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About Custer County Republican. (Broken Bow, Neb.) 1882-1921 | View Entire Issue (June 3, 1909)
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THE JREJeUBUQAN , GUSTJilR OOUNTY , NEBRASKA ,
A satisfied customer is the best of adver-
tisments. Read what he tells his neighbor.
You get the best bed room furniture
You get the best dining1 room furniture
You gentile best hall and ollice furniture
You get the best kitchen and miscellauous
You get the best parlor and library furniture
You get the best chairs and rockers
You get the best rugs and carpels
You get the best prices best of all
i FOR OUR
Baldwin Nut and Lump
as " * Cannon and Nigger Irload Coal 1
v A. -fc - * - - ' - - - - rj ; "
1 ? jj % * m M..s J. - m ifc ° | f "j
' | f g
. * : * WE ALSO NOW HAVE NICE PEA COAL J * .
* - . v-i
FREE SODA and ICE CREAM
At The Book Store.
-HOW TO GET IT.
We give Cash Register Checks
with Every Purchase. These
hi } cks are good for Soda and
Ice Cream. - : -
Ask the Clerk at the Book Store.
C. H. & A. W. HOLCOMB
First Door South of Post Office
Farmers' ' Live Sloe ! ; Commission GO ,
Rooms 209 and 211 Exchange Bltig. South Omaha.
They Get 3
YOU have a snap in a farm , or ranch for sale
IF list with me. If you want to buy a snap in a
farm or ranch come and see me. Phones , of
fice 42 , residence , 129.
BROKEN Bow XEUK.
Home Course In
XIII. How Animals Grow
By C. V. GREGdtlY , 1' \ '
Agricultural "Division , lotva Stale College
Copyright 1009 by Attlcrlcan Pr Association
NIMAT.S. nitliko plants , cnn ob
tain noiio of their food from the
neil , air or water , fiut nuwt have
It prepared for thorn. Without
plants there could lie no animal life ,
since nulniiilH are depetulent upon
them , either directly or indirectly , for
lood. A study of the way animals
make use of this food In building up
their bodlen will help us to better un
derstand the principles of feeding.
There are three main constituents of
feeds fats , carbohydrates and albumi
noids , or protein. The fats are made
tip of carbon , hydrogen and oxynen.
Thu carbohydrates , of whleh starch
and sugar are familiar examples , are
made up of ( Im same elements put to
gether In different proportions. An
other of the carbohydrates Is cellu-
ese , or tlio woody liber of plants. This
s hard to digest , but some of It Is
used In animal growth. Albuminoids
contain not only carbon , hydrogen and
oxygen , but nitrogen also. In addition
to these three constituents of food It
Use contains some mineral elements ,
which are commonly referred to af
This ash Is iiKcd In building up the
Ijonos , hair , horns and hoofs. The al-
F1O. XXV OHOUNI ) FEICO IB WOESTKD
MORE QUICKLY AND COMrLKTEliY THAN
bumlnolds also form a considerable
portion of these parts of the body.
Their chief use , however , Is In build
ing up the muscles , tissues and vari
ous organs. The fats and carbohy
drates are used to furnish energy niul
heat. They are the fuel of the body.
By unltlngwlth oxygen they give off the
heat and energy required to keep the
body running , In much the sama way
that the elements of coal or wood
unite with oxygen to furnish heat and
power when burned In a steam engine.
Not all of the fats and carbohydrates
are burned Immediately , however.
Some of the fats go to build up fatty
tissues. Some of the carbohydrates
are changed to fats and used In the
same way , and some are stored In the
liver In the form of glycogen to be
used when needed.
Before these various food elements
can be used by the animal they inwt
go through a process called digestion.
The tlrst step In digestion consists In
taking the food into the mouth. Uach
class of animals has a different way
of doing this. Watch the cows feed
ing In the pasture. They reach out
their long tongues and gather in a
mouthful of grass , breaking It off with
a peculiar twist as it conies against
their lower teeth. They cannot bite It
off , since they have no upper teeth
in front. The horse gathers in the
grass with his lips and bites It off be-
'tween ' his teeth. For this reason
horses cau eat grass down much closer
to the ground than cattle can.
After the food Is taken Into the
mouth it is chewed and mixed with
Ballva. This saliva serves two pur
poses to moisten the food and to
change some of the starch to sugar.
This change Is brought about by the
action of en/.ynie.s which the wallva
contains. These work In the muno
way as do the enzymes in a gcrml-
natlng seed , which prepare the food
for the little plant.
Sugar and starch , as we have learn
ed , are both composed of carbon , hy
drogen and oxygen , the only differ
ence being that they nru put together
in a little different way. The action
of the enzymes changes the relation
of these elements In the starch , ar
ranging them In such a manner as to
All the starch In the food must be
changed to some form of sugar be
fore It can be used by the animal In
building up the various parts of Its
body. Since the food remains In the
mouth only a comparatively short
'time ' , however , only a small part of the
Rtarch can be acted upon there. Thu
rest Is changed later , as we shall see.
i The main purpose of the saliva ( H to
jiiolHtcn the ftod. This moistening , tb-
/gether / with the chewing , reduces It tea
a moist , finely divided mass , ready
to be swallowed and acted upon by
the other digestive Juices.
While the essential processes of di
gestion are the same for all animals ,
'the ' way In whleh the work Is carried
on varies somewhat. The horse and
the hog have but one Htomuch. As
Ithe food enters this a churning mo-
jtlon begins , which gradually forces
itho partially digested mans along to
ward the lower end. The saliva con
tinues to act on the starch , and anoth
er fluid , the gastric Juice , In poured
out from the" walls of the stomach.
The main duty of this gastric juice In
to change the albuminoids Into a form
in which they can be absorbed and
used by the animal.
Cattle and sheep have a very large
stomach , which Is divided Into four
parts. Animals of this kind are called
ruminants. When the food Is swallow
ed it pauses into the llrst stomach ,
which serves the purjwse of a store
house. Here the action of the saliva
continues , and the water which the
animal drinks softens the food to a
considerable * extent. After a time the
food passes Into the second stomach ,
which forces It back to the mouth , a
little at a time. Here It Is chewed
thoroughly. You have often seen
cows" lying In the shade "chewing
their cud. " This cud Is the food that
has been sent up to the mouth by the
After being chewed the food Is
swallowed again. This time It passes
directly through the llrst stomach to
the third. Here It becomes still fur
ther softened , finally passing Into the
fourth or true stomach. The function
of the first three compartments is
simply to prepare the food to be acted
upon by the true stomach.
After leaving the stomach the par
tially digested food passes Into tne
small intestines. Here It Is acted
upon by three fluids the bile , pan
creatic Juice and Intestinal Juice. The
chief use of the bile Is to digest the
fats , making them Into a sort of a
soapy fluid , In which form ( hey are
ready to be absorbed Into the blood.
Both the pancreatic and Intestinal
Juices act upon the remaining starch ,
completing the change Into sugar. The
pancreatic Juice also completes the di
gestion of the albuminoids , in which
work the Intestinal juice may also
take n small part. Another work of
the pancreatic Juice Is to assist In
decomposing the fats. The Intestinal
Juice breaks cane sugar up Into sim
pler sugars , such as glucose.
After the food has been digested the
usable portions arc ready to bo ab
sorbed Into the blood. Digestion has
changed the fats , proteins and starches
Into a form in which they are soluble.
In this fluid state they pass through
the walls of the stomach and Intestines
and are emptied Into the blood.
The blood Is taken to all parts of the
body by the arteries , which subdivide
to form tiny capillaries. These are so
small and close together that a pin
prick on the skin anywhere will pierce
Home of them. There are two main
parts to the blood the fluid of plasma
and the red corpuscles-which give It
Kach part of the body selects from
the blood the food materials which it
needs. Thus the bones will take ash ,
while the muscles will take protein ,
to build ui > their wornout parts. The
waste , broken down parts are burned ,
together with as much fats and Mig-
ars as are needed , to furnish heat and
energy. All through the body there
are thousands of little fires. To keep
these fires going oxygen is used , and
carbon dioxide Is given off In the mime
way that a fire In a stove takes In
oxygen through the lower draft and
sends carbon dioxide up the chimney.
In the body the corpuscles supply
the oxygen and carry away the car
bon dioxide. The other waste ma
tyrlals , or ashes , are gathered up by
a -system of vessels called lymphatics
which empty Into the veins. These
veins carry the blood back to tin
heart. The change of the contents ol
the corpuscles from oxygen to car
bon dioxide changes the color of tlu
blood from a bright red to a much
From the right side of the heart , t <
which the blood Is brought by tin
FIO. XXVJSlTl'KIl Tlllli
veins , It Is sent to the lungs , where
the corpuscles exchange their carboi
dioxide for oxygen and are ready fo
another trip through the body.
Since oxygen plays such an imnor
taut part In keeping up the tires tnii
supply the body with heat and t-nci
gy , It Is just as Important that th
milmals bo well supplied with fres
air us It Is that they have eiiougl
food. In the winter especially th
ctablcs are often closed so tightly li
the attempt to keep them warm tha
the air becomes very deficient In oxy
gen. In consequence the work of th
body IB delayed and the genera
health suffers. By having ventilators
In the roof , together with plenty of
jvlndowy at such , a jielgut that
. . ,
i < Great argains w
Joke will be on you if you buy before
you see the following :
1i < Farm harness $2'l and up
Disc Harrow $2.'l and up
i Harrow U sections - $15.50 and up
Sulky plows ftJl.l.OO and up \
/ ; Dang plows $ .V.0 ( ) and up
Breaking Plows $9.oOand up
< Corn Planters $ 'U.OO and up
< Cultivators $14.00 and up
< Wagons , a few left $ ( > r .00 and up
American Hog Kence 'J2c and up
< Fine top buggies $ jf ) and up
\ See the Clover Leaf manure spreader.
} / Its a beauty.
Our motto :
To sell as low"a'the lowest. Quality considered.
" "nj ?
1 Wouldn't You Rather Own
The bo.st ndvurllsoil sloro in t\ny city txny ( lmo.
The merchant who makes his store-ads , the
most interesting and important and convincing things
in this newspaper or in a majority of its issues will
y w make his store the most interesting and the most pros &
C.1 perous in .the city. ils
, Can you imagine any case at all in which that &
would not he Irue.
"svould'nt you rather he the owner of the hcst ad
vertised store in the city or any other city than of
On May 22nd the ( lOverumcnt will open it's second tract
of 12,000 acres of perfectly irrigated land in the Big Horn
Basin , near ( larland and Powell , Wyoming. This irrigation
project of the ( lovcrnment is first-class and reliable. This
land is adjacent to and along side of the Burlington Road.
Powell and Carland are prosperous towns- The community
is absolutely first-class , and there is not a better place to
live in the whole west for climate , sunshine , productiveness
of soil and many other good reasons , than the Big Horn
Basin. This land is $45 an acre in ten annual installments
IWOACmCMONDMLL ACT : Select locations for homesteading -
steading in Wyoming near Newcastle , Upton and Moore-
crofc. Plats on file. Write me.
] conduct an excu-sion on the first and third Tuesday of
each month. Only $27.)0 : round trip homeseekers excursion
rate. No charge for my services. Write me at once about
this new tract. The excursion of May 18 or June will be in
time for good selections.
1) . CLKM DHAVHK , ( Joncral Agent.
Laud Seekers Information Bureau , Omaha.
Sheppard & Burk
Wish to call your attention to the fine line of
VEGETABLES they have on hand such as :
We have the FINEST FKESH OYSTERS
in the city , shipped direct from Baltimore.
Sheppard & Burk