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About Custer County Republican. (Broken Bow, Neb.) 1882-1921 | View Entire Issue (Aug. 18, 1910)
N THESE days , when the reforest
ing of the waste lauds of our
country Is becoming a question of
such national Importance , the
study of the relative value of dif
ferent species of trees Is naturally
Scientific parties are scouring
the earth In search for new
plants , fruits and vegetables to
add to our enjoyment and happiness A good
degree of success has already attended their ef
forts , and doubtless much more will yet be ac
complished by them.
Owing to the rapidly Increased price of
timber and lumber , the matter of forest-grow
ing Is of vital Interest to the great corpora
tions llko the railroads , manufacturing and
building companies , that must have , for their
very existence , vast quantities of timber and
lumber. The timber required by the railroads
for the ono Item of railroad ties , not taking
Into consideration the quantity used In the con
\ struction of cars and buildings , consumes the
output of many hundreds of thousands of acres
of timber lauds every year.
While undoubtedly the valuable trees In
digenous to America will bo most largely re
planted and utilized , many others that are not
natives of this continent , when found by ex
periment to be easily giown and of value , will
also bo Imported and largely cultivated.
In the case of the eucalyptus this has already
been done , and so extensively Is the tree now
grown In California , and so many and valued
are Its uses , that It will bo news to multitudes
to hear that there still live many who remem
ber when It was first brought Into that state
by the late Bishop Taylor from distant Aus
tralia , Us original home.
It was a surprise , aa well as a revelation , to
find on our recent visit to Australia that in
that far-away land , under the Southern Cross ,
were growing trees that towered In the air 150
feet higher than the great Sequoia , the famous
red wood of our American west ; and yet such
Is the fact , as some specimens of the Eucalyp
tus amygdallna reach to the great height of
480 feet. Specimens abound that are from 120
to 200 feet In circumference. They are prac
tically of no use for commercial purposes , as
the expense of cutting down such enormous
trees and then getting their logs split up Into
pieces that can bo handled Is so great that
these monsters are passed by the thrifty lum
bermen for the smaller ones that are moro
The Eucalyptus arnygdalina Is the tallest , if
Got perhaps the largest , tree that giows. Speci
mens over 400 feet high are frequently found ,
while some have been measured towering up
to 470 and 480 feet. The timber of these great
specimens Is easily worked , and , as it does not
warp readily , Is much used In carpentry.
The eucalyptus tree Is a genus of trees and
ehrubs of the natural order of Myrtacea , em
bracing about ICO species All but four of
them are natives of Australia and Tasmania
only. The eucalyptus trees are BO abundant
In many parts of Australia that over vast areas
they are practically the only trees visible. The
fact that the fully developed trees are desti
tute of symmetry and beauty robs the great
Australian wooded icglons of that attractive
ness and charm which gives such pleasure and
delight to the primeval forests of America.
Ono striking characteristic of several varie
ties of the eucalyptus Is that , while they never
seem to shed their leaves , they cast or slough
off their bark In long strips every year. The
leaves , which have a leathery nppoarance , con
tain a considerable quantity of volatile oil. The
tincture or oil cxtiacted Irom them has a bit
ter aromatic taste and la extensively used as
a remedy for various diseases.
On the young shoots of many species the
leaves in pairs ate oppobito to ouch other , aa
Vhey appear on ordinary plants , while on the
older blanches the leaves nro arranged alter
nately and grow In such a way ilut they pro-
Kent their edges to the sun. This seems to bo
nature's provision to protect them frooa tbo
life , nnd shunned and feared , nro now the
abodes of numbers of people who find , since
the Introduction of the eucalyptus trees , but
llttlo traces of the dreaded malaria that for
ages once caused those regions to bo BO
shunned and deserted.
In the low malarial regions around the Capo
of Good Hope nnd in some similar unhealthful
regions around Algiers anil elsewhere , the
Bamo benlflccnt results have followed the Intro-
Intense heat of the tropical sun of those lands
where they most flourish.
The Eucalyptus globulus , generally called
the blue gum , from Its bluish-green leaves , Is
the variety most successfully grown In Callfor-
nit. It has also been introduced and flourishes
In India , Natal , Egypt , Algeria , and in various
parts of southern Europe nnd in some other
warm countries. It cannot stand the frost , and
so must bo classed among tropical trees. Per
haps only In the state of Florida and Califor
nia can wo expect to see it In perfection in
this country ; yet although its introduction into
California has been of but recent date , already
its value to that state has been very consider
Some of the species of eucalyptus are much
moro valuable than others. There Is also a
great diversity both in their appearance and
worth. Ono of the most valuable is the Euca
lyptus marglnata , popularly called the Jarrah
wood. It grows to a great size and Us tim
ber is so hard that it is found to bo especial
ly valuable In the construction of wharves , as
It resists the attack of the ship worms nnd
borers that are so destructive to ordinary wood.
Because of this quality it also enters largely
Into the construction of ships and Is ultlllzei
In other marine uses.
Some varieties of the eucalyptus yield a
kind of astringent gum or resin called Vine ,
while from others a species of manna a hard
little , sweet substance Is obtained In consid
erable quantities. As an antidote against ma
laria and as being valuable In warding off or
dissipating malaria In regions where malaria
abounds , the eucalyptus has obtained a con
siderable reputation Expert opinions fieem to
be divided as to the way in which Its benefi
cent results come about. Some think it Is thy
: esult of the volatile oils which these trees
glvo off through their leaves , acting as a neu
tralizing nnd even destructive power against
the malarial matter In the atmosphere ; others
maintain that Its beneficent results are caused
by the fact of the trees being such rapid grow
ers , and the great quantity of water they thus
absorb and then glvo off purifies the atmo
sphere. Whatever may bo the cause , the fact
Is evident that their presence In goodly num
bers , planted In malarial regions , has produced
most beneficent results.
The Koman Campagna especially has been
greatly benefited , so much so that largo portions
tions ouco considered almost fatal to human
- ' * - * - * & * * p ? ' v * > * , *
ductlon of the eucalyptus trees.
As yet no variety has been discovered that
is able to withstand even a moderate frost , but
the fact that millions of these trees can bo
raised BO easily and quickly in California and
Florida and perhaps In the warm places on the
Gulf of Mexico , nnd that Us timber can bo so
widely utilized , la n matter for congratulation
to nil who are Interested In the conservation of
our forests and also In the introduction of now
varieties of trees that will add to the timber
wealth of the country.
In general , eucalyptus may bo successfully
planted In the sections of the United States
suitable for the culture of citrus frullu. They
are grown In nearly all the agricultural sec
tions of California , along the coast of southern
Oregon , and to a limited extent In Arizona.
Now Mexico and western Texas. Several spo-
clea have also been planted in Florida and
along the Gulf coast. Here , however , occa
sional frosts have killed or severely damaged
the trees , nnd for this reason planting has
The blue gum ( Eucalyptus globulus ) has a
phenomenally rapid rate of growth. Seedlings
stands will average n height growth of GO feet
in C years and 100 feet In 10 years. Under
very favorable conditions individual trees have
reached a height of 125 feet and a diameter of
3G Inches In 9 years. In sprout stands growth
Is even moro rapid ; trees frequently reach 3
Inches In diameter and 35 feet In height In 8
months , wh.Ho in 3 years a diameter of 7 inches
nnd a height of 70 feet are often attained. In
California , under favorable conditions , trees
have attained a height of 175 feet and a di
ameter of 5 feet in 25 years. Although soine-
times irregular In form , the true tends to de
velop a straight , gradually tapering , unforked
stem. In plantations the trunks become rap
idly cleared of branches to a considerable
height , but in the open , trees branch moro
widely and gradually develop n short crown
of ransslve , spreading branches.
Blue gum Is piactlcally Immune from dis
ease. Where trees are reproduced by sprouts ,
the old stumps frequently decay HJowly at the
heart , while the spiouts remained unaffected.
Growing trees are not attacked by insect ene
mies , but felled timber lying unbarkcd upon
the ground is subject to Injury by a wood-rai
Blue gum rarely suffers any breakage of the
limbs by winds , and the spreading root sys
tem renders the trees very wind-firm.
Flro Is the greatest source of Injury to eu
calyptus plantations. Both the natural charac
teristics of the trees and the conditions within
planted groves render them peculiarly suscep
tible to flro Injury. The laigo quantity of lit
ter dry leaves , branches nnd uhrudded balk
which accumulates beneath a stand Is extreme
ly Inflammable. The bark of eucalyptus la BO
thin that the trees are Injured oven by light
The wood of blue gum la very heavy , hard ,
strong and tough , but la not durable In contact
with the Boll. It Is close-grained , and Is split
with difficulty after It has dried. II. Is less elas
tic than hickory , but It has been demonstrated
by mechanical testa that seasoned blue gum.
timber Is n llttlo Inferior In strength and stiff
ness to the best second-growth hickory. In ap
pearance It closely resembles the wood of hick
ory nnd ash.
Blue-gum timber la utilized for a great vari
ety of purposes In California. The wood Is ex
cellent for fuel , and In the trcolosa valleys haa
boon the chief fuel supply for many years. In
southern California the steady demand renders
commercial planting for fuel very profitable.
Eucalyptus timber has boon extensively used In
California for wharf piling. Blue-gum piles are
In use In nearly every port on the California
coast , and extended trial has shown that they
resist the attacks of marine borers which destroy -
stroy timber In sea water longer than other
species commonly used for piling. Blue-gum
timber has also been used to some extent for
fence posts and telephone polos. The wood Is
not suitable for this purpose , however , on ac
count of Its short llfo In the ground. Seasoned
posts last a llttlo longer than green posts , and
timber cut from the heart Is moro durable than
jilt gum timber has boon used to a limited
extent to determine Its value for mllroad tics.
The icsults thus far obtained Indicate that It
compares favorably with second-grade plno-tlo
The lumber has been extensively used for vo-
hlclo stock and for wooden parts of agricultural
implements. It is also made Into Insulator pins
for electric wiring , nnd is used lor furnlturo
and cabinet work , hardwood flooring , trip-ham
mer beams , the lovers of windlasses , and the
blocking for oil and wlno presses , wood paving ,
pulley blocks and belt wheels.
The extensive utilization of gum lumber has
hitherto been prevented by the scanty supply of
timber of merchantable size and by the diffi
culty experienced In seasoning the lumber with
out warping and checking. It Is believed , how
ever , that In the seasoning of gum no greater
difficulties will bo encountered than In Reason
ing of any other hardwood of similar density
A product of considerable importance derived
from blue gum Is the oil distilled from the
leaves. Eucalyptus oil Is recognized as a valu
able drug and Is extensively used by pharma
cists nnd physicians.
In many valleys of California eucalyptus
windbreaks are considered absolutely necessary
to insure the successful production of crops.
They have been most extensively used to safe
guard citrus orchards from strong and do
structlvo winds In southern California , hut they
are now being established also for the pro
tection of vinoyaida and orchards of deciduous
fruits , olives and walnuts. The blue gum ex
cels other species for windbreak purposes on
account of Its height and the rapidity of Us
growth. The tall shafts of the trees bend before
fore the wind and act as a cushion to deflect It
upward over the orchard , whereat * ordinary
wind-break trees form a moro solid wall , and
the wind draws downward , forming eddies near
the leeward side.
Eucalyptus icproduco readily by both needs
and sprouts. The trees bear seed In abun
dance annually , and under favorable conditions
natural reproduction la freely estnbllshcd.
Trees also Bprout vigorously from both the
stump and the roots , cither after cutting or in
icsponso to injury. In California commercial
groves are almost Invailably reproduced by
Plantations should bo started with young
trees and not by direct sowing. The opinion
is generally hold that eucalyptus seedlings are
go dlfllcult to lalso , that their propagation is
impracticable cxcop't for export nurserymen.
In point of fact , blue gum la < yio of the most
easily propagated species.
'What have you to say to this charga
of bigamy ; why did you have BO many ;
wives ? " i
"Well , jmlgo. I expected towood ,
out a few of thorn later. "
RAW ECZEMA ON HANDS
"I had oczonm ou my hands for ton
years. I had thrco good doctors but
none of them did any good. I then
used ono box of Cutlcum Ointment
and thrco bottles of Cutlcnra Resolvent
and was completely cured. My handa
were raw nil over , Insldo and out , and
the eczema was spreading all over my
body and limbs. Before I had used ona
bottle , together with the Cutlcura
Ointment , my cores were nearly
healed over , and by the Umo I had
used the third bottle , I wan entirely
well. To any ono who has any skin
or blood disease I would honestly ad-
visa them to fool with nothing olno ,
but got Cutlcura and got well. My
hands have never given mo the least
bit of trouble up to now.
"My daughter's hands this BUmmer
nnrfnnMv raw with nczomtt.
She could get nothing that would do
them any good until cho tried Cutl
cura , She used Cutlcum Resolvent
and Cutlcura Ointment nnd In two
weeks they were entirely cured. I
have used Cutlcura for other mombora
of my family and It always proved suc
cessful. Mrs. M. E. Falln , Spoors
Ferry , Va. , OcL 19 , 100D. "
History Cleared Up.
The third grade was "having his
tory. " Forty youngsters were mo
lting gucssea about the llfo and char *
actor of the Father of His Country.
when the teacher propounded a ques
tion that stumped them all.
"Why did Washington crosa the
Delaware ? "
Why , Indppfl ? Not a child could
think of anything but the answer to
the famous chicken problem : "To get
on the other side , " and , of course.
that wouldn't do. Then llttlo Annlo'a
hand shot Into the air. Llttlo Annlo
crosses the Delaware every summoi'
herself , hence the bright Idea. .
"Well , Annie ? "
"Because ho wanted to got to Allan *
tlo City. " Philadelphia Times.
It Wouldn't Stretch.
The assessor was doing the very
best ho could , but the farmer waa
shrewd and wary.
"How many acres of farming land ,
have you ? " ho Inquired warily. ,
" 'Bout 20 , I guess , " said Roubon.
"Twenty I Why , It looks to mo llko
icaror 120. Como , now , can't you ln
crcaso that a llttlo ? There are auroly
more tlmii 20 acres In that tract Sup
pose you stretch that a llttlo. "
"Say , follcr , " said the farmer , "this
ain't no rubber plantation. " Harper's
"Your daughter should attend my.
school of education. "
"Sho shan't ! Shu's attended ono.
and she's positively " %
"Ah , hut I teach a now Bystom.
When my pupils are asked to reclta
they are trained to refuse. "
A man's argument Is nearly always
And a Sure One.
Tiio Dody Does Not Feel Heat
Unpleasantly If it lias
6rape = Niits
People can llvo in a temperatura
which feels from ton to twenty degrees
cooler than their neighbors enjojf , by
regulating the diet 1
The plan is to avoid meat entirely fet
breakfast ; use a goodly allowan/co / of
fruit , either fresh or cooked. Thfcn fol
low with a saucer containing abo/it / four
heaping tenspoonfuls of Grapi-.NutB ,
treated with n llttlo rich cream. lAdd to
this about two slices of crisp toc/fet / with
a meager amount of buttery rind ona
cup of well-made Postal/ "
By this selection of fopd thji bodily
energy Is preserved , hot , car
bonaceous foods ha n / eft out.
The result is a vcr 'in rkod ujfrerenca
in the tempernturo ot the * llody , dntl
to this comfortable condition ] is addjjd
the certainty of case and perfect '
tloiif for the food being
digested Is quickly
Experience and experiment' ' In , . food ,
, Wd Its application to the hunjan ody
nab brought out these fact3y.'vrhoy
can bo made use of and add materially.
to the comfort of the user. *
t , Road the llttlo book , " /Tho RoadNo
U'cllvllle , " in pkgs. "There's a Reason. "
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