are shown.
A review of our agricultural exports
with special reference to their destination
will show that, in almost every line the
Unit -d Kingdom of Great Britain and Ire
land absorbs by far the largest proportion.
Of cattle the total exports aggregated in
value for the fiscal year ending June 39,
1893, $26,000,000, of which (ireat Britain
took considerably over $25,000,000; of beef
products of all kinds, our tot d exports
were $28,u00,000, of which Great Britain
took $24,000,1)00.
From a small V'ginning, the seed di
vision of the department of agriculture
has grown to its present unwieldly and
unjustifiably extravagant proportions.
During the last fiscal year the cost of
seeds purchased was $66,548.61. The re
mainder of an appropriation of $135,000
was expended in pulling them up and dis
tributing them, it surely never could
have entered the minds of those who first
sanctioned appropriations of public money
for the purchase of new and improved
varieties of seeds for gratuitous distribu
tion, that from this would grow large ap
propriations for t ie purchase and distribu
tion by members of congress of ordinary
seeds, bulbs and cuttings which are com
mon in all the states and territories and
everywhere easily obtainable at low prices.
Under tile sanction of existing legisla
tion there was sent out from the agricul
tural department during the last fiscal
year enough of cabbage seed to plant 19,
200 acres of land, a sufficent quantity of
beans to plant 4,000 acres, beet seed
enough to plant 2,500 acres, sweet corn
enough to p.aut 7,800 acres sufficient cu
cumber seed to cover 2,025acres with vines
and enough musk melon and watermelon
seeds to plant 2,675 acres. The total quan
tity of flower and vegetable seeds thus dis
trinute i waseontained in more than 9,000,
000 packages and they were sufficient if
planted to cover 89,596 acres of land.
In view of these facts this enormous ex
penditure without legitimate returns of
benefit ought to be abolished. Anticipat
ing a consummation so manifestly in the
interests of good administration, more
than $100,000 bas been stricken from the
estimate made to cover this object for the
year ending June 30, 1894; and the secre
tary recommends that the remaining $35,
000 of the estimate be confined strictly to
the purchase of new and improved varie
ties of seeds, and these be distributed
through experiment stations. Thus the
seed will he tested, and after the test has
been completed by the experiment station
the propagation of the useful varieties
and tue,rejection of the valueless may safe
ly be left to the common sense of the peo
The Civil Service Caw.
The continued intelligent execution of
the civil service law and the increasing ap
proval by the people of its operation are
most gratifying. The recent extension of
its limitations and regulations to the em
ployes at free delivery postofBces, which
has been honestly and promptly accom
plished by the commission, with the
hearty co-operation of the postmaster gen
eral, is an immensely important advance
in the usefulness of the system. I am, if
possible, more than ever convinced of the
incalculable benefits conferred by the civil
service law not only in its effect upon the
public service, but also that it is even
more important in its effect in elevating
the tone of Dolitical life generally.
The course of civil service reform in thi
country instructively and interesting!
illustrates how strong a hold a movemen
gains upon our people, which has unde:
lying It a sentiment of justice and right
and which at the same time promises be:
ter administration of their government.
The law embodying this reform found it
wav into our statute hook more from fe:u
of t :e popular sentimentexistingin itsfa
vor i han from any love for the reform itsell
on .. • part of legislators, and i’
has i ed and grown and flourish u
in spite if the covert and open Lost:!
ity of spo.imen and, noth withstanding t
querulous . .'.practicability of many self
constituted ..uardians, beneath all tne
vagaries and sublimated theories which
are attracted to rt. there underlies this re
form a sturdy ommou-seuse principle, i
not only suited to this sphere, but whose !
application our people are more and more
recognizing to lie absolutely essential to
the most successful operation of their gov
ernment, if not to its perpetuity. It ,
seems to me to be entirely inconsistent with
the character of this reform, as well as ;
with its best enforcement, to oblige the
commission to rely for clerical assistance !
upon clerks detailed from other depart- I
There ought not to be such a condition
in any department that clerks hired to do
the work there can be spared to habitual- !
ly work at another place, and it does not
accord with a sensible view of civil ser
vice reform that persons should be em
ployed on the theory that their labor is
necessary in onedepartment when in point
of fact their ^‘rvices are devoted to en
tirely different work in another depart
ment, I earnestly urge that the clerks
necessary to carry on the work of the com- <
mission, be regularly put upon its roster, !
and that the system of obliging the com
missioners to rely upon the services of
clerks belonging to other departments he ,
This ought not to increase the expense j
to the government, while it would
certainly be more consistent and add
greatly to the efficiency ot the com- |
mission. Economy in public expend- 1
VauW,- z .
iture is a duty that cannot innocently bo
n-glected by those distrusted with the
control o money drawn from the
p mio (? for public uses. It must be
confessed th:i'.. our apparently endless re
sources, ihe laniili irity of our people with necfimuhitions of wealth, the
growing se ti limit, among them that the
expenditure of money should lie in some
manner to their immediate and persona!
advantage, the indirect and almost
stealthy manner in which a large part of
our taxes are exacted, and a degenerated
sense ot official accountability have led to
growing extravagance in governmental
At this time when a depleted public
treasury confront us, .when many of our
people are engaged in a hard struggle for
the necessaries of 1 ife and when enforced
economy is pressing upon the great mass of
our countrymen, 1 desire to urge witn all
the earnestness at my command that con
gressional lefiislation be so limited by
strict economy as to exhibit an apprecia
tion of the condition of the treasure and a
sympathy with the strained circumstances
of our fellow citizens.
The duty of public economy is a"so of
immense importance in its intimate and
necessary relation to the task uoa in hand
of providing revenue to meet, government
expenditures and yet reducing tUe peo
pie’s burden of federal taxation.
_ %
Itoth an Opportunity and a Duty.^
After a hard struggle tariff reform is di
rectly before us. Nothing so ini| ortant
claims our attention and nothing so
clearly presents itself us both an
opportunity anil duty; an opporiu ii.y
to deserve the gratitude of our
fellow citizens, a duty imposed upon us by
oft repeated professions and by the em
phatic mnuda: of the people. After full
discussion, our countrymen have spoken
in favor of this reform, and they have con
fided the work of its accomplishment, to
the hands of those who are solemnly
pledged to it. If there is anything in the
theory of a representation in public places
of the people and their desires, if pobi cal
officers are really the servants of t * eo
ple and if political promises anil prof
sions have any binding force, oor iauure
to give tie relief so long awaited will ne
sheer recreancy. Notning should inter
vene to distract our attention or disturb
our effort until this reform is accom
plished by wise and careful legislation.
While we should staunchly adhere to
the principle that only the necessity of
revenue Justifies the imposition of tariff
duties and olh • federal tax tion, and
that they ale aid be limited by .strict
economy, wc cannot close our eyes to tne
fact, tii it conditions have grown up among
us, woich in justice and fairness c 11 tor
discriminating cure in the distribution of
suck duties and taxation as the em Tgeii
cies of our government actually demand.
Manifestly if wc are to aid the pi ople
directly through tariff reform one of its
most obvious features should be a reduc
tion in present latiil' charges upon the
nect ssnne* of life. The benefits of such a
reduction would be palpable and substan
tial, seen and felt by thousands who
would be better led, and better clothed
an l better sheltered. These giftsslc uld be
the willing benefactions of a gover meat
whose highest function is the promo:ion
of ihe welfare of the people. Not less
closely' related to the prosperity and well
being of our people is the removal of re
strictions upon tne importation ol the raw
materials necessary to our manufacturer.
The world should be open to our national
ingenuity and enterprise.
Interests of l.abor Involved.
This cannot be while federal legislate u
through the imposition of high tariff Ioi
bids to American manufacturers as cheap
materials as those used by their compel i
tors. It is quite oovious that the enhance
meut of the price of onr manufacture*
products resulting from this policy, not
only confines the market for these pro
ducts within our own borders to the direct
disadvantage of our manufacturers, but
also increases their cost to our citizens.
The interests of labor are certainly, though
indirectly, involved in this feature of our
tariff system.
The sharp competition and active Strug
gle among our manufacturers to supply
the limited demand for their goods, suon
fill the narrow market to which they are
confined. Then follows a suspension of
work in mills and factories, a discharge
of employes, and distress in the homes of
our workingmen. Even if the often dis
proved assertion could be made good that
a lower rate of wages would result
from free raw materials and low larilf
duties the intelligence of our workingmen
leads them quickly to discover that their
steady employment, if permittee by free
materials, is the most important factor in
their relation to tariff legislation.
A measure has been prepared by the ap
propriate congressional committee em
bodying tariff reform on the lines herein
suggested, which will be promptly sub
mitted for legislative action. It is the re
suit of much patriotic and unselfish work
and I believe it deals with its subject con
sistently and as thoroughly as existing
conditions permit. I am satisfied that the
reduced tariff duties provided for in the
proposed legislation, added to existing in
ternal revenue taxation, will in the near
future, though perhaps not immediately,
produce sufficient revenue to meet the
needs of the government.
lhe committee after full consideration
and to provide against a temporary defi
ciency which may exist befoie tlie busi
ness of the country adjusts itself to the.
new tariff schedules, have wisely embr cerl
in their plan a few additional internal
revenue taxes, including a small tax
upon incomes derived from certain cor
porations. These new assessments are
not only absolutely just and easily borne,
but they have the further means of ' ping
such as can be remitted without unfavor
able business disturbances whenever the
necessity of their imposition no longer ex
In my great desire for the success of
this measure I cannot restrain the sug
gestion that its success can only be at
tained by mea- s of unselfish crn nsel on
the part of the friends of tariff reform and
as a result of Their willingness to sub
ordinate person. ! desires and ambition to
the gem rui good The local int rests af
fected by ihe pi- posed reform are so num
erolls and so v iried that if all art- in
sisted upon the legislation embodying the
reform must inevitably fail.
In conclusion, my intense feeling of re
sponsibihty impels me to invoke for the
manifol ' intir.-sts of a generous and con
fiding - opie tiie most scrupulous care,
and to pledge my willing support to ever}
legislative effort for the ait vane, mt-nt. oi
the greatness and prospeiiiy of our be
loved country.
Grover Cleveland,
Executive Mansion, Washington. 1). C .
Dec. 4. 1803.
Police of Omalia and Colorado Springs
Searching For Henry Wilson.
Omaha, Dec. 4.—The police of Omaha
and South Omaua are engaged in a sheep
hunting expedition and searching for
Henry Wilson of Hugo, Colo. Chief of
Police Dana of Colorado Springs started
the chase by sending a dispatch to Chief
Seavy of Omaha to arrest Wilson and
take possession of 2,500 sheep, which it
is alleged he secured possession of by
fraud and forgery. These sheep were
billed to Waggoner, Birney & Co.,
South Omaha. One car load was sold
in South Omaha and the rest were
shipped to Chicago. The number sold
at South Omaha was 241, and brought
13.25 per hundred. After the sale had
been made there yet remained 10 double
deck cars of sheep that went to Chicago.