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About Custer County Republican. (Broken Bow, Neb.) 1882-1921 | View Entire Issue (June 16, 1910)
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IB National Museum of MexIco -
Ice raay bo snld to have just
emerged from Its Infancy , ns
It Is only within the last dec
ade that any real attention
has been given to It. It has
n wonderfully wide scope , and
a most brilliant future , as the
republic Is probably the rich
est field In the world today
for the archaeologist. Many
burled cities are being discov
ered , and traces of prehistoric civilization In
America are constantly throwing an Illu
minating ray upon the many vexing prob-
has. Dr. Rafael Olngulbel , and Ignaclo
Mora. Although the president was em
powered to move the museum , from
May 20 , 1831 , to the building former
ly occupied by the now extinct Inquisi
tion , the date of removal was indefi
nitely postponed and the establish
ment continued its existence at the
university without being able to make
the slightest development. For many
years afterward It was grossly neg
* CHALWUHTLC2jTH AZTEC Maximilian" a decree was Issued , De-
Of' WATER. V" * * comber 1 , 1SC3 , declaring that the Pub-
lie Museum or
elegy , and Ills-
der his Imme
tion , and or
ders were giv
en that It
should Wo i o-
moved to the
Jems which have for years been the despair of
the historian. In fact , Mexico may today very
properly claim the title of "Tho Egypt of Amer
ica " Why , indeed , should the archaeologist go to
'Egypt ' , when Mexico offers to him such rich and
inexhaustible fields as Mltla , Monte Alban , Palen-
quo , San Juau de Teotihuacan. the ruins of Ux-
mal , and of Chi Chen Itza in Yucatan , and many
others which are Just being unearthed ?
The museum located at tha national capital is
generally the first place sought out by the thou
sands of tourists who pour into the country each
year. And it is well worth a visit , for it offers cer
tain things which no other museum in the world
could offer to the eyes of the curious.
The best brief sketch of its history is given by
its director , Lie. Genaro Garcia , himself a notable
historian and archaeologist , in the introduction
of volume 1 , No. 1 , of the "Annals of the National
Museum of Archaeology , History and Ethnology , "
a most creditable publication which is Issued
monthly by the institution , under the direct super
vision of Lie. Garcia. In speaking of the founda
tion of the museum which ho has brought up to
such a creditable standard , Lie. Garcia says :
Under the Spanish domination there existed
only n small collection of antiquities in Mexico ,
consisting , for the greater part , of the codexes
and native manuscripts which a cavalier of Milan ,
Italy , Don Lorenzo de Uoturinl y Benaducl , Senor
do la Tore y Homo , had been able to collect , at
the cost of unheard-of sacrifices , and which were
" onfiacated in the most unjust manner by the
vice-regal government in 1743. These antiquities
were first kept In the office of the viceroy's secre
tary , and afterward In the library of the Royal
and Pontifical University of Mexico , where they
were taken by order of His Excellency Antonio
Maria de Bucarell y Ursua , viceroy of New Spain.
In one and another place they were greatly dam-
uged by neglect , humidity , rats and thefts.
Upon the consummation of Mexico's Indepen
dence the national government not only directed
that the existing antiquities bo kept at the same
university , but assigned , in addition , the sum of
$1,892 , 1 real and 1 "grano , " for the salaries of a
directing professor of botany , a gardener , and the
expenses of the garden.
When this appropriation was made the gov
ernment did not as yet have In rnind the establish
ment of n national museum which , according to
Gen. Lucas Alamnn , then secretary of state and
foreign relations , in a memorial presented to con
gress on January 11 , 1S25 , was to ho a matter for
the future. Notwithstanding all this , Don Sebas
tian Camacho , successor to General Alnman , an
nounced to congress during the latter part of the
same year that the National museum had boon
established , "under the most happy auspices , with
a keeper Intrusted with its arrangement , safety ,
and development , " and with many projects for
"scientific trips , discoveries , excavations , and
other operations" which were never made. The
museum , therefore , had no other end than that
of the conservation of a few antiquities , unclas
sified , and In generally bad shape.
The museum proper had its birth by virtue of
IQ decree of November 21 , which ordered Its for-
rmal creation and its division into three branches
antiquities , products of natural history and In
dustry , and botanical garden.
The chief executive of the republic proceeded
at once to the organization of the museum in ac
cordance with the foregoing decree , and appointed
as members of the directive board Messrs. Pablo
do la Llavo , Isldro Ignaclo Icoza , Miguel Busta-
man to , Jose Mariano Sanchez Mora , Ignaclo Cu-
lt occupies to
day , the same
used before as the Casa do Moneda ; that It should
have a library , to be formed from books owned by
the university and by the convents which had Just
been abolished , and that the government would
provide the expenses of Installation , conserva
tion , and development.
After the constitutional government triumphed
over Maximilian , It appropriated , In the budget for
1867-1S68 , the sum of $12,000 for the museum ; half
of which was for expenses and tSia other half for
the salaries of a director , two professors of natu
ral history , a preparador , a clerk , an errand boy ,
and a porter. Unfortunately th poverty of the
public treasury at that time prevented thp govern
ment for many years from increoslng tlia appro
priations for the museum , which only reached $12.-
100 during the fiscal year 1876-1877 , for which rea
son it had little-opportunity to make any progress.
When Gen. Porflrio Diaz came into the supreme
magistracy of the republic , he , the Indisputable re
storer of the public peace and the first factor in
the actual progress of Mexico , gave a great Im
pulse to all the federal educational establishments.
The museum , which In 1877-1878 only had an ap
propriation of $13,360 , received an Increase each
year , until in the year 1901 it reached the sum
of $24,797.20. In this manner Its development was
enabled to keep pace with the rest of the country
The progress of the museum has been very
rapid slnco Lie. Don Justo Sierra , secretary of
public instruction , took charge of the educational
development of Mexico , and during the past three
years it has enlarged Its collections until they con
sist of nearly 70,000 objects. Such nn abnormal de
velopment mndo the space occupied by it too
small , and It was divided into two departments :
National Museum of History , Archaeology , and
Ethnology , and National Museum of History. The
former remains in the National palace , and the
latter is being removed to a new building of suf
ficient slzo for Its requirements.
A sti iking proof of the efforts made by the
supreme government to perfect its educational es
tablishments is the fact that the present annual
appropriation for the museum of $120,000 is almost
ten times ns great as was the appropriation of
The publication in which this sketch appeared
is of comparatively recent origin , In so far as its
actual importance is concerned. It was founded
in 1S77 , its director at that time being Prof. Gu-
mcslndo Mendoza , his principal collaborators beIng -
Ing Manuel Orozco y Derra , and Lie. Alfredo Cha-
vero. It was not at that time printed in the mu
seum , as it is only slnco 1885 that the printing
plant of the museum , which had a very humble be
ginning , got its start , the nucleus of which was a
small Colomblno press , model 2 , chiefly used for
running oft cards , or classification slips for the
objects contained In the establishment. From this
time on , however , the various directors who came
and went , each recognizing the importance of hav
ing n well equipped print shop , made important
additions , until the plant attained its highest do-
gro of efficiency , a year or so ago , with the acquisi
tion of an Optlmus press. To celebrate its acqui
sition two special studies were written and run off
on the new press , ono of which , entitled "Porfhio
Diaz , Sus Padres , NInez y Juvontud" ( "Porflrio
Diaz , his parents , childhood and youth" ) , was writ
ten by Lie. Garcia , then profeseor of history in
the museum , and the edition , which was beautiful
ly gotten up , was immediately exhausted.
Shortly after this , or about the middle of 1907.
Lie. Garcia was mndo subdlrcctor of the
museum , Ktlll letalnlng , however , the
chair of history. Ho was oven nt this
tlmo ono of the most widely known In
tellectual figures in the republic , hav
ing been n member of the chamber of
deputies since 1S94 , but better
known throughout Mexico as a his
torian. Some of the books which
have emanated fiom his pen are :
"Character of the Spanish Conquest
in America and Mexico , " "Tho Plan
of Independence of New Spain In
1808 , " "Denial Diaz del Castillo's
Conquest of Mexico , According to
the Autograph Codex , " ' Juarez a
Refutation of Don Francisco Rul-
HUB , aim j uuiiii viuunu , uiu in-
ff - . surgent Heroine. " Resides these he
has prepared 28 volumes of unpub
lished documents relative to the
history of Mexico. Upon his promotion to the posi
tion Lie. Garcia immediately proceeded to the sci
entific classification of the many articles contained
In the museum , giving to each object a card specify
ing both its vulgar and scientific name , the place
whcro it originated , and such other observations as
would give the public an Intelligent Idea regarding
it. He added greatly to the collections of the mu
seum , acquiring in ono year alone 74,000 objects ,
and perfected the official publication known as
"Anales del Museo Naclonnl , " bringing it up to such
a high standard that it is today perhaps the best
publication of its kind In the world.
Having finally been made director In chief , Lie.
Garcia secured the separation of the museum Into
two departments , thus making n separate branch
entirely of the department of natural history and
subdividing the national museum of archaeology ,
history , and ethnology Into six departments arch-
neology , history , ethnology , industrial retrospective
art , publications , and library.
The department of archaeology Is composed of
seven largo halls , which are called "salon azteca , "
"salon toltecn " "salon tarasco " " "
, , "salon mlxtecn ,
"salon zapotoca , " etc. , each hall thus representing
a distinct division of Mexican archaeology.
The department of history consists of four "sn-
lones , " situated in the principal Inner section of the
third floor , in which are exhibited many Inteiestlng
The department of ethnology occupies almost
the entire second floor and contains mostly ob
jects strictly related to the aborigines such as
plaster casts of heads , hands , and feet ; dress , fur
niture , chattels , etc ; photographs and oil paintings ;
Industrial products , and ethnological maps , all clas
sified In a similar manner to those In the depart
ment of archaeology.
The department of industrial retrospective an
consists of five "saloncs , " and was created only re
cently by Lie. Garcia. In the first salon are ex
hibited a seiles of oil paintings representing the
costumes worn by the citizens of different epochs In
the nation's history , from the tlmo of Cortez down.
In the second salon nro six largo glabs cases In
which are exhibited objects of iron , Jewels , cos
tumes , military objects , etc. In the third salon are
thrro largo glass cases In which nro to bo found
dining-room articles , all grouped according to
classes , among which will bo found part of the mag
nificent table service of the Emperor Maximilian.
In the fourth salon Maxlllmlan's royal carriage la
exhibited , as is his road carriage. Close by is the
coach which belonged to Juarez , the restorer of the
republic , in which ho traveled when pursued by the
Imperialist armies. The fifth salon contains many
objects of high artistic value.
The department of publications Is ono of tha
most important In the museum , and has charge oi
nil the documents which
are printed iclatlvo to it
It is nt present preparing , in commemoration oi
Mexico's centennial , which will begin In September ,
a number of volumes which will treat of the differ
ent plans which were formulated for the country
emancipation from Spain.
The library is situated on the lower floor , a few
stops from the main entrance , and the books which
It contains are classified In
perfect order , &o that
it is an easy matter for the person wishing to look
up any certain point In history , archaeology , or oth
uology to get full and complete data at very
BLOODY MASSACRE BY INDIANS
ARE HOLDING VALLADOLID
Reports of Cnuso of Outbreak Are
Conflicting Former Head of the
Civil Government Is Said to
Be in Command.
Mexico City With telegraph wires
cut and upuintots murdered or forced
to flco , definite Information Is lacking
as to the proHunt situation at Valla-
dulld , Yucatan , the scene of a bloody
massacre by Indian Insurgents neve nil
dnjs ago. The government nuthorltlo.s
hero estimated the number killed at
fort.\ . \Ioie than 2.000 Indians are
said to have 111011 engaged In I ho at
tack upon Hie towim , The insurgents
hold Ynlludnlld at last accounts , hav
ing foi tilled themsclvoa in the jail
and other buildings.
Federal ami state troops and volunteers
teors numbering more than ,2,000 men
mo concentrating nt Dzttns , a short
distance from Ynlladolld , and are
about to march upon the labels. Gen
eral iRnacIo Bravo , commander of the
tenth military zone , lias boon ordered
to the sccno and will take command.
Reports as lo the oauso of the out
break are ronlllctlng. Some declare
that It began with n piotcst against
certain orders issued by the civil offi
cers In charge of the municipality
known an the "jefc politico , " whllo
otherw say It was the result of a
drunken npreo. Whatever Its origin ,
it appears to have some semblance to
organization and Is said to have been
led by political malcontents.
Alsop Bleaching Is Bad.
KansnB City.VltnoHsus In the
"bleached Hour" case testified hero
that the gas used In the Aluop bleach
ing process had destroyed rubber
hose and Iron pipes through which It
Samuel T. liullurd of Ixmlsvllle , Ky. ,
said he used the Alsop ptncuss In his
mill from 1901 to 1909. The gan nto
out his Iron nines. Hallnrd also testi
fied that bleached Hour did not keep
well , the broad make from it molding
quicker than that manufactured from
unbleached Hour. Archlo Comstock of
Ellsworth , Kan. , testified ( hut a ploco
of rubber hose ho used In convoying
gay into hln bleaching machinery had
been rotted out.
Missouri Penitentiary Damaged.
Jefferson City. Mo. The roofs of
three buildings at the state peniten
tiary were blown off by a heavy wind
accompanying a severe storm which
struck Jefferson Pity.
One building in which six hundred
convicts were confined was loft with
out a partlclu of protection from the
downpour \\lilcli followed , except the
tops of the modern stool cells. Two
prisoners were Injured slightly by the
falling of roof timbers.
The main dining liall and the cloth
ing factory were the other two struc
tures damaged. Fifty men , compris
ing the guard force and ofiloo em
ployes are working clearing uway the
wreckage. The loss is estimated nt
about ? iiO,000.
Open to Irrigation.
Washington. The secretary of the
Interior lias Issued a iiubllc notice
opening to Irrigation In 1910 , under
the North Plntto Irrigation project , ad
ditional lands in townships 23 , 24 and
25 , n. ranges 50 , 57 and 58 , Nebrnbka ,
and townships 21 and 25 , n. range 60 ,
Wyoming , the revised farm unit plates
showing these lands are now on sale
In local offices in Alliance , Nob. , and
Cheyenne , Wyo. , for the respective
Climbers Reach Fairbanks.
Fairbanks , Alaska. Pcto Anderson ,
W. R. Taylor and Clnirles McGonlglo ,
who weie with Tom Lloyd when he
reached the summit of Mount McKin-
icy April a , nuvo arrived at Ji'airimnKR.
They/ said they climbed the mountain
a second time , reaching the summit
March 17. They corroborated the
story of the first ascent.
File Cancellation Tariffs.
Washington. In accordance with
the verbal arrangement with President
Tnft the companies included In the
western trunk line have begun the
filing of tariffs with the interstate
commerce commission in cancellation
of tariff- * which they filed to be effec
tive on Juno 1.
For Memorial to Bill Nye.
WrlghlBvillo Reach , N. C. Quo of
the features of the opening session of
the annual convention of the North
Carolina prebs association , which con
vened here Wednesday , was the
launching of a movement to oiect a
substantial memorial to the Into
"UI1I" Nye , the humorist.
King and Queen Inspect Ruins.
Calltrl. Italy. The ruins of Calitri
and adjoining villages were inspected
by King Victor ISmmanuol and Queen
Helena. Most of the houses In Calitri
.wore destioyod by the earthquake and
the people who escaped are camping In
the fields. Thirty-two bodies have
been uncovered , whllo eight or ten
more are thought to bo still under the
fallen walls. Two were taken out
In the presence of ! the king.
Ono section of' ' the town Is almost
completely burled * -
AN ACHINQ BACK
Means Weak . ,
Kidneys. r * t
Well kidneys filter the blood of urlo
acid and other impurities. When the
kidneys are sick , waste matter accu
mulates and backache , headache and
urinary trouble * ? re
sult. To olltnltmtu.
the adieu and paint'
you must euro the
k I d n o y H . Doan'it
1C Id n oy Pills euro
sick kidneys , utld
euro them pormu-
J. N. Mnrkhnm ,
Montesnuo , Wash. ,
says : "Kldnoy trou-
M < cftine on me jrad- ,
iittlly mitl liofore long I wna Buffering
from dropsy. My body bloated mid
my llosli was soft and flabby. I tired
easily and suffered severely from pain
n my buck. Doan'a Kidney Pills cured
mo mid I am today In much better
Remember the name Donn'H.
For mxlo by all dealers. GO conta n
box. Foster-Mllburn Co. , Buffalo. N. Y.
ONE REASON"FOR" STATUES
Not Altogether Devoid of Common
Sense Was Answer Given to
A Washington dentist praised en
thusiastically the respect paid to the
memory of Horace Wells by the
French government. It has erqnted
recently n statue of him In the Place
don Ktats Unls , In Paris , and the tin-
veiling ceremony In March was at
tended by distinguished Bclcntlsta
from nil over the world.
"Professor Wells , " said the dentlat.
"was born in Hartford in 1815. He was
a pioneer In the use of nitrous oxldo
gas In dental operations to prevent
pain , and for his discoveries in utiaoa-
tbcslii he may be regarded us a bene
factor to mankind.
"Wolls has been dead GO years , and
France istho first a tardy first to
acknowledge the Importance of his
discovery , and raise a trlbuto to hla
almost forgotten memory. This qa'su
reminds mo of u conversation between
a llttlo boy and hla father.
" 'Why are statues erected to fa
mous men , father ? " natd the child.
" 'So that they may become known ,
dear , ' was the answer. "
A Horse Lover.
James U. Keene , who Is noted no
less IIH a horseman than IIH n financier ,
said at a luncheon at his Cedarhurst
"My love of horses has been a great
comfort to mo all my life. I have al
ways kept my horses in their placo.
though. I haven't allowed them to In
terfere with my business.
"Somo men carry their love ot
horses altogether too far. Such n ono
was a young father who stood , with
his fair wife , before the crib of their
first born. '
" 'Isn't he wonderful ? ' the young
mother cried. 'Did you over sec any
thing like him at twenty-six months ? '
" 'Maternal love is all very well , ' the
father retorted , Impatiently , 'but please
don't try to compare it with a two-
year-old thoroughbred. ' "
"What Is geography ? " tislifed the
father , who was testing his son'n prog
ress In study.
"Geography , " replied little Jimmy
Jlggs , "la what you put Inside your
trousers when you think you are going
to got a whipping. " Sunday Magazine
of Los Angeles Times.
"Do you menu to tell mo you enjoy
bolng fat ? "
"Yes , " answered the philosophic citi
zen. "I get more transportation for
my money when 1 buy a railway
A pretty good joke was that played
on a rotund alderman , who wandered
about the streets bearing a placard on
his broad back Inscribed :
"Widened at the expense of the cor
It is pleasant to think that the people
plo who imtku gateways to the heav
enly road never get any farther on It.
And satisfaction to the last
There's pleasure in every
package. A trial will show
the fascinating flavour.
Served right from the pack
age with cream or milk and
sometimes fruit fresh or
'The * '
* Pkgs. lOc and ISc.
Sold by Grocers ,
Postum Cereal Co. , Ltd.
Uattln Cruel ; , Mich.
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