The McCook tribune. (McCook, Neb.) 1886-1936, December 12, 1890, Image 6

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SENTATIVES : The reports of the severa'
executive departments , which will bo laid
before the congress in the usual course ,
will" exhibit in detail the operation of the
government for'tho last fiscal year. Only
the more important incidents and results ,
and chiefly such as may bo the foundatior
of recommendations I submit is all that
will bo referred to in this annual message.
The vast and increasing business of the
government has been transacted by the
several departments during the year Avith
faithfulness , energy and success. The
revenues , amounting to above 450 million
dollars , have been collected and disbursed
without revealing , so far as I can ascer
tain , a single case of defalcation or embez
zlement. An earnest effort has been made
to stimulate a sense of responsibility and
public duty in all officers and employees of
every grade , and the Avorks done by them
has almost wholly escaped unfavorable
criticism. I speak of these matters Avith
freedom because credit of this good Avork
is not mine , but is shared by the heads of
the several departments Avith the great
body of faithful officers and employes Avho
servo the government.
Pursuant to the invitation authorized by
congress , the representatives of every in
dependent state'of the American contin
ent and of Hayti. met in conference in
this capital in October , 1889 , and continued
in session until the 19th of last April.
This important convocation marks a most
Interesting and influential epoch in the
history of the Western hemisphere.
Toward the end of the past year the only
Independent monarchial government on the
Western continent , that of Brazil , ceased
to exist and was succeeded by a republic.
Diplomatic relations Avero at once estab
lished as to the new goA'crnment , but it
Avas not completely recognized until an op
portunity had been afforded to ascertain
that it had proper approval and support.
Whjgn the course ot events had yielded
asstrrance of this fact no time Avas lost in
sending the nev goA'ernment a full and
candid AA'deoine into the family of Ameri
can communities. It is confidently be
lieved that good relations between the tAvo
countries Avill be preserved and the future
Avill Avitness an increased intimacy of inter
course and an expanse of their mutual
The peace of Central America has again
been disturbed through a raA'olutionary
change in Salvador , which AAMS not recog
nized by other states , and hostilities broke
out bctAveen Salvador and Guatemala ,
threatening to involve all Central America
in conllict and to undo the progress which
had been made toward a union of their in
The killing of General Barrundia on
board the Pacific Mail steamer Acapulco ,
Avhich anchored on transit in the nort of
San Jose do Guatemala ; demanded "careful
inquiry. It being < 3Arident that the minis
ter , Mr. Mizner , had exceeded the bounds
of his authority in permitting , in compli
ance Avith the demands of the Guatemalan
authorities , in effect in A'iolation of prece
dent , the seizure on a vessel of the United
States of a passenger in transit , charged
Avith political offenses in order that he
might be. held for such offenses under
\ Avhat Avas described as martial laAV , I AAas
constrained to recall Mr. Mizner from his
The Nicaragua canal project , under the
control of our citizens , is making most en
couraging progress , all the preliminary
conditions and initial operations haying
been accomplished AA'ithin the prescribed
Our relations Avith China , Avhichhave for
several years occupied so important a
place in our diplomatic history , have
called for careful consideration and have
been the subject of much correspondence.
The communications of the Chinese minis
ter have brought into vicAV the Avhole sub
ject of our conventional relations AA'ith his
country ; and at the same time this goArern-
ment , through its legation at Pekin , has
sought to arrange various matters and
complaints touching the interests and pro
tection of our citizens in China. In pur
suance of the concurrent resolution of
October 1 , 1890 , I haAro proposed to the
governments of Mexico and Great Britain
to consider conventional regulation of the
passing of Chinese laborers across our
southern and northern frontiers.
Our relations Avith the French republic
continue to be cordial. Our representative
at that court has Aery diligently urged the
removal of the restrictions imposed upon
our meat products and it is believed that
substantial progress has been made tOAvard
a just settlement.
The Samoan treaty signed last year at
Berlin by the representatiA'es of the United
States , Germany and Great Britain , after
duo ratification and exchange , has begun
to produce salutary effects. The forma
tion of the government agreed upon AA'ill
soon replace the disorder of the past by a
stable administration , alike just to the na
tives and equitable to the three po\vers
most concerned in trade and intercourse
Avith. the Samoan Islands.
The IICAV treaty of extradition Avith Great
Britain , after due ratification , was pro
claimed on th.e 25th of last March. Its
beneficial Avorking is already apparent.
The difficulty betAveen the tAvo govern
ments touching the fur seal question in the
Behring sea is not yet adjusted , as will be
seen by the correspondence Avhich AA'ill soon
be laid before congress. The offer to sub
mit the question to arbitration , as proposed
by her majesty's government , has not been
accepted for the reason that the form of
submission proposed is not thought to be
calculated to assure a conclusion satisfac
tory to either party. It is sincerely hoped
that before the opening of another sealing
season some arrangement may be effected
Avhich Avill assure to the United States a
property right , derived from Russia , Avhich
\Aas not disregarded by any nation for
more than eighty years preceding the out
break of the existing trouble.
Propositions for the amendment of the
treaty of extradition betAveen the United
States and Italy are now under considera
tion. You will be asked to provide the
means of accepting the invitation of the
Italian government to take part in the approaching
preaching conference to consider the adop
tion of a universal prime meridian from
which to reckon longitude and time. As
this proposal follows in the track of the
reform sought to be initiated by the ] meri
dian conference of Washington , held on
the invitation of this government , the
United States should manifest a friendly
interest in the Italian proposal.
The revision of our treaty AA'ith the em
pire of Japan has continued to bo the sub
ject of consideration of correspondence.
The questions involved are both graA'e and
delicate , and w iilo it Avill bo my duty to
see that the interests of the United States
are not bv anv changes exposed to undue
discrimination I sincerely hope that such
revision as will satisfy the legitimate ex
pectations of the Japanese government and
maintain the present long existing friendly
relatyms betAA-een Japan and the United
States AviH. be effected.
The friendship between our country and
Mexico , born of close neighborhood and
strengthened by many considerations of
intimate intercourse and reciprocity , has
ncA'er been more conspicuous than now ,
nor more hopeful of increased benefit to
"both nations. The intercourse of the two
Countries by rail , already great is niaking
Constant growth. The established lines
find these recently prospected add to the
Snfimacv of the traffic new chan
nels of cccss to f resh , areas of demand and
wiiinlv The importance of the Mexican
3 vav system Avill bo further enhanced , .
degree almost forecast ;
Kit a should become a link in the projected
* : ? vJ ,
.1 y _ * * " - i t > J
Intercontinental railway. I recommend
that our mission in the City of Mexico bo
raised to the first-class.
REciriiocmr WITH SPAIX.
The cordial character of our relations
with Spain warrants the hope that by the
continuance of methods of friendly nego
tiation much may be accomplished in the
direction of an adjustment of pending
questions and of the increase of our trade
The extent and the development of our
trade with the island of Cuba invest the
commercial relations of the United States
and Spain with peculiar importance. It is
not doubted that a special arrangement in
regard to commerce , based upon the
reciprocity provision of the recent tariff
act. would operate most beneficially for
both governments. This subject is now
receiving attention.
The * . Silver Question.
Th 6 act "directing the purchase of silver
bullion and the issue of treasury notes
thereon. " approved June 14 , 1890 , has been
administered by the Secretary of the
Treasury with an earnest purpose to got
into circulation at the earliest possible
date the full monthly amount of treasury
notes contemplated by his provisions and
at the saino time to give to the market for
silver bullion such support as the law con
templates. Tho-recent speculation in the
price of silver has been observed with re
gret. The rapid rise in price which antici
pated and followed the passage of the act
was influenced in some degrco by specula
tion , and the recent reaction is in part the
result of the same cause and in part of the
recent momentary disturbances.
While it has not been thought best to re
new formally the suggestion of an interna
tional conference looking to an agreement
touching the full use of silver for coinage
at a uniform ratio , care has been taken to
observe closely any change in the situation
abroad and no favorable opportunity will
be lost to promote a result which is confid
ently believed would confer very largo
benefits upon the commerce of the world.
The recent monetary disturbances in En
gland are not unlikely to suggest a reexamination
amination of opinions upon this subject.
Our very large supply of gold will , if not
lost by impulsive legislation in the sup
posed interest of silver , give us a portion
of advantage in procuring a permanent
and safe international agreement for the
free use of silver as a coin metal.
I notice Swith great pleasure thevstato-
mcnt of the secretary that the receipts
from internal revenue have increased dur
ing the last fiscal year nearly 12 million
dollars , and the cost of collecting that
larger revenue was less by § 90,017 than for
the same proportion in the preceding year.
The percentage of cost of collecting the
customs revenue was less for the fiscal
year than ever before.
The efforts of the Secretary to increase
the volume of money in circulation by
keeping doxvn the treasury surplus to the
lowest practicable limit , have been unre
mitting and , in a very high degree , success
ful. Tables presentctl by him showing the
increase of money i circulation during
mo last , two uecauos unu especially tno
table showing the increase during the
nineteen months he has administered the
affairs of the department , are interesting
and instructive. The increase of money
in circulation during the nineteen months
has been in the aggregate $93,800,813 , or
about $1.50 per capita , and of this increase
only $7,100,000 was due to the recent silver
legislation. That this substantial and
needed aid given to commerce resulted in
an enormous reduction of the public debt
and of the annual interest charge , Is
matter of increased satisfaction. There
have been purchased and redeemed since
March 4,1889 , 4 and 4)4 per cent bonds to
the amount of $211,852-150 at a cost of
§ 246,620.741 , resulting in a reduction of the
annual interest charge of $8,867,609 , and a
total saving of interest of $51,576,706.
Condition of the Army.
The report of the Secretary of War
shows several gratifying results attained
during the .year by wise and unostentatious
methods. The percentage of desertions
from the army ( an evil for which both con
gress and the department have been long
seeking a remedy ) has been reduced during
the past year 24 per cent.
I concur in the recommendations of the
Secretary that adequate and regular ap
propriations be continued for coist defense
works and ordnance. Plans have been
practically agreed upon and there can bo
no good reason for delaying the execution
of them ; while the defenseless state of our
great seaports furnishes an urgent reason
for wise expedition.
The aid that has been extended to the
militia of the states generally and most ap
propriately designated the "national
? uard" should be continued and enlarged.
These military organizations constitute , in
a large sense , the army of the United
States , while about five-sixths of the an
nual cost of their maintenance is defrayed
by the states.
The Department of Justice.
The report of the attorney general is ,
under the law , submitted annually to con
gress , but as the department of justice is
one of the executive departments some
reference as to the work done is appro
priate here. A vigorous , and in the main ,
an effective effort has been made to bring
to trial and punishment all violators of the
law , but at the same time care has been
taken that frivolous and technical offenses
should not be used to swell the fees of
officers or to harrass well disposed citizens.
Especial attention is called to the facts
connected with the prosecution of violators
of the election laws and of offenses against
United States officers. The number of
convictions secured , very many of them
upon pleas of guilty , will , it is hoped , have
a salutary , restraining influence. There
iiave been several cases where postmasters
appointed by me have been subjected to
violent interference in the discharge of
their duties and to persecutions and per
sonal violence of the most extreme charac
ters. Some of these cases have been dealt
with through the department of justice ,
and in some cases the postoffices have
been abolished or suspended. I have di
rected the Postmaster General to pursue
this course in all cases where other efforts
failed to secure for any postmaster , not
tiimself to blame , an opportunity peace
fully to exercise .the duties of his office.
But such action will not supplant the
efforts of the department of justice to
bring the particular offenders to punish
The report of the Postmaster General
shows the most gratifying progress in the
important work committed to his direction.
The business methods have been greatly
improved. A large economy in expenditure
and * an increase of 4 % millions receipts
have been realized. The deficiency this
year is $5,788,300 , as against § 0,350,183 last
year , notwithstanding the great enlarge
ment of the service.
The construction and equipment of the
.new ships for the navy have made very
satisfactory progress. Since March 4 , 1839 ,
nine new vessels have been put in com
mission , and during this winter four more ,
ncluding one monitor , will be added. The
construction of the other vessels author
ized is being pushed , both in the govern
ment and private yards , with every energy ,
and is being watched with the most scru
pulous .care. The experiments conducted
luring the year to test the relative resist-
ng power of armor plates have been so
notable as to.attract great attention in
Europe. '
The Interior Department.
The report of the Secretary of the In-
tei-ior exhibits with great fullness and clear
ness the vast work of that great depart
ment and the satisfactory results attained.
The suggestions made by him are earnestly
commended to the consideration of con
gress , though they cannot all be given par-
: icular mention hero. The several acts of
congress looking to the reduction of the
argor Indian reservations , to the more
rapid settlement of. thojlndians upon indi
vidual' allotments and to the restoration to.
the public domains of lands in excess of
their needs have been largely carried into
eltect , so far as the work was confided to
the executive.
The policy outlined in my last annual
message in relation to the patenting of
lands to settlers upon the public domain
has been carried cut in the administration
of the land office. No general suspicion
nor imputation of fraud has been allowed
to delay the hearing and adjudication of
individual cases upon their merits. Their
purpose has been to perfect the title of
honest settlers with such promptness that
the value of the entry might not bo
swallowed up by the expense and extor
tions to which delay subjected the claim
ant. The average monthly issue of agri
cultural patents has been increased about
six thousand.
The disability pension act , which was
approved on the 2fth of June last , has been
put into operation as rapidly as was
practicable. The increased clerical force ,
as provided , was selected and assigned to
work , and a considerable part of the force
engaged in examinations in the field was
recalled and added to the working force of
the office. The examination and adjudica
tion of claims have , by reason of improved
methods , been more rapid than ever be
fore. There is no economy to the govern
ment in delay , while there is much hard
ship and injustice to the soldier. The an
ticipated expenditure , while very largo ,
will not , it is believed , bo in excess of the
estimate made before the ci.actment of the
law. This liberal enlargement of the
general law should suggest a more careful
scrutiny of bills for special relief , both as
to the cases where relief is granted and as
to the amount allowed.
The increasing numbers and influence of
the non-Mormon population in Utah are
observed with satisfaction. The recent
letter of Wilford Woodruff , president of
the Mormon church , in which he advised
his people "to refrain from contracting any
marriage forbidden by the laws of the
land , " has attracted wide attention , and it
is hoped that its influence will bo highly
beneficial in restraining infractions of the
law of the United States. But the fact
should not be overlooked that the doctrine
or belief of the church , that polygamous
marriages are right and supported by
divine revelation" remains unchanged.
President Woodruff does not renounce the
doctrine , but refrains from touching it , and
advises against the practice of it because
the law is agninst it. Now , it is quite true
that the lanr should not attempt to deal
with the faith or belief of anvotie , but it
is quite another thing to deal with the ter
ritory of Utah , so that those who behove
polygamy to be right shall not have the
power to make it lawful.
At the last session I had occasion to re
turn , with my objections , several bills
making provisions for the erection of pub
lic buildings , for the reason that the ex-
nenditures oontnmnln.tnilvprn in mv
opinion , greatly in excess of public need" .
No class of legislation is more liable to
The Secretary of Agriculture deserves
especial attention in view of the fact that
the year has been marked in a very unusual
degree by agitation and organization
among the farmers looking to increase the
profits of their business. It will be found
that the efforts of the department have
been intelligently and zealousjy devoted to
the promotion of the interests entrusted
to its care. A very substantial improve
ment in the market prices of the leading
farm products during the year is noticed.
The price of wheat advanced from 81 cents
in October , 1889 , to$1.00in October , 1893 ;
corn from 32c to 50 c ; oats from 19c to
43c , and barley from G3c to 7Sc. Meats
showed a substantial , but not so largo an
increase. The export trade in live animals
and fowls shows a very large increase ; the
total value of such exports for the year
ending Juno 30,1890 , was 33 million dollars ,
and the increase over the preceding year
was over 15 million dollars. Nearly SOU.COO
more cattle and over 45,000 more hogs were
exported than in the preceding year.
The export trade in beef and
pork products and in dairy products , was
very largely increased. The increase in
the article of butter alone being from 15- ,
504,978 pounds to 29,748,042 pounds , and the
total increase in the value ol meat and
dairy products exported being 34 million
dollars. This trade , so directly helpful to
the farmerit is believed will be yet further
and very largely increased when the sys
tem of inspection and sanitary supervision
now provided by law is brought fully into
operation , The efforts of the Secretary to
establish the healthfulness of our meats
against the disparaging imputations that
have been put upon them abroad have re
sulted in substantial progress. Veterinary
surgeons sent out by the department are
now allowed to participate in the inspec
tion of the cattle from this country landed
at English docks , and during the several
months they have been on duty no case of
contagious pleuro-pneumonia lias been re
ported. This inspection abroad and the
domestic inspection of live animals and
pork products provided for by tire act of
August 30. 1890 , will , afford as perfect a
guaranty for the wholesomeness of meats
offered for foreign consumption as is any
where given to any food product , and its
non-acceptance will quite clearly reveal the
real motive , if any , in the continued re
striction of their use : and , that having
jeen made clear , the duty of the executive
will be very plain.
The information given by the secretary
of the progress of the beet sugar industry
s full of interest. It has already passed
; he experimental stage and is a commercial
success. The area over which the sugar
jeet can be successfully cultivated is very
arpe , and another field crop of great value
s offered to the choice of the farmer. The
secretary of the treasury concurs in the
recommendation of the secretary of agri
culture that the official supervision provid
ed by the tariff law for sugar of domestic
> reduction shall be transferred to the de-
> artment of agriculture.
The Country's Trade.
I congratulate the congress and the
country upon the passage at the first ses
sion of the Fifty-first congress of an im-
usual number of laws of very high import
ance. That the results of this legislation
will be the quickening and enlargement of
our manufacturing industries , larger and
> etter markets for our breadstuffs and
> revisions , both at home and abroad , more
ionstant employment and better wages for
our working people and an increased sup-
> ly of a safe currency for the transaction
> f business , I do not doubt. Some of
, he measures were enacted at so late a
leriod that the beneficial effects upon com-
nerce which were in the contemplation of
congress have as yet but partially mani-
ested themselves.
The general trade and industrial condi-
ions throughout the country during the
ear have shown a marked improvement.
Per many years prior to IbSS the merchan-
iiso balances of foreign trade had been
argely in our favor , but during that year
and the year following they turned against
is. It is very gratifying to know that , the
ast fiscal year shows" balance in our favor
of over G8 million dollars. The bank clcar-
ngs , which furnish a good test of the vol
ume of business transacted for the first ten
months of the year 1890 , show , as compared
vith the same months of 18s9 , an increase
or the whole country of about 8.4 per cent ,
while the increase outside the city of New
York was over 13 per cent.
The value of our exports of domestic
merchandise during the last year was over
15 million dollars greater than the preced-
ng year , and was only exceeded once in
our history. About 100 million dollars of
, his excess was in agricultural products.
The production of pig iron alwavs a good
jaugo of general prosperity is shown by
i recent census bulletin to have been 153
per cent greater in 1890 than in 1SSD , ani
; he production of steel 290 per cent ( yeater.
Mining in coal has had no limitation except
that resulting from deficient transportation
The general tendency is that labor is every
where fully employed and the reports for
the last year show a smaller number of
employes affected fay strikes and lockouts
than in any year since 1834. The depres
sion in prices of agricultural products had
been greatly relieved and a buoyant and
hopeful tone was beginning to bo felt by
all our people.
These promising influences have been in
some degree checked by surprising and
very unfavorable monetary events which
have recently taken place in England. It
is gratifying to know that these did not
grow in any degrco out of the financial re
lations of London with our people , or out
of any discredit attached to our securities
held in that market.
Defending the Tariff Mill.
The apprehension that our tariff may
again and at once bo subjected to import
ant general changes would undoubtedly
add a depressing influence of the most
serious character. The general tariff act
has only partially gone in o operationsomo
of its important provisions being limited
to take effect at future dates. The gen
eral provisions of the law having been in
force less thaw sixty days , its permanent
effect on trade and prices still largely
stand in conjecture. It is curious to note
that the advance in prices of articles
wholly unaffected by the act was by many
hastily ascribed to that act. Notice was
not taken of the fact that the general ten
dency of the markets was upward , from
influences wholly apart from tne late tar
iff legislation. The enlargement of our
currency by the silver bill undoubtedly
gave an upward tendency to trade and had
a marked effect on prices , but this natural
effect of the silver legislation was by many
attributed to the tariff act.
There is neither wisdom nor justice in
the suggestion that the subject of tariff
revision should bo opened before this law
has had a fair trial. It is quite true that
every tariff schedule is subject to objec
tions. No bill was ever framed , I suppose ,
that in all of its rates and classifications
had the full approval oven of a party cau
cus. Such legislation is always and ne
cessarily the product compromise as to
details , and the present law is no exception ,
but in its general scope and effect I think
it will justify the support of thos'o who
believe that American legislation should
conserve and defend American trade and
the wages of American workmen. The
misinformation as' to the terms of the act
wMch has been so widely disseminated at
homo and abroad , will be corrected by ex
perience , and the evil auguries as to its
results confounded by the market reports ,
the savings banks , international trade
balances and the general prosperity of our
people. Already we begin to hear from
abroad and from our custom houses that
the prohibitory effect upon importations
imputed to the act is not justified. The
imports at the port of New York for the
first two weeks of November were nearly
Q Tioy rf rtvifr. rwrtotrtt * 4-ho f/ii * Vir ooTvirt * * * ! rt/
w 'W& XS rfV fL lAbW. liAAMU AS b UtAW k > llJlV > IJV > X.ll/lX
in 18S9 and 29 per cent greater than in the
same period of 1888. And , so far from
being an act to limit exports , I confidently
believe that under it we shall secure a
larger and more profitable participation in
foreign trade than wo have ever enjoyed ,
and that we shall recover a proportionate
participation in the ocean carrying trade
of the world.
The" criticisms of the bill that have come
to us from foreign sources may well be re
jected. If these critics really believe
that the adoption by us of a free trade
policy or of tariff rates having reference
solely to revenue would diminish the par
ticipation of their own countries in the
commerce of the world , their advocacy
and proinoton by speech and other forms
of organized effort of this movement among
our people is a rare exhibition of unselfish
ness in tra de. And , on the other hand , if
they believe the adoption of a protective
policy by this country inures to their profit ,
it is noticeably strange that they should
lead the outcry against the authors of a
policy so helpful to them and crown with
favor those who would snatch from them
a substantial share of a trade with other
lands already inadequate to their necessi
There is no disposition among any of our
people to promote prohibitory or retaliatory
legislation. Our policies are adopted , not
to the hurt of others , but to secure for our
selves those advantages that fairly grow
out of our favored position as a nation.
Our form of government , with its incident
of universal suffrage , makes it imperative
that we shall save our working people from
the agitations and distresses which scant
work and wages that have no margin for
comfort always beget , but , after all this is
done , it will be found that our markets are
open to friendly commercial exchanges of
enormous value to the other great powers.
Prom the time of my induction into office ,
the duty of using every power and influence
given by law to the executive department
for the developement of larger markets for
our products , especially our farm products ,
has been kept constantly in mind and no
effort has been or will be spared to pro
mote that end. We are under no disadvant
age in any foreign market except that we
pay our workmen better wages than are
paid elsewhere , better abstractly , better
relatively to the cost of the necessaries of
I do not doubt that a very largely in
creased foreign trade is desirable to us
without bartering for either our home
market for such products of the farm and
shop as our own people can supply or the
wages of our own working people. In
many of the products of wood and iron , and
in meats and breadstuffs , we have advant
ages that onlv need better facilities of in
tercourse and transportation to secure for
them large foreign markets.
The reciprocity clause of the tariff act
wisely and effectually opens the way to
secure a large reciprocal trade in "ex
change for the free admission to our ports
of certain products. The right of inde
pendent nations to make special reciprocal
trade concessions , is well established and
does not impair either the comity duo to
other powers or what is known as the
' 'favored nation clause"so , generally found
in commercial treaties. Indeed , this reci
procity provision is more than an offer ;
3ur part of the bargain is complete ; de
livery has been made , and when the coun
tries from which we receive our suirar ,
coffee , tea and hides have placed on their
free lists such of our products as shall bo
agreed upon as an equivalent for our con
cession , a proclamation of that fact com
pletes the transaction ; in the meantime ,
our own people have fres sugar , tea , coffee
and hides ,
The subject of the unadjusted Spanish
and Mexican land grants and the urgent
necessity for providing some commissioner
or tribunal for the trial of questions of
; itle growing out of them , were twice
oup it by me to the attention of congress
at the las't session. Bills have been re
ported from the proper committees in both
louses upon the subject and I very earn
estly hope that this congress will put an
end to the delay which has attended the
settlement of the disputes as to title be
tween the settlers and claimants under
Xhese grants. These disputes retard the
> rosperiry and disturb the peace of largj
and important communities.
The enactment of a national bankrupt
aw I regard as very desirable. The con
stitution having given to congress juris
diction of this subject , it should be exer
cised and uniform rules provided for the
administration of tthe affairs of insolvent
debtors. The inconveniences resulting
from the occasional and temporary exer
cise of this power by congress , and from
; ho conflicting state codes of insolvency
which come into force intermediately
should bo removed by the enactment of a
simple , inexpensive and permanent
national bankrupt law.
Guarding : the Water.
Tha subject of the caascrvation of the
water supply of the arid regions has had
much attention from congress , but bus not
as yet been upon a permanent and satisfac
tory basis. The urgency of the subject
does not grow out of any largo present de
mauds for the use of the lands for ngri
culture , but of the danger that the water
supply and the sites for the necessary catch
basins may full into the hands of individu
als or private corporations and in part to
render subservient the largo ureas depend
ent upon such supply. The owner of the
water is the owner of the lands , howevur
the titles may run. Unappropriated
natural water sources and all natural
reservoir sites should bo hold by the gov
ernment for the equal use , at fair rates of
the homestead settlers who will vol
untarily take up these lands. The
United States should not. in mV opinion ,
undertake the construction of dams and
canals , but would limit the work to such
surveys and observations as will determine
the water supply , both surface and sub
terranean , the grass capable of irrigation
and the use , location and storage capacity
of reservoirs. This done , the use of the
water and the reservoirs might bo granted
to the respective states and territories , or
to individuals or associations uponjtho con
dition that the necessary works should bo
constructed and the water furnished at fair
rates without discrimination.tho rates to be
subjected to supervision by the legislatures
or by boards of water commissioners only
thus constituted. The essential thing to
bo secured is the common and equal use at
fair rates of the accumulated water supply.
It were almost better that these lands
should remain arid than that these who oc
cupy them should become-tho slaves of un
restrained monopolies controlling the
essential element of land values and crop
The Postal Telegraph.
The use of the telegraph by the postoffico
department as a means of transmission of
written communications is , I believe , upon
proper terms , quite desirable. The Govern
ment docs not own or operate the railroads
and it should not I think own or operate
any telegraph lines. It does , however ,
seem to be quite practicable for the govern
ment to contract with the telegraph com
panies , as it docs with the railroads , to
carry at specified rates such communica
tions as the senders may designate for this
method. 1 recommend that such legislation
bo enacted as Avill enable the postofllco de
partment fairly to test the advantages of
such a use of the telegraph.
A Fodorul Election
If any intelligent and loyal company oJ
American citizens were required to cata
logue the essential humane conditions of
national life , I do not doubt that Avith
absolute unanimity they would begin with ,
"Free and honest elections. " And it is
gratifying to know that a'gencral desire is
a growing and non-partisan demand for
better election laws. But against this
sign of hope and progress must beset
set the depressing and undeniable fact
sometimes cunningly contrived to secure
minority control Avhilo violence completes
the shortcomings of fraud. In iny last
annual message I suggested that the de
velopment of the existing law providing a
federal supervision of congressional elec
tions offered an effective method of re
forming these abuses. The need of such
a laAV has manifested itself in many parts
of the country and its Avholesome restraints
and penalties Avill bo useful in all. The
constitutionality of such legislation has
been affirmed by the supreme court.
Its probable effectiveness is evidenced
by the character of the opposition that is
made to it. It has been denounced as if it
Avere a HCAV exercise of the federal pOAA'cr
and an invasion of the rights of the states.
Nothing could be further from the truth.
Congress has already fixed the time for
the election of members of congress. It
has declared that votes for members of
congress must be by Avrittcn or printed bal
lots ; it has provided for the appointment
by the circuit courts in certain cases
and upon the petition of a certain number
of citizens of election supervisors and
made it their duty to supervise the regis
tration of A-otes conducted by the state
officers ; to challenge persons offering to
register ; to personally inspect and scruti
nize the registry list and to affix their
names to the lists for the purpose of iden
tification and the prcA'ention of frauds to
attend elections and remain Avith the boxes
till the votes are counted ; to attend
to the registry lists and election
returns , any statement touching the
accuracy and fairness of the registry and
election , and to take and transmit to
the clerk of the house of representatives
any CA'idehce of fraudulent practices
AA'hich may be presented to them. The
same laAV provides for the appointment of
deputy United States marshals to attend
at the polls , support the supervisors in the
discharge of their duties and arrest per
sons A'iolating the election laws. The pro
visions of this familiar title of the revised
statutes haA'e been put into exercise by
both of the political parties , and in the
north as Avell as in the south , by the filing
Avith the court of the petition required by
It is not therefore a question of whether
AATc shall have a federal election laAA * , for
AVC noAV haA-c one and haAre had one for
nearly tAvcnty years , but Avhether AVC shall
have an effcctiA'e laAV. The present laAV
stops just short of eiTectiA'cncss , for it sur
renders to the local authorities all control
OA'er the certification AA'hich establishes
the prima facie right to a seat in the
house of representatives. Tiiis defect
should be cured.
Equalit3' of representation and the purity
of the electors must be maintained or
CA'erything that is A'aluable in our system
of goA'cminent is lost. The qualifications
of an elector must ba sought in the laAV not
in the opinions , prejudices or fears of any
class , hoAA'CA'er powerful. The path of the
elector to the ballot box must be free from
the ambush of fear and the enticements of
fraud ; the count so true and open that none
shall gainsay it. Such a law should be
absolutely non-partisan and impartial. It
should give the advantage to honesty and
the control to majorities.
Surely there is nothing sectional about
this creed , and if it shall happen that the
penalties of laAA's intended to enforce these
rights fall here and not the e it is not be
cause the laAV is sectional but because ,
happily , crime is local and not uniA'ersal.
Nor should it be forgotten that every law ,
whether relating to elections or to any-
other subject , whether enacted by the state
or by the nation , has force behind it : The
court , the marshal or constable , the piwe
comitalus , tne prisons , are all and ahvays
behind the law
One cannot be justly- charged witn un-
friendliness to any section or class Avho
seeks only to icstrain violation of law and
personal right. No community will find
lawlessness profitable. No community can
afford to have it known that the officers
who are charged Avith the preservation of
the public peace and the restraint of the
criminal classes arc themselves the pro
duct of fraud or violence. The magistrate
is then without respect and the law Avith-
out sanction. The Hoods of lawlessness
cannot be leA'ced and made to run in ono
TLe killing of an United States marshal
for carrying a writ of arrest for an elec
tion officer is full of prompting and sug
gestive to men Avho are pursued by a city
marshal for a criiue against life or prop"-
erty.But it is said that this legislation will
rcA'ive race animosities , a'nd some hove
even suggested that when the peaceful
methods of frauds are made impossible
they may be supplemented by intimidation
and violence. If the proposed krw gives
to any qualified elector , by a hair's weight ,
more than his equal influence , or detracts
by so much from any other qualified elec
tor , it is fatally impeached. But if the
law is equal and the animosities it has
evoked grow out of the fact thut some
electors haA'e been accustomed to exercise
the franchise for others as Avell as for
themselves then these animosities ought
not to be confessed without shams 'and
* "
cannot bo given any weight [ In the discus
sion without dishonor.
No choice Is loft to mo but to enforce
with vigor all laAvs intended to secure to
the citizen his constitutional rights and to
recommend that the inadequacies of such
laAvs bj ) promptly remedied. If to promote
Avith zcnl and ready interest every project
for the development of its mi : crlal Inter
ests , rivers , harbors , mines and factories ,
and the intelligence , peace and security
under the laAV of its communities ana
its homes , is not accepted as sufficient evi
dences of friendliness to any state or sec
tion , I cannot add connivance at election
practices that not only disturb local results
sults , but rob the electors of other Btnto3
and sections of their most priceless polit
ical rights.
The preparation of the general appropri
ation bills should bo conducted with the
greatest care and the closest scrutiny of
expenditures. Appropriations should bo
adequate to the needs of the publio
service but they should bo absolutely free
from prodigality.
I venture again to remind you that tha
brief time remaining for the consideration
of the important legislation now awaitin/j /
yo'ur attention offers no margin for Avasto.
If the present duty is discharged Avith
diligence , fidelity and courage the work of
the Fifty-first congress may be confidently
submitted to the considerate judgment of
the people.
Bcx.mii v HVKIMSOX ,
ExccutiA'o Mansion , D. CDec. . 1 , 1390.
Some girls are pressed for time and
others for the fun of it. Birmingham
Much charity that begins at home la
too feeble to get out of doors. Texas
He believed in it She "Do yon believe -
lieve in true love ? " lie "Yes , if ho *
father is rich. "
Political Economy "Never buy any
more A'otes than 3011 absolutely need. "
Washington Post.
The silent man is the ono AVC alwayi
listen to Avitli the greatest pleasure.
Richmond Recorder.
She referred to the distiller wliona
she had fascinated as her -'sour mash.1 *
Merchant Traveler.
There arc some circles where it la
only the man with the income that can
come iu. liimjhamton Leader.
"That is a speaking likeness of your
wife , Garrill. " "It couldn't bo "ant
kind of a likeness if it wasn't. " N. X.
The greater the man the more re
lentless the fury with which the people
ple pummel 'him when ho falls.
Atchison Globe.
First Tippler "Well , IIOAV are you
getting along ? " Second Tippler "O ,
1 am gradually getting a-head. "
Philadelphia Press.
There arc self-made women , tailon
made Avomen , and some whouresimplj
maid. Each class speaks for itself.
Philadelphia Times.
A man's enjoyment of a melodrama
Is intensified by the opportunity bo *
twcen. the acts of having a mellow dram
or tAvo. Lowell Citizen.
When the devil wants to train up a
young man in the way he desires him
to go he imploA's Idleness to boss tha
job. Texas Siftings.
In the matrimonial market it doesn't
make so much difference about a girl'l
complexion if her income is only fairv
Burlington Free Press.
Miss Santa Fay "They say Misi
Atchison has teeth Jiko pearls. " Mrv
"I shouldn't . '
Topequcr wonder. She' *
as dumb as an oyster. " Puck.
"Papa , " said Willie , who had beoi
doAA-n street , the town looks just thl
same as it did. " "Why shouldn't HP *
"Mamma said you painted it. Wash
ington Post.
"What is it , do you suppose , thai
keeps the moon in place and prevent !
it from falling ? " asked Araminta. "J
think it must be the beams , " said
Charley , softly. N. Y. Sun.
Proprietor ( firmly ) Your account.
Mr. Weeks , has now been runnin fol
six months. " Weeks ( blandly ) "Well ,
suppose we let it rest for a year o
tAvo ! " Dry Goods Chronicle.
To say that a man is jovial is a
doubtful compliment. We don't be
lieve that AVO ever knew a man Avho
staid at home nights who AA-as called a
jovial felloAV. Atchison Globe.
McCormick "I want IAVO poached
eggs on toast. " Waiter "Yes , sir. "
"And be sure and have them fresh
laid.Yes sir ' '
, ; I'll have 'em laid on
the toast , sir. " Yonkers Statesman.
Mrs. Watts "Her grief for him la
aimply overwhelming. " ilra. Potts
"It is , indeed. I understand that sha
Bpent half of the life-insurance for a
mourning suit. " Terre Haute Express.
A medical writer says that tha
cholera microbe is shaped like a
tomma. It's the colon , AA-O believe ,
that the microbe makes the objectiva
point in the stomach. Merchant Travel-
Miss Fussanfealher "Are
you go-
tog to Saratoga next summer ? " Mrs.
pvergaiter "No , I think I will stay
home and use ice. It AA'ill be quite aJ
expensive , I fancy. " Yonkers Slates-
William Dean Howells writes from
1,000 to 1,500 words daily , and after
his pages have been copied on tha
typewriter he goes over them again.
adding a word , here and erasing a lin
there , until they are perfect.
Some experiments were made re
cently by the Xothern Pacific car-
builders atTacoma to test the strength ,
of fir and oak timber. The first-named
proved one-third stronger than the
eastern oak , and more than one-hall
stronger than eastern while pine.
A Naples correspondent writes that
& terrible storm in the Province of Ca
tania Avas marked by a curious phe
nomenon. Near San Matteo a ren4
was formed in the earth from north to
south nearly a mile long , nine feeS
Avide and from six to thirty feet deep.
Thomas Bailey Aldrich writes slowly
and fastidiously , revising and correct
ing the most unimportant article with
poetic care ; all his articles before they
reach the printer are written , and re
written at least three or four times.
Despite his -more than 86 year * ,
George Bancroft sits down at his desk
at 5 o'clock in the morning and labora
until 8 , when he breakfasts ; after this
he returns to his desk and remains till
1 or 2 o'clock in the afternoon , whep
he considers the day's task ended. .