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About Custer County Republican. (Broken Bow, Neb.) 1882-1921 | View Entire Issue (May 19, 1910)
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EARLY three bil
lion pieces of
chewing gum nro
the United States
annually , ' p r n c-
tlcally all of which
is mndo from ono
product of tropical
for the $1,500,000
In chicle , annual
ly exported by our
nlstor republics , and brings to light
the workings of a most gigantic In
In the fifteenth century chlclo was
known to the Intrepid Spanish ex
plorers , who reported that the Indians
employed the gum to quench thirst
and relieve exhaustion ; but the uni
versal use of the gum can not' bo said
to have begun until as late as 1870.
Slnco that time the demand for this
almost mysterious commercial com
modity has Increased to such an ex
tent that Importing firms have been
obliged to search the markets and ex
ploit the growing of the tree In or
der to obtain n supply sufficient to
meet existing requirements.
Prior to 1888 chicle sold for from
7 to 8 cents per pound : in 1S9G it sold
for 3G cents per pound ; and now it is
selling for $2 per pound.
The tree , Achras Sapota , from which
the chicle is obtained , is indigenous
to northern South American coun
tries , Central America , and in the
Mexican states of Yucatan , Campeche ,
Tabasco , Chiapas , Veracruz , Oaxaca ,
Puebla , Jalisco. San Luis Potosi , and
the territories of Topic and Qulntana
As yet the
tivation of the
has not been
carried on .to
any great ex
tent , but experi
ments h a v"b
trees planted at
a distance of 10
feet apart , or
400 to the acre ,
will yield from
6 to G pounds of
when from 8 to
10 years old and
v from 12 to 15
Inches In diam
eter. In Its wild
state the tree la
usually found In
groups , f r e-
to a height of
from 40 to 50
feet ; 1 t 1 a
straight , and
has a long , clear
length , thus ma
king It most de-
eirablo for tim
ber. While it
grows well In a
i viiiiciy 01 sous , it seems to thrive best In a rich
* clay loam , with good drainage and an annual rainfall -
/ fall of about ! 10 Inches. Lands well adapted' the
growing of the tree vary In price from $3 to $15
gold , per acre , and are being largely dealt in at
the present time.
The wood Is of a reddish color , closely resem
bling mahogany , Is quite hard , heavy , compact In
te\fvo , and flue grained. Prehistoric door frames
and rafters of sapota wood are found among the
Mexican ruins , and are Btill in an excellent state
of preservation. This wood is today greatly In
demand by cabinetmakers , who employ It In the
manufacture of high grade furnlturo and houso-
ho'd ' fittings.
r < "l" > - * " . For many years the sapodllla pear , which also
comes from the Achras Sapota tree , was a popu
lar variety of fruit found in the markets through
out Latin America ; but now } on account of the
great demand for chicle gum nnd the attractive
rewards offered for its gathering , the fruit is sel
dom dealt In by the natives.
The operation of gathering chicle andi preparing
It for the market la similar to that employed In
the maple sugar Industry In the United States.
Throughout the rainy season , and while the sap
la up , the tapping is done by the chicle gatherers.
, or "chlcleros. " as they are called Their outfit Is
most simple , nnd consists In nothing more than a
piece of rope and a machete. By means of this
rope , which Is fastened about the waist and
ellpprd around the tree , the chlcloro Is enabled
f * to hold any desired position nnd wield the ma
chete In cutting the Incisions or gullies.
Great care must bo exercised In tapping not to
cut too deeply , as excessive bleeding of the sap
will cause the rapid decay of the tree. It Is pos
sible for a chiclero to gather , properly , from 10
to 15 pounds of the snp per day , for which ho Is
paid. In most cases , a contract price of from 10
to 15 cents per pound ; but on many of the largo
estates an effort Is now being made to effect pay
ments for the labor by the day , week or month ,
and In this way prevent the destruction of the
trees frequently caused by n greedy deslro on the
part of the chiclero , when under contract , to ob
tain as much sap as passible without regard to
the Injuries sustained by the trees.
In granting concessions to gather chlclo In the
national forest reservations , the Latin-American
governments demand that natives shall be proper
ly Instructed In the gathering and preparation of
the gum , as promiscuous tapping will not bo long
In some Instances trees have been tapped for
25 years , where care has been taken , although
after that time they produced but from one-half
to two pounds of sap. However , If allowed to re
main untapped for n period of five or six years ,
. they will then produce from three to five pounds
ff of gum. Authorities dlffnr ' .n regard to the aver-
i * ea height of the sapota , und the length of tlmo
aii/iMfi& . * * .H' '
required for its maturity ; but n general average
height can be placed at from 25 to 40 feet , and *
maturity is reached at from 40 to 50 years. A
tree 25 years old , and producing from 20 to 25
pounds of chlclo each year , will measure 25 to 30
feet In height , and 22 Inches In diameter.
In tapping the trees a V-shaped Incision Is cut
fiplrnlly all around the tree , the arms of the cut
extending upward , in order to permit the sap to
flow freely to the bottom , where a receptacle Is
placed at the end of the gtuly. The sap has the
appearance of milk as It Hews from the tree , but
It afterward takes on n yellowish color , and thick
ens until it Is about the/consistency of treacle.
After gathering the sap It Is carried to the bellIng -
Ing sheds , nnd by n rather primitive boiling proc
ess Is brought to the proper consistency As the
operation continues. It Is necessary to knead the
mass from time to time , in order to extract the
water. The gum , If properly handled , wJ'.l take
on a light gray color , although there Is consider
able variation In the shades and colors of the
products received fvom the different districts. In
the old days much deception was practised by the
chlcleros , who , In order to increase the weight ,
would Insert stones , bark , sand or wood In the
boiling chicle , before It was formed Into loaves.
This clever deception Is n thing of the past , how
ever , as the contracts today call for a pure
straight article , nnd there Is little opportunity of
adding any foreign substances.
Much of the chicle Is shipped In rough , uneven
loaves to the United States via Canada , where It
Is refined and dried out to one-half of Its original
weight , thereby paving 50 per cent , of the duty.
Under the Wilson bill the gum wan admitted
free ; but in accordance with the tariff-revision act
of 1897 n duty of 10 cents per pound was fixed ,
which is thn present rate.
For the fiscal year ended Tune DO , 1909. thcr < i
were Imported Into the United States 5,450.139
pounds of chicle , valued at $1,987,112 , as compared
with 929.9o9 pounds , valued nt $156.402. In 1885
Repeated attempts hnve been made to mix , adul
terate , or MibfUltute chicle in every conceivable
manner , but nature Insists that the gum shall only
be need to furnlMi unlimited molar action , and
that It can not le artificially prepared by chem
ical or mechanical means. No medicinal use lias
yet benn discovered for chicle ; but in the manu
facture of chewing gum various digostants , such
as pepsin , have been added and the product pro
nounced by eminent medical authorities as pure ,
free from any Injurious subBtances. nnd beneficial
In the relief of various forms of dyspepsia and Indigestion -
digestion In the strict sense of the word , chewIng -
Ing gum is an indestructible residuum , the user
having the advantage of both the finest confec
tion and n medicament as well. Its distribution
extends In the Western hemisphere from Hudson
bay lo ths Argentine Republic ; in the east , from
London to Hongkong ; and the Inhabitants of the
South African colonies
nies are large nnd
ever I ncrenslng
consumers. It Is
estimated by n
facturer that Btiffl
clent chewing gum
Is produced each
year to supply
every humnn being
on earth with two
Etlcks. nnd that the
dally energy ex
pended In the con
sumption of this
tlcatory Is equal to
that necessary to
light n city of 250.
000 inhabitants for
the same period.
There are nu
ought the United
States , where can
bo witnessed the interesting processes
by which chewing gum is manufactured
The factories rirc sanitary In every par
tlcular , nnd methods of absolute clcanll
ness prevail In each department. An of
flclnl report by the department of com
merce and labor states thai a chewing
gum factory wns the second clenncsl
plnnt Inspected In the United States.
The process of manufacture consists In
simply mixing and boiling the gum. In
copper kettles , to a required consistency ,
nnd adding some flavoring extract , such
as vanilla , peppermint , or wlntergreen.
nnd sugar , after which It Is transferred
to large centrifugal receivers. Here It Is
whipped Into a dough , and afterward re
moved to tables and kneaded in powdered
sugar. It is then rolled into sheets , cut
to desired sizes , dried , wrapped by ma
chinery In attractive papers , and placed
In boxes ready for the market , the en
tire process being at all times under the
A visit to any of the chewing gum fac
tories will convince the most skeptical
that the product Is nothing more nor less
than n pure nnd wholesome article nnd
absolutely harmless to Us vast and lalth-
ful army of consumers.
OCEAN MONSTERS IN BATTLE
Early on the morning of August 14 last , while
engaged In building new quarters for the lighthouse -
house keeper at Brenksen island , near Rottncst
Western Australia , the contractor nnd bis men
noticed n bull wluile with n cow nnd a calf passing
the Island borne distance off.
An hour or so later about nine o'clock to bo
exact the men were startled by on extraordinary
noise , apparently coming from the eastern end of
the Island , n noise unlike anything they had 'ver
heard before. Dropping their1 tools and starting
toward the cast , they beheld such n sight ns It falls
to the lot of few people lo witness There , nol 500
yards from the shore , was being waged n bnltlo
to the death n light between the great cow wnalo
previously seen nnd a school of thresher sharks
The sharks , as though acting In nccordunro
with some preconcerted plan , bad completely sur
rounded the two wholes nnd. apparently realizing
that nothing was to be feaied from the calf , con
centrated nil their efforts upon the cow Again
nnd again they charged In upon her , their Jaws
snapping , tearing nt her mighty sides until the
Eon wns red with blond. Meanwhile Hie cow lashed
her tnll furiously , burling up sheets of reddened
water nnd occasionally crashing down with ter
rific foree upon one of her voracious opponents
Presently the spellbound spectators realized
two facts first , that the cnlf had disappeared In
the nieloo. and secondly that the tortured whale
was undoubtedly becoming weaker It was obvious
that the unequal struggle could hnve only ono end-
Ing. Still , however , she fought on doggedly , win
ning admiration and sympathy by her exhibition
of hopeless courage Altering her tactics , by n BU-
prcme effort she burled her whole great bulk clenr
of the water for n moment and the fascinated on
lookers beheld the sharks bunging from various
parts of her gleaming body by their serrated teeth
Then down she went again with a crash like thun
der and for nn Instant whale nnd sharks were
burled amid masses of foam , heavily colored with
the poor mammal's life blood. Rising again , she
essayed another clmnge of plnn , making for ( ho
rocks and desperately striving to rub off tbo cling
Ing sharks against their edges. But the threshers
were equnl to the occasion ; while those on the out
side maintained tlielr grip , the others dived under
their enemy and charged her anew , learing nt the
whole's side In nn ecstasy of ferocity that was
bloodcurdling to witness.
More nnd more feeble grew the whale's strug
gles and nt Inst to the henrtfelt relief of the spec
tators , for her death light had been terrible to
behold the great body turned over nnd sank bo-
nenth the red-tinted water. The unequal batMo
QEORGE V ANNOUNCES HIS
COLONEL ROOSEVELT APPOINTED' '
Tnft Names Ex prcsisent as Spaclal
'Embacsador of the United Statso
to Attend king Edward's
London. King George's first mes
sage to parliament , announcing his
father's death nnd expressing the losa
tlr.U both ho nnd the nntlon had sus
tallied through It , wna rend In the
house of lords Tuesday , the members
standing with bared hoadM.
Iminodlntuly after the reading , both
houses adopted by acclamation messages -
sages of condolence to bo sent to the
king and the queen mother.
Deputy Speaker Ennnott read the
king's message In the commons , and
the lord chancellor In the house ol
lords. As rend In the commons , It was
ns follows :
"Tho king knows the house of com
mons shares In the profound , deep
sorrow that has befallen his majesty
through the death of bin father , tlio
late king lOdwnrd and the house en
tertains a ( run sense of the loss his
majesty nnd Uio nntlon have sustained.
King Edward's care for the welfare ot
his people , his skill nnd prudent guld-
nnco of the nation's affairs , his unwav
ering devotion to public duty during
his illustrious reign , his slmplo conr-
ego under pain will long bo held in
honor by his subjects both at lioino
nnd beyond tlio eons. "
The messages of condolence from
the two houses nro identical in form
nnd refer to the great work that the
late ruler did In maintaining friendly
foreign relations ; The messages con
gratulate the now king nnd promise
him the allegiance of tbo members of
Hall the New King.
Longon : George V. was proclaimed
king throughout the empire Monday
with nil the traditional ceremony of
centuries. In Dublin tlio kiug-nt-nrins
rend the 'proclamation In the presence
of Lord Aberdeen , lord lieutenant of
Ireland , and Lady Aberdeen. The
country Is beginning to renew its
visual life , the king's earnest desire beIng -
Ing Hint , except on the day of the
funeral of Edward VII , which Is now
formally fixed for May 20 , the national
mourning should inflict no unneces
sary sacrifices upon the people. Pre
mier Asqulth and Reginald McKcnnn , ,
frfcl lord cf the admiralty , arrived in
London Monday. Other members of
the cabinet nnd ofllcials holding Im
portant positions under the govern
ment nre hastening to the capital.
King Ilankon nnd Queen Mnud of
Norway were met nt the station Mon
day night by King George and Queen
Mary , nnd young Prince Olaf throw
his arms arourd his uncle's neck. The
party drove Immediately to Bucking
ham palace , whom they viewed the
body of the late king. A brief re
ligious service wns held in the chapel.
Taft Appoints Roosevelt.
Washington. President Taft has
appointed Theodrre Hcosevolt special
airbassador cf the United States to
atterd the funeral of King Edward
Colonel Roosevelt accepted the com
mission In a cab'.o message.
Dover. The dowager empress ci
Rur.sla , sister of the queen , and Grand
Duke Michael arrived Tuesday aboard
the royal yaclit Alexandra nnd left at
once for London where they will re
main until after the funeral.
Great Demand for Mourning Goods.
Paris. The I cndon merchants Imva
raided Paris shops for mourning gooda
and black rlumea until there Is an ab
solute dearth of those materials. Th
demand for mourning goods is sc
great that even the French mills havq
had their supplies bought up a |
fancy prices. Wholesalers nro now
refining all orders for such goods na
they do not know when the orders can
Wants Wheat Pool Probed.
Washington. The house judiciary
committee ha.s reported n resolution
. introduced by Representative Craig
of Alabama , calling upon the attor
ney general to report whether tbo do-
jartment of justice had investigated
the wheat pool in 1909.
Mr. Craig opposes the Investigation
of the alleged pool to advance the
price of cotton.
Gutlirle , Okla. The state banking
board has mode an assessment of 1
per cent on the Increase of deposits
of the GG8 state Innks , as appeared on
March 11 , In order to replenish the
elate guaranty fund which was great
ly depleted by the failure of the Co
lumbia Bank nnd Trust company of
Oklahoma City last fall.
Theaters Are Re-opened.
London. The International horse
ehow will bo held upon the dates or
iginally selected , June G-1G.
This Is In accordance with the
wishes of King George who desires
there shall be no Interruption In the
program of public affairs except , as
planned events may appear Inconsis
tent with the ollluhil and r-ublic
mourning. It was nt his majesty's
command that the theaters wcro reopened -
opened , to bo closed only on the day
of King Edward's funeral.
* 1 ' ( rl&lsvp '
IT WEARS YOU OUT.
Kidney Troubles Lower the Vitality
of the Whole Body.
Don't wait for serious illness ; be
gin using Donu'o Kidney Pills when
you first fcol backache or nolle *
John L. Perry , Co
lumbus , Toxns , says :
"I was taken sick
about n year ago. My '
limbs and feet bo * '
gnn to swell and my
doctor mild I had
Urlght'o disease. I
then consulted an
other doctor who told
mo 1 htul dropsy and
could not live. Doan'o
Kidney Pills reMoved -
Moved mo promptly , and I ewe my Ufa
to them. "
Remember the name Doan'a.
For sale by all dealers. 50 cento a
box Foster-Mllburn Co. , Buffalo , N. Y.
"I think I shall let that woman rent
my house. "
"Why ? " ,
"She's the first one who's called to
ace mo about It who didn't brae about '
what a good tenant she Is. "
CUT THI3 OUT
And rrmtl to the A. II. Lowla Modlclno Co. ;
Bt. Louis , Mo. , and they will ncml you free
* 10 dixy treatment of NATURE'S UI2MB-
DV ( Nil tablets ) Guaranteed for Hheu-
mntlam. Constipation , Blck Hemlnclio. Liv
er. Kidney nml Uloocl Diseases. Sold by
nit Druggmts. Better tlmn IMHs for LJvc
1110. It'o free to you. Write today.
Something to Crow About.
The Gander Suffering catsl What
4ort of noise-germ has got into that
ridiculous rooster lately ? Ills darn
crowing has developed into a continu
The Drake Why , ho imagines ho'a
n the public eye since the production
of Rostand's "Chantoclor. "
Important to Mothers
Examine cnreiully every bottle of
CA3TO1UA , a safe and sura remedy for
Infanta and children , and see that it
Signature of |
In Use For Over 3D Years.
The Kind You Have Always Bought.
"Tho Inanity of courtesy remarks
that eomo pcopK * fcol called upon to
Interject Into conversation calls for a
permanent commission In lunacy , " said
the man with the Ingrowing grouch.
"Now , the other day I was telling
Jones going down on the subway that
my four-year-old had swallowed a
uafoty pin , and wo were up half the
night with him.
" 'It was an accident , of course , ' said
that Idiot Jones. "
Bishop Eats Hie Own Boots.
Few bishops have to lead such a
strenuous life as Bishop Stringer. In
company with a missionary companion
bo made a tour recently to Hcrschol
Inland , In the Arctic ocean , and back
to Dawsou City , where the bishop ro-
Their small supply of food becoming
exhausted , they wore obliged lo eat
their muckuluclcs and moccasins.
These , mndo of raw sealskins , were
eoaked until they became glutinous ,
and wore then toasted in strips over
the fire. The bishop says the food
< VHS real good , especially the mucka-
Whole Country Is Stirred.
One of the most Interesting reports
at the recent meeting of the Na
tional Association for the Study and
Prevention of Tuberculosis was that
of the executive secretary , Dr. Liv
ingston Furrand , showing the growth
of the anti-tuberculosis movement
since May 1 , 1909. The number of as
sociations for the prevention of con
sumption has Increased from 290 to
over 425 ; the number of sanatoria and ,
hospitals for the treatment of tuber
culosis Is from 298 to 400 ; and the
special tuberculosis dispensaries from
222 to 2G5. During the year 1909 ,
thirty-six out of forty-three legislatures
In session considered the subject of tu
berculosis , and in 28 , bills were passed
( or the prevention or treatment of thin
disease. Since tbo opening of the
legislative season of 1910 , out of ten
legislatures In session up to May 1 , nil
have considered the subject of tuber ,
culosls and every ono of them baa
enacted some law that bears on this
Of tlie brain , nnd activity
out of the body , must be
Put Back by
Or brain-faff nnd nervous
prostration are sure to follow.
If you want to know the
keenest joy on earth the joy
hat comes with being well ,
try Grape = Nuts
"There's a Reason"
POSTUM CRRKAL CO , Ltd. ,
Il.ulla Crtttfk. Mich