Hemingford herald. (Hemingford, Box Butte County, Neb.) 1895-190?, July 08, 1898, Image 3

Below is the OCR text representation for this newspapers page. It is also available as plain text as well as XML.

Cuban Polltloal Convicts Chained by the Waist to tho Prison Walls so
They aro Unable to Llo Down.
There nre at present more thnn 600
nfen, samples of the best blood and
brains of.Cuba, living the lives of rats
In the prisons of Flgueras, Cartagena,
Valladolld and Ceutn. A few of these
were captured In war, but most of
them were transported for reasons
purely political, so far as many of
them knew, without rhyme or reason.
This story deals with one of the most
Interesting and long-suffering of Cuban
patriots, Juan Gualbcrto Gomez, the
editor of La Lucha and La Tgunldad.
Mr. Gomez Is a leader of the negro race
In Cuba. If he is a type of his people
there the Cubans have solved the ne
gro problem by producing negroes that
can stand shoulder to shoulder with
white men In the march of civilization.
His bright, Intelligent fnce beams with
kindly humor that has not been affect
cd by the cruel servitude that has
changed the color of his hair. He was
born In Matanzas In 1S54, and sent to
France to be educated.
He was first called upon to suffer for
his opinions at the close of the ten
years' war for freedom, when he was
arrested and sent to Ceuta for two
years. After he got out he was kept
In Spain for nearly two years, and then
he escaped to Cuba and revived his
Cuban newspaper. His first editorials
had their effect on the "Temperature of
Hava.iv. and the place soon became
too warm for him, so he went to the
revolutionary camp as a representative
of the Junta. Like many others he was
lured within the Spanish lines during
the autonomy agitation, and found him
self a second time on a Spanish trans
port bound for the dreaded Ceutn, the
place of life In death, the most hope
less of Spanish prisons. His sentence
' -was for twenty years. There Is not one
merciful custom In the treatment of
Cuban prisoners. They were usually
prepared for the terrors of the dun
geons ncross the Atlantic by being
treated to a taste of the comparatively
agreeable prison life In Morro castle,
In Havana. Mr. Gomez was there for
tight months. He never got very hun
gry, and was seldom struck by a
aruard during this sojourn. Not so on
board the transport. There he was keqt
In shackles on 'hands and feet, and the
guards used him as a punching bag
.-when Spanish Indolence permitted them
rto take exercise.
Then the ships came to the wharf at
Ceuta, There was a short marcn
through the town and then the gates of
Ceuta prison at whose entrance the
mind's eye sees a mound formed of the
abandoned hopes that have accumulat
ed there during a century opened and
the life that had been Gomez's taste
of hell, began again. But he carried
his hope with him Cuba would soon
be free.
Down In the lowest tiers of dungeons
In the citadel of Ceuta Is a room twenty
feet square, with a little window In it
At the ton of the low wall. This room
Is called the "Calabozo." Probably our.
"calaboose is named from it or some
similar Spanish dungeon. There Is a
window in the door. At each of these
openings two guards watch day and
night. In this dark hole Mr. Gomez
and eighteen other Cubans were crowd
ed for nine months. Every man had
an iron band around his waist, which
was connected by a chain to another
band at the ankle. These were never
Temoved. There Is no furniture of any
kind in the Cnlabozo. and when a pris
oner sinks upon the floor In a pitiable
effort to sleep, water soaks throughout
his clothing. It is difficult to conceive
of the ecstacy of Joy that approaches
the wild and Intoxicating Jubilation
that seizes those wretched souls In
the Calabozo when the rough voice of
the Jailor orders them to the great
prison hall above. In this apartment
Mr. Gomez spent two years. In com
cany with SOO prisoners mostly crim
inals of the worst sort. It consists of J
An Inherited Fondness for the Rifle makes Good ShotsThe Bloody
Work of Americans Good Marksmanship In the Revolutionary and
Civil Wars.
The war with Spain has demonstrat
ed one thing quite clearly, and this la
that the American gunner knows how
to shoot. His nice accuracy In pomt
lng his weapon has produced most sat
isfactory results. This skill has been
met by an Inefficiency on the part of
the Spaniard almost pitiful. Indeed It
seems like taking advantage of the
situation to shoot at men who appear
to have no notion that the ultimate
purpose of a bullet is to end up some
where with a bone-breaking, muscle
rending crash, and not keep Indefinite.
ly on plowing the air.
There are several reasons why Amer
icans Bhould and do shoot well. We
are still but a few stages removed from
the ptoneer In many sections of the
country, and the rifle to the pioneer
has been as necessary as the ax. He
has depended upon It to furnish him
a good share of his food and clothing,
and in many localities the protection
It gave him from the Indians consti
tuted his sole lease on life. Conse
quently It became traditional that all
Americans could shoot well.
Even today, aside from that unfor
tunate class confined in the large cities,
almost every citizen has something of
an acquaintance with fire-arms and
frequently a very great handtness In
their use. For he has all the Anglo
Saxon's fondness for sport and he has
what the Anglo-Saxon has not unless
tie be of the so-called favored class
namely, every opportunity to Indulge
that fondness. The woods and fields
are still open; he can hunt as much as
he likes, and where he likes. A cer
tain curious affectation for firearms
la the result, and a liking to handle
them, for one may become Just as
fond of a gun as of a horse or a dog.
A man with these inclinations can
be made Into a soldier with very little
trouble. There Is nothing he has to
master of the care or use of firearms.
He learned ull that as a boy when he
tramped the fields and woods In quest
of the elusive but highly desirable "cot
ton tall" or surreptitiously slaughtered
song birds In his destructive thirst for
proficiency. The skill gained he Is
ready to turn to the very best account
as a soldier, when it Is seen that he
has the extremely harmful habit of
aiming his gun. He Is not content
with merely discharging It. He wants
to land his bullet where It will do the
most good.
In the far west the need that still ex
ists to go armed makes every man
rather expert with his "gun," and the
cowboy regiments will probably serve
to open the eyes of the Spaniards as
to what a soldier may achieve with re
volver or rifle In the gentle art of fill
ing your fellow creature full of lead.
In the revolutionary war It was the
skill of our soldiers with their favorite
weapon that won battle after battle.
Even the cavalry used the rifle In pref
erence to the saber; indeed most of the
b!x rooms opening Into each other, and
each room Is In charge of a director.
The directors are convicts and only
murderers nre eligible to the position.
The rooms nre luxurious In one respect
they have dry floors. There are no
beds nor chairs, but the prisoners mny
wash nt a small water pipe that Is,
thay limy If they have money to pay
for the privilege. Friends of tho pris
oners are allowed to send money for
them to tho governor of Ceutn, and
froln this an allowance of $2 a month
Is given. Twenty per cent of this goes
nt once to the sentry. The regulnr diet
of the prisoners Is beans nnd potatoes
served twice a day, at 12 o'clock and at
6 o'clock. It Is served In troughs, each
containing twenty small portions. Knch
man has a plate. Coffee, rice and In
deed any ordinary food can be pro
cured by those who enn pny for it, but
penniless wretches get nothing but
bonns and potatoes from January to
December, unless some more fortunate
prisoner gives them a bite of Ills ex
tras. Even the walls of a Spanish pris
on have cars for the clink of gold, and
the prisoner with money fares com
paratively well. Hut woe betide the
poor devil who has not cash for the
sentries or the man who refuses to give
them the portion of his wealth that
they demand. His back will be raw
from blows from the Iron stick covered
with rawhide that they carry. One man
received fifty blows which nearly killed
him for fun, the gunrd said. He will
also be treated to the dreaded la blanca.
This mode of torture Is to chnln a man
there nre no women In Ceutn to a
wall by a chain three feet long attached
to his waist. He cannot lie down, nnd
the trentment may be prolonged until
the prisoner becomes Irtnne.
The prisoners In the large apartment
nre compelled to work on the fortifica
tions and roads about the prison. The
gunrds with their Iron rawhides stand
over them, and Instead of a word of
correction there Is a blow. The Ceuta
convicts are also used and also treated
as mules, nnd nre harnessed to wag
ons that are used In building and re
pairing the forts. Mr. Goitrcz was for
tunate In never being broken to har
ness. His work for many months was
that of sweeper inside the prison.
It Is necessary for all prisons to pro
vide a convict costume, but the author
ities at Ceuta have hit upon a very eco
nomical plan. They supply trousers
twice In three years and coats twice in
six. The uniform Is blue and white
in summer and brown In winter. To
further prevent escape the prisoners
are sha'red twice a week. None of the
10,000 Inhabitants of Ceuta shaves lest
he be mistaken for an escaped convict
But convicts do not escape from juta.
The prison is an Imposing stone castle
on the end of a peninsula about three
mlfes long, which projects from Africa
Into the Mediterranean, Just ncross
from Gibraltar. A wall extends around
the whole peninsula, and there are sen
try boxes at frequent Intervals.
To escape a prisoner must swim the
strait of Gibraltar. Some of them have
done this, but not Mr. Gomez. One
morning he received a letter the pris
oners are allowed to get letters at
stated intervals, and to write one every
fifteen dnys. This letter stated that
his friends' efforts to secure his pardon
were fruitless. He had about touched
bottom In the depths of despair. The
guards were particularly surly to him
the one sign by which Cuban prison
ers tell of Spanish reverses. But his
spirits were so low that even a Cuban
victory failed to raise them. This was
at 10 o'clock. At 2 he was a free man,
on his way to Spain. How did he get
his pardon? He hns not the lea6t Idea.
Mr. Gomez got away from Spain with
all speed and has just arrived in the
United States. But there are 390 Cu
bans still at Ceuta.
so-called cavalry troops were In real
ity mounted riflemen.
It was the famous "minute men,"
with their long rifles that threw a bul
let no larger than a pea, that drove
back regulars at Lexington, with a loss I
In killed and wounded of over 300 of
their number.
It was the close shooting of these
same "minute men" raw farmers
that under General Stark defated Bur
goyne and his splendidly trained Ger
man mercenaries.
Later, In the clvl war, It was this
skill that made the battles of the peri
od bloody beyond anything recorded In
The freedom of the citizen in the use
of weapons was found to be responsi
ble for a curious condition at the outset
of the rebellion. As cavalrymen the
volunteers viewed the saber with mis
trust, much preferring to pin their
faith to the arm with which they were
most familiar.
The effect of horsemen charging with
sword In hand was very great In all
European armies, and It was one of
the military maxims of the time that
cavalry relying on firearms must surely
be beaten.
In America the Idea of the common
soldier at least was quite different, and
at the breaking out of the war the
volunteers displayed an extraordinary
contempt for the saber. The very
small force of regular horses, trained
on the approved European plan, alone
placed trust in It.
The southern troops In particular so
heartily despised the weapon that
nothing could make them give way to
a charge of cavalry, saber In hand.
Lines of skirmishers and lines of bat
tle when charged by the regularly
equipped cavalry of the north would
send up the Jeering cry, "Here, boys,
are those fools coming again with their
swords: give It to them!"
The western troops had the same
feeling, at first, and when the "rough
riders" of the sixties were moulded Into
cavalry they showed the utmost reluct
ance to abandon the rifle. At the very
beginning of the war much of the cav
alry was hastily raised and very Im
perfectly armed, often with double
barreled shotguns, which did deadly
work at close quarters when loaded
with a handful of slugs or buckshot.
So armed they would charge at full
speed and deliver their fire In the very
faces of the enemy, and then dash
through with a dreadful thumping of
gun-butts on the men's heads.
An aeronaut says that there Is the
same difference In the air at the earth's
surface and at an altitude of half a
mile that there Is between water In
a muddy puddle and the purest spring
water. He states that for a time one
feels, after coming down from an as
cent, as It one were breathing "solid
Tho dinner was given In his nonor
and as a consequence the eminent Ox
ford nrchncologlst was 111 at case. Ho
had never been much of n society man,
and evening clothes wore a bother to
him. He didn't know what to do with
his hands. Ho had for so many years
browsed like a vagrant goat among
the mlns of Babylon nnd Nineveh and
other forgotten sites of fleeting civiliz
ation thnt he was reminiscent of a
mummy. That was what tho eminent
nrchaeologlst was like a mummy. He
Belled of myrrh and other things thnt
go with the wrnpplngs of a dofunat
Pharaoh and, taken all In all, he
wasn't much of a clmp to dine with.
You have seen them often, those per
sons who know what they want to say,
but cither become confused in tho say
ing Or cannot do It at all. That was
another characteristic of the eminent
Oxford archaeologist. Ills mind vi
brated between thoughts of cuneiform
bricks and the glory attendant upon
their translation. So he wasn't what
one would call a brllllnnt success as a
dinner table talker.
To do him honor, tho conversation,
after the second course, wiih allowed to
drift around Into his channels. Tho
hostess saw that he was HI at ease,
and she started It herself. She thought
he would feel better conversing on
something he knew about, so she threw
out a word regarding the recent finds
at Pompeii.
"All, yes," Bald the eminent Oxford
archaeologist. "Pompeii Is tho dream
of my life. I should like to be the man
to make the greatest discoveries there.
The glory would bo magnlllcent. I
have my Ideas concernlg the burying
of tho city, and feel that by exploring
the present excavations personally and
thoroughly I could obtain much data
of historical as well as scientific value.
But I haven't the time. My other
work takes all my hours. Still, my
leslre, not expanded, Is to work In Pom
noil. So when I remember that the
cherished hope may never be realized
It saddens me greatly. You have no
Idea how a man feels who has within
him a half-warmed fish."
The woman at the table dropped her
fork and lower Jaw at the same time.
Three American professors on tho
archaeologist's left and four on his
right put by their eating instruments
and gazed at him. Further down a
woman touched her forehead and wink
ed at her friend across tho table.
There was a silence so deep you
couldn't plumb It.
"I I I don't believe I quite under
stand you," the hostess managed to
say. "What was It you said about a
half-warmed fish being Inside of you?"
The eminent archaeologist raised his
head and looked at the woman nt tho
head of the table. He appeared dazed.
He contracted his brows and then he
blushed the color of Jack roses. He
absent-mindedly thrust the napkin in
side the pocket of his coat and scratch
ed his forehead with his knife.
Then he blushed some more and
stammered as he talked.
"I I I didn't menu that," he said. "I
meant to say I know now how a man
feels who lias within his heart and
mind a half-formed wish."
"Oh!" ejaculated everyone present.
And the eminent archaeologist left
Immediately after dinner, even forget
ting to say good-bye to his hostess.
To wod if Husband Died.
Mrs. Wllhelmina Schmltt, through
l.r... nttnrnPVH Mf'MHrs. I.QWls W. TllOIIl-
as and Goodwin, Westmoreland & Hall-
man, has filed a petition in me superior
court of Atlanta, says the Journal of
that city, in which she makes highly
sensational charges against J. T.
iro sniimitt biips for half of Schnei
der's property, nnd the following are
made parties defendant: The Maddox
Rucker Banking company, with whom
Schneider Is alleged to have about $1,000
on deposit; the Citizens- uoan ami
u,i II .Hi , nnmnnnv. In which he is said
to have $1,200 worth of stock, and Mnt-
tle O. Davis, W. H. George, h. m. worn
and Mary E. Thompson, each of whom
Is alleged to have borrowed several
hundred dollars from Schneider.
Judge John S. Candler has granted a
temporary restraining order prevent
in., t. .iv nt tlm ilnfonrinntH from navlnc
Schneider any money due him pending
the hearing, anu scnneiuer nus ueeii
restrained from altering the status of
his property.
Tra Rniimltt rpcltes that in 1S78 she
lived in New York, apart from her
husband. Slie Kept a ooaraing nuuse,
and Schneider was a boarder. Schnei
der was living apart from his wife, but
showed Mrs. Schmltt a document that
he said was a decree of divorce.
Schneider beenme Infatuated with his
landlady and Mrs. Schmltt fell in love
with her boarder. It was a case of
mutaul affection.
According to the petition, a contract
was made by which Ms. Schmltt was
to keep house for Schneider till she got
a divorce or her husband died. Then
they were to marry .
A fewmo nths after coming to this
understanding they moved to Cincin
nati. O. Mrs. Schmltt kept house and
cared for Schneider's children, at the
same time working as a professional
nurse and earning considerable money,
which she gave to him. Schneider
worked as a painter and frescoer.
In 18S3 John Schmltt, the husband,
died. Schneider said no marriage cere
mony was needed in Ohio, and that a
formaA declaration on the part of a
man and woman that they would live
together constituted a legal union.
From that time until last November
they lived together as man and wife,
moving In the meantime, to Georgia.
Mrs. Schmltt was Informed laBt fall
that under the laws of Georgia she
was not married, and insisted that tho
cermony be performed. Upon his re
fusal she returned to Cincinnati, but
came back .to Atlanta recently, she
claims at the request of Schneider, i
When told that she would not live '
with him again unless he would marry j
her, Schneider is said to have told i
her that he had never been divorced
from his first wife, who was still living.
Mrs. Schmltt alleges that Schneider's '
rrtTartv wnn nrnnlrprt thrnnch thplr .
Joint savings, and she seeks to recover
one-half of it. His estate Is estimated
to be worth about $7,500.
Will She be Pleased.
nese legation the other day, In a pho- J
tographer's shop, says the Washington
Post. He was buying all the photo
graphs of pretty girls that the proprie
tor was at liberty to sell, and he be
trayed an especial fondness for young
women In evening dress. The more gen
erous the display of polished shoulders
the better he was pleased. I asked him
what he Intended doing with the pho
tographs. !
"I shall send them to my wife In
China," he said. 'She has never been
In America. She will be happy to see
how the Washington young ladles
And, perhaps, she will be, but I have
my doubts.
Deeds, Rookloss, Criminal or Ludicrous Commlttod by Thorn During
tho Rebellion Origin of "Bummer.",
Ther was no man In civil life to
whom the term "bummer" was applied
previous to 1861. The war brought out
tho man and the name. Shermnn's
'bummers" gained a reputation over
those of any other army, but every
commnnd held Its free lances, nnd they
were more or less of a factor In the
Tho "bummer" of the war was neither
n guerrilla nor a robber, In point of
fact, though the clement hnd Its dregs,
ho was a man restive of discipline.
He didn't shirk fighting, but he wanted
to tight when and how he pleased. Ills
appetite craved something better than
army rations, nnd he also had a curi
osity to know what was going on be
tween tho lines. No matter how strin
gent the orders or how watchful tho
provost guard, the bummer found a
way to get out of camp and go wan
dering about. The ndvnncc guard of
a marching nrmy, whether cavalry or
Infantry, always found tho- free lances
ahead of them. Now and then they
acted ns scouts and brought In valu
able Information, but ns a rule they
had little concern except for them
Just before Hooker set his army In
mnrch for Chnucellorsvllle a provost
guard of 100 men was ordered out to
round up a lot of bummers who were
raiding the country to the enst. Four
or five men hnd been overhauled and
made prisoners, when the guard rode
Into n confederate camp in the woods
and a sharp fight began. Unknown to
either side, a crowd of fifty "gct
nwnys" were encamped In tho same
piece of woods about half a mile away.
As soon as the firing began they seized
their msukets, fell Into line, and under
command of one of their number they
xnarched through the woods and fell
on the enemy's flank nnd routed him.
But for their timely arrival and the
way they fought, not a man of the pro
vost guard would have escaped. They
had been raiding farm houses and some
of them were wearing women's bon
nets and skirts ns they went Into the
fight. Three or four of the fellows were
killed, but the body of them escorted
the guards back to within a mile of
our lines, and then sent a dozen fat
chickens to General Hooker as a token
of their esteem.
Perhaps the first confederate bank
raided by union soldiers was one at
Charleston, Va., as Mllroy was making
his way up the Shennndoah valley.
Bumming was In Its Infancy then, but
a dozen of the fellows found them
selves ahead of the army and resolved
to strike for a big stake. They made u
sudden nttack on the town nt daylight,
and then dashed in and made for the
bank. The broke In the door with nn
ax, obliged the banker to unlock his
safe, and something like a half million
dollars was carried away as they re
treated. A day later they bundled
up $100,000, strapped It on the back of
a mule, and hired a farmer to deliver
the wealth to General Mllroy In per
son. Accompanying the money was
a note, which advised the genenfl to
bribe the confederates to keep ahead
of him and do no fighting. As his mil
itary maneuvers hnd been checkmated
right along, nnd his reputation was
under n cloud, It was a hard shot at
him. The story got to Washington,
and was commented on by President
Lincoln, nnd It has been asserted that
the president's levity caused the gen
eral to tender his resignation.
When Stonewall Jackson flanked in
on Pope the bummers were- scattered
over a large extent of country. There
was not a company In nny regiment
which had not contributed at least one
man. They went reaming in squads of
three and four, over highways where
no commander dared send less than
half a regiment, and many were shot
or taken prisoner. Enough were left,
however, to terrify the people of every
farm house In every direction. By
some circumstance about forty of them
reached a certain farm house at the
same time, and finding only a women
and two or three children about, they
killed the only pig left, devoured the
last few chickens, and plundered the
house of whatever took their fancy
As It was a rainy night they took up
their quarters In the barn. No sooner
were they settled down than the wo
man took hfcr children and set out for
help, and after walking seven miles
she encountered n confederate picket
post, and told of the game In the trap.
Befpre midnight the barn was sur
rounded and every bummer enptured.
and some of them had not got back to
their regiments when the war closed.
A month before General Burnslde
was relieved of his command, the bum
mer element was called to his attention
so forcibly that he issued more strin
gent orders than had ever before gone
out. It was announced thai any sol
dier who should be found absent from
hla command without a pass would
be Imprisoned during the remainder of
the war, with a forfeit of all pay and
allowances. The provest-guard was
increased and ordered to do constant
scouting, but the bumming went on
Just the same. Then came a second
order, to the effect that any soldier
absent for two days without leave
should be considered a deserter and
treated accordingly. This brought' back
some of the men to duty, but one of
the professionals at least came Into
headquarters solely In search of in
formation. He did not get to see the
general In person, but he had an In
terview with one of the staff, and
holding up a printed copy of the last
order In his hand he said:
"Kurnel, the boys kind o' want to
know what this means, and have sent
me in to find out."
"Can't you read!" demanded the col
onel. 'More or less, but we can't git onto
the hang of things. Is the" war com
ing to an end?"
'It doesn't look like It."
"That's the way we all argue, and
being as Glneral Burnslde can't down
Lee In a square flglt. why don't he let
us go ahead and eat him out of house
nnd home till he has to surrender?"
The "anxious Inquirer" was sent to
the guard house, pending a return to
his company, but he managed to get
away In a day or two. nnd the next
thing heard of him was a scrawl, in
which he said that four of them had
run a confederate calf Into the woods
and would divide the veal with heal
quarters If a regiment was sent to as
sist them to make a capture Had
Burnslde hung on he might have Is
sued another order, but even had It
announced Instant death as the penalty
of bumming he could not have abol
ished It.
A portion of Custer's command was
scouting toward Berryvlll one day
before the battle of Winchester, when '
it came upon a queer state of affairs
nt a farm houao. Two hours prevl
ously a gang of seven bummers had
come along and stnrted In to loot the
house. The farmer was a confederate
soldier, who was home on n furlough
to be nursed for a wound In his thigh.
Ho wns not able to lenvo his bed, but
his wltejinnded him his musket and
he sholone of the men dead nnd drove
the rest out. They did not go nwny,
however, being determined to kill him
nnd burn his house In revenge. He had
his tied drawn to the door, and being
propped up, ho kept them away from
tho rear of tho house, while his wife,
who was armed with an old revolver,
fired often enough to prevent nny ap
proach to the front. There was a
spring house of solid build a few rods
from tho back door, and tho bummers
entered It to regale themselves before
closing In on tho house. The door
opened Inwnrds, nnd while they wcro
plnylng Jinvoc wth the milk pans the
woninn hppronched nnd pulled the door
to and thrust a stick through tho han
dle. The structure wns too solid to be
beaten down, and as there wns but ono
window the men tried to mnke their
escape that way. Propped up In his
lieu, wiin ins wound paining him nt
every movement, tho confederate ilred
nt every head thrust out, and his bul
lets flew bo cIobo that all attempts wero
soon nbnndoned. Wo found him with
his musket In his grasp and n dead
man on the floor, and we also, found
the soldiers huddled together In the
spring house. The con federate could
havo been carried oft n prisoner of
war, but he was not disturbed. On
the contrary, while a hundred blue,
coots were dividing their rations with
the wife, the officers were making cash
donations to the husband. As for the
bummers, they were turned over to the
rank and file to be kicked, nnd they got
a dose to be remembered nil their dayB.
Custer rather favored a man who set
out for adventure between the lines,
but he had no mercy vn looters and
As tho confederates were fighting
mostly nt home there were few bum.
mcrs In comparison. There were guer
rilla bands who robbed friend and foo
alike, but Individual soldiers were not
given to It. The golden opportunity
came when Leo Invaded Pennsylvania.
Hoforo crossing the Potomnc he issued
the strictest orders against looting,
but they wcro observed only in Mary
land. When the Ynnkce state was onco
reached thousands of men went to for
aging on their own account. They wcro
ahead of the nrmy behind It on both
Hanks. They foraged on horseback, on
foot nnd In wagons. For fifteen miles
on either side of th6 highways they
did not miss a fnrm house. The first
callers gobbled the horses. The next
wanted provisions, The next looted the
houses. Men on foot bore nwny looking
glnsses, trunks, bedding, crockery, tin
wareanything they could carry. Those
on horseback hnd great bundles In
front nnd behind them. In a train of
twenty-eight confederate wagons cap
tured on the retrent was found almost
every article used by civilized ppople.
The bummers hnd taken plow points,
drag teeth, old harness collars, rusty
spikes, cracked Jugs, kegs of vinegar,
handleless axes, and even the "old
oaken buckets' from the wells. There
were crowbars nnd Iron wedges; there
were buggy wheels nnd lace curtains.
There were farmers' bootr, chlldrens'
shoes and women's slippers, and hosiery
belonging to all of them. In one wa
gon a family bible, two checkerboards,
an old gun barrel, children's picture
books, Webster's dictionary, a lot of
cucumber pickles and a worn-out hnr.
ness were flung Into n box together.
The Pennsylvania Dutchmen were the
principal sufferers, and they did not
get through filing their claims for five
years after the war. No houses or
barns were burned, but no farmer es
caped being despoiled. Not one In a
dozen of them had time to hide any
thing, nnd a quarter of an hour after
the first bummer showed up the farmer
was a financial wreck. Nine-tenths of
the stuff loaded up was worthless to
the captors, but forage and commissary
supplies were thrown away to take It.
After the battle of Falling Waters,
when Lee flnnlly crossed the river, he
left on the Pennsylvania shore about
thirty broken down wagons. In one of
these wns a Dutch bedstead Of mahog
any, which looked to be 200 years old,
and It was so heavy that it must have
taken four men to lift It. It weighed
300 pounds, and what its captors were
going to do with It was a puzzle. There
was at least one big looking glass to
every wagon, and the various rag car
pets put together would have meas
ured two miles. A coffin and a tomb
stone were about the only two articles
How Uncle Sam Originated.
Do you know the origin of the title
"Ungle Sam," as applied to the United
States government?
It Is an old story, but a good one, and
particularly Interesting In these war
like times, says a New York newspaper.
Immediately after the declaration of
war In 1812 Elbert Anderson of New
York, a contractor, visited Troy, where
he purchased a large quantity of pro.
visions. The Inspectors for the govern
ment were Ebenezer nnd Samuel Wil
son. The latter was more familiarly
known ns "Uncle Sam," and he super
intended the work In person. On this oc
casion a large number of workmen were
employed In overhauling the provis
ions purchased by the contractor for
the army. The caskets were marked E.
A., V. S This work fell to a lot of a
facetious fellow In the employ of
the Messrs. Wilson, who, on being
asked by some of his fellow workmen
the meaning of the mark (the letters
"U. S." for United States were then al
most entirely new to them), said "Uncle
Sam" Wilson. The Joke took among the
workmen, and "Uncle Sam" himself be
ing present, he was occasionally rallied
by them on the Increasing extent of his
possessions. Many of the workmen soon
followed the recruiting drum to the
war. and their old Joke on "Uncle Sam"
Wilson accompanied them and gained
favor rapidly until "Uncle Sam" was
finally recognized as the materializa
tion, in name at least, of the American
government. It was regarded, even In
those days, as very odd that this silly
Joke, which originated In the midst bf
beef, pork, pickle, salt and other edl.
bles. should be the foundation of what
eventually became the national cogno.
A new fad has struck Paris. A clus
ter of cherries Is the swell boutonnlere
there now, and corsage bouquets of
cherry twigs, with leaves and fruits, j
nre In high favor. The effect Is "said ,
to be good, but the custom must be a '
sad discouragement to sentiment, and
an affectionate embrace would be com.
plicated by a cherry corsage bouquet.
On xpcond thoughts this Parisian taA
Is not to be recommended for the sum- !
mer season. ,..,..'. . , .
1 1 ' : '
Albert Martin, tho murderer of it
Banderly, the dentist of the Hue Pols
sonnlore, who was arrested on Thurs
day nt tho house of his parents, hai
confessed to the crime and given an
account of his movements after the
murder. "After having killed M. Ban.
dorly," he said, according to tho ac
count In the Temps, "I mingled with
tho crowd which wns standing before
tho dentist's house. I wns without my
hat, but In my pocket was a cyclist's
cap, which I placed on my head. I
went Immediately to the exterior boule
vards. When on the way I noticed n
blood stain at tho bottom of my trnu.
Bers, bo I covurcd It with a little mud.
1 then entered a cafe, wiicro I wrote to
tell ono of my sisters what hnd hap
pened. 'M. Unnderly provoked me.' I
wrote, 'by making an unjust remark
to me. 1 replied sharply. My master
having Btruek me, I solzed a mallet
which was near me and struck him a
blow on tho head which killed him. I
nsk forgiveness for what 1 have done.
There Is nothing for mo to do now but
to kill myself. It Is untrue thnt I havo
stolen n sum or 500f. I only took 35f.
"I sent my letter. Night having coma
I took a bedroom In the Ituo d'Angou
leme. A woman passed the night with
me. I left at Blx o'clock In the morn
lug, proceeding to the Buttes-Chau-mont,
thence to Nolsy-le-Hec, and only
returnlg to Paris at nightfall. I met a
woman with whom I took n room In
a furnished hotel on the Boulevard,
Rochechouart. You can Imnglne what
a troubled air I had when I tell you
that my companion several times saldr1
'What Is the matter with you 7' But i
replied evasively to her questions.
"I left her early the next morning.
I went Into a shop to buy a silk hand
kerchief, which I placed around my
neck, to replace my collar, which I
had thrown away because it was spot,
ted with blood. I wandered about the
suburbs the whole of the morning.
When nt Ncullly the Idea struck mo of
calling upon one of my relatives, but
seeing a number of men before the door
whom I took to be detectives, I made
off. Then I went to my mother's, with
the Intention of killing myself, but tho.
police enptured mo nnd prevented mo'
from doing so."
After hearing this recital, M, Cocho.,
fert, tho chief of the detective depart-,
ment, had food supplied to the mur-.
derer, who refused, however, to touch
It. At 12:30 at night ho stated ho was.
hungry. When he hnd had a good meal
he Hlept soundly until yesterday morn
ing. M, Cochefcrt, who has again ques.
tloncd him, states that Martin Is a do-,
gencrntc. Ho talks quite calmly of hla
crime. Martin used to give his mother
each week tho money which ho earned,
at tho edntlst's. Recently he borrowed,
from M. Bnndcrly ten francs, a sum
of money which the dentist deducted,
on Saturday last from ills weekly wage
of fifteen francs. How was he to ex
plain to his mother the reaBon for
being ten francs short? Ho told his
mother thnt lie would not be paid until
Monday. From thnt tlmo he conceived)
the Idea of killing his employer with,
the object of stealing the money which
he needed.
On Mondny evening Martin lingered
behind In the office after the other em
ployes hnd left. M. Bnndcrly asked
lilm what he wns doing thero after
hours, and Mnrtln told him that ho
was going to mend n gas pipe. At that
moment M. Unnderly turned his back to
the young man to strike a match on
the wall to light his cigarette. Judg
ing the position a favorable one, Mar
tin struck the unfortunate dentist over
tho head, killing him on the spot. Tho
murderer, fearing that the fall )f the,
fcody would attract attention, rushed,
to his victim and gently stretched out
tho body on the ground. Ho then.
Benrched the dead man's pockets and!
found 32 f. 35c, of which he took posJ
session. He afterward attempted to
kill Mine. Cnmpredon, the cashier.
At the time Martin was arrested In
Paris the Brussels police, by a curious
coincidence, arrested a youth whose de
scription coincides absolutely with that
of the murderer. Detectives wero about
to be sent to Brussels to verify the
Identity of the supposed murderer when
tlitt real one was arrested.
It has been computed that during
our civil war one mnn in every thir
teen died of disease, or proportionately
five times as many as wero killed In
action. The proportion of deaths re
sulting from disease and -wounds with
in the past three years has been infi
nitely higher than this rate among th
Spanish troops stationed in Cuba. By
some statisticians it is asserted that
no less than 50 per cent have suc
cumbed, the vast majority of whom
have died from disease. That this U
lot an exaggerated statement seem
arobnble from the report for 1896 of Dr.
Angel de Larro Cerego, surgeon gen
eral for the Spanish army In Cuba,
which has Just been published In Mad
rid, and, considering the source from
which It emanates, may be taken as
fairly correct account. From It w
gather that of the 200,000 Spanish
troops landed In Cuba during that year,
0 per cent were invalided In the first
kwo months of their arrival by en
demic diseases and exhaustive march
ing. Of the patients admitted to hos
pitals during 895 there were 7,035 auf
"erlng from yellow fever, the admls
ilons from which reached 23,580 In 1898
ind 4.63G In the first six months of 1897,
making a total of 35,250 cases of yellow
fever, of which 11,347 were fatal. The
fact, too, must be borne in mind that
this awful death rates takes no ac
count of the mortuary records of this
fever occurring In tho town3 and vil
lages throughout the Island. From
June 30, 18'J6, to June 30, 1897, there
were 79,552 cases of malaria of such
severity ns to necessitate the patients
being sent to hospital. The island of
Cuba, as Is well known, has for long
rested under the Imputation of being
one of the most unhealthy portions of
the globe; the deadly palmetto swamps
lying on either side of the trocha are
from May to October hotbeds of ma
laria. In addition to the prevailing cli
matic fevers. In regard to the mortal
ity among the Spanish soldiery, much,
of of the excessively high death rate
must certainly be ascribed to the lack
of efficient sanitary arrangements and
to improper food and clothing. It Is
stated that the rank and file of the
army are attired In linen, In the drip
ping and feverous swamps In the rainy
season, when the whole air is Im
pregnated with fever germs. Yet, al
though there can be no doubt that the
troops of this country will be looked
after with far great regard for their
health than the unfortunate soldiers of
Spain, still the fact must be faced that
the dangers from disease will be very
great, even though every precaution
be taken. We drew attention some
weeks ago to the absolute necessity of
having sterilized water for the use of
troops on active service, and then rec
ommended the adoption of an efficient
portable filter. Especial point Is given
to these remarks by a report pub
lished In the London Lancet of May 14,
which runs as follows: "Enteric fever
Is now very rare In Alexandria, where
Berkefield filters have been provided
for about two years.