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About Hemingford herald. (Hemingford, Box Butte County, Neb.) 1895-190? | View Entire Issue (May 15, 1896)
DAIRY AND POULTEY.
INTERESTING CHAPTERS FOR
OUR RURAL READERS.
How Encrciuftil Fnrmeri Operate Tilt
Department of the Farm A Few
Hints R to the Care of Live Slock
test has conic Into
pxtcnBlve use with
in the past few
years and Is llkoly
to be used still
more In determin
ing the value of
dairy cows and of
the many different
milks nnd creams
brought to factor
ies for the manufacture of both butter
As so much depends upon the accu
racy of thlB te3t where thousands of
dollars are to be divided among patrons
annually, it Is of the utmost import
ance that, inasmuch as tho sample
tested is necessarily small, all meas
urements should bo made with tho
greatest possible accuracy In order to
secure uniformly reliable results.
It haB been found that many of tho
Babcock bottles and pipettes now in
use are inaccurately graduated. In
view of this fact and of tho difficulty
In securing bottles and pipettes which
can be relied upon, the Pennsylvania
Experiment station has undertaken to
supply as standards to any resident of
the state desiring them, a tested Bab
cock bottle and pipette at a price suffi
cient to cover the original cost and tho
expense of testing and postage. In this
connection, owing to the wide varia
tion found in cheap dairy thermome
ters, tho station will also undertake to
supply to residents of the state desir-
RESULT OF CROSSING ENGLISH
ir' 'i-i.' ""' ', "". ' s-'" ' "
Our Illustration Bhows a cross be
tween some English cattle (presum
ably shorthornB), and some Indian
breeds. The United States consul in
Ceylon says that these crosses are
an improvement over either of the
ing It a tested thermometer as a stand
ard, under the above conditions. '
The station has also prepared a bul
letin containing full and explicit direc
tions for tho. use of the Babcock test
which it will' mall free to all who may
Pennsylvania Experiment Station.
Artichokes for Hogi.
Hitherto the growing of thts valu
able tuberous rooted perennial has
been almost wholly neglected, and
greatly misunderstood. During the
past few yoars the "tame" or domes
ticated sorts of the artichoke have been
imported from Europe, and nre grad
ually making their way to an exten
sive cultivation in the United States,
Canada and Mexico. It is in place in
this connection to mention that there
is a deep-seated, long-standing preju
dice against tho artichoke among the
farmers of tho United States.
But thero Is "wild" rye and "tame"
rye, "wild" onions and "tame" onions.
"Wild" barley and "tame" barley.
"Wild" lettuce and "tame" lettuce,
etc. Almost every grain and vegetable
cultivated and used as food by man has
its namesake in a noxious and often
tlmB dangerous weed. The artichoke
is no exception to the general rule.
The wild artichoke being Indigenous
to most localities (wherever the soil
is suitable) In North and South Amer
ica. It is merely a bad weed a dan
gerous peat, which produces few and
Bmall tubers and spreads Its long
fibrous roots out a long distance and
deep down Into the soil, making Its
extermination a difficult task. Many
farmers who havo seen it growing un
derstand it fully. But the same farm
ers do not understand that thero is a
difference a vast difference in the
wild artichoke and the "tame" arti
choke. In fact they are as different
as is wild and "tame" lettuce, or is
wild and "tame" rye.
During the past few years the tame
or domesticated sorts of. artichoke have
been Imported from Europe and are to
a great extent becoming known and
cultivated on this continent, as a cheap,
healthy stock food. The "tame" ar
tichoke can be as eaBily grown aa corn
or potatoes, and on land that will pro
duce 50 bushels per acre of Indian
corn, 500 bushols per acre of artichokes
can be easily grown. Tho writer fre
quently does this and has grown over
90 bushels per acre on ground that
had never been manured. Their great
value as a cheap, handy, healthy hog
food has been so thoroughly aired In
the press of the country the past few
years that an enormous demand has
been created for them.
As a pork producer they cannot be
.excelled. A good plan is to plant all
your lotB to artichokes about May 1,
,or as soon as your stock Is put on
T?JL9K uAd2CuriBMlk!'dl V .VTSLVIt-Bb tj lfij&j3JUtiSBfP
thelr spring and summer pasture. '
Then when your pasture "playB out" i
in mo ran, or nooui aepteniocr au to
October 1, you will havo fine food in
your lots for your hogB, whero they
will root nt Intervals whenovor tho
ground Is not frozen too hprd until tho
following May, when they will havo
received as much real benefit from one
acre of artichokes as from five of corn,
at a very conservative estimate somo
Bay ton acres. Tho hoga will also leave
enough tubers in tho ground to serve
as seed for tho next crop. It is a hog's
nature to root. In fact, his hogshlp is
never happier than when he is root
ing. An artichoke patch can truly bo
called a hog'B drug store. A hog's ob
ject In rooting being to obtnln rootB,
which his appetite craves, and which
serve tho samo purpose for him as n
blood cleaner or spring mcdlcino does
for tho human being. Ayer, of sarBa
parllla fame, can fully explain this.
After a hog has eaten nrtichokes to his
heart's content, the rooting notion will
havo been put entirely out of his head
and ho will not root up hlB spring or
summer pasture. A wealthy hog
raiser (Mr. Booher) of the writer's ac
quaintance, and who has made 480
acres of $100 land from hog
raising for the pork market,
says he would not bo without n big
annual patch of tho tamo artichoke,
and that he haB had no hog diseases
in his herds since he has allowed them
to root In his artichoke patch to their
He claimed that a sow will never cat
her pigs if sho has been previously
given a good feed of artichokes. The
artichoke (tamo sorts) is a wonderful
soil enrlcher, fully as good as red
The writer cuts the tubers to two
eyes per piece and plants precisely
same as potatoes, and cultivates pre
cisely same as corn. They grow about
eight feet high and grow so dense
that weeds have a hard time In an
artichoke patch. The artichoke stands
AND EAST INDIAN CATTLE.
parent breeds, so far aa uso In India
is concerned. They will stand tho pe
culiarities of feed and climate better
than the Imported cattle, and have
more useful qualities than tho native
drought much better than the potato,
and there is no insect that infests
them to the writer's knowledge, of sever
alyears In growing three kinds of them.
The "tame" or domesticated artichoke
should be replanted every three years
as they run out, or in other words, tho
ground needs a rotation of crops.
They are very easily and entirely ex
terminated if the young tops are
plowed under when about ono foot
high. Artichokes are valuable, not
alono as a hog food, but for any kind
of stock and poultry, and also for
horses. Poultry Just about live in an
artichoke patch In warm weather,
where they hide from hawks In th'e
shade, and scratch out the young
tubers. The tubers are highly prized
for milch cows as valuable milk pro
ducers. The writer feeds the tuberB to
his horses every spring. Horses pre
fer them to any other food after they
have become accustomed to them.
They completely take the place of oil
cake and condition powders, making
horses shed nicely and clearing them
of worms. The writer has tried sev
eral varieties but has finally settleu
on the White Jerusalem, Red Jerusa
lem and Mammoth White French as
the most valuable sort to grow in the
central west Illinois.
l!rrot l'ljriuotit'i Ilorkat.
For ten years I have been raising
poultry. During that time I have kept
the White and Brown Leghorns, White
and Barred Plymouth Rocks, Of all the
breeds, I prefer the Plymouth Rocks.
My poultry house Is an ordinary framo
building, but comfortable. I feed soft
food In tho mornings and whole grains
in the evening. I do not confine myself
to ono grain but try to give a variety.
As to the market, I can sell all the
breeding fowls I want to dispose of In
tho home markets I have nger failed
to get eggs" In winter, though in the
very severest weather they of course
fall off some. One year I lost almost
an entire flack from cholera. I was
away from home when they took it,
and in five days nearly all of them died.
I lost but two chicks after I got home
and could attend to them. I find lice
the greatest enemy of young chicks.
W. H. Reid in Farmers' Review.
Milk In New York. The milk supply
of New York Increases at a fair pace.
The dally consumption by the city is
In the neighborhood of 100,000 gallons.
The consumption of cream is about
3,500 gallons per day, and of cpndensed
milk in excess of 12,000 gallons for the
Care for the Crown. When setting
strawberries, be sure that the crown
Is not covered with dirt. A lltttle at
tention in setting It even with the
ground will do much good. Also see
that it is so set that the water will
not wash the mud over it.
r - . .
THE MOUFLON IS SLY GAME.
An Animal WJtlrli Knowing 8portmin
Flint on Cnntlrnu HUM.
There are somo surprises nwalting
the sportsman who visits Corsica, n few
of which nrc told about In the Badmin
ton Mngnzlne. Tho writer of tho nrtlclo
was a British naval officer, nnd tho
Ccrslcnn commnndant treated him nnd
his party very politely, refused to look
nt their hunting pormlts and passports,
gave them a dinner with line clgnrs
nnd wine captured from a brigand band
by hia own gendarmes, and sent for tho
best rtutie guide to bo put at their
disposal. What Is more, he put a small
squad of cavalry nt their service to ren
cuo any membor of tho' party bo un
fortunate as to bo captured and hold
The goatherd who served as guide
was a good ono. Ho knew tho moullon,
or wild mountain sheep, perfectly, and
it was through hlB offortB mainly that
tho party wns successful. The writer
carried a 38-calIbre, double-barreled
express rifle, shooting a hard-head bul
let. A long, hard climb In the steep
mountains, with frequent pauses for
using tho telescope, resulted In sighting
the quarry moving In a patch of heath
er, which frequently hid them from
view. All but the old ram were feeding
in a restless, shifty manner; ho was
perched on an overhanging ledge look
ing out for hunters. The mouflon knows
a thing or two, nnd when a flock are
feeding they always hae some keen
old ram or owe whero it can seo the
country below best. They are as wild
as, perhaps wilder, than any of their
kind, whether found In Europe, Asia or
America; but, like others, they may bo
approached from above, wind nnd
ground permitting. No bungler need
hope for one, aa they aie so constantly
hunted by natives as to be always on
tho lookout. Tho natives kill at all
times, and kill all things from lambs to
rams. Tho first kill was by good luck,
not by reason of skill, for tho animals
ran past ono of the party, who shot, at
eighty yards, missed the big ram, and
hit another, which happened to be just
beyond, in the neck. Tho throat shot
Is a right good one to make. It kills
quicker than either head or shoulder
shots, which are somewhat easier to
The guide refused to dress the killed
animal. "Why should he waste the
best part?" he asked. So ho carried tho
seventy-three pounds Ave miles to
camp, where he got his choice and the
Englishmen got theirs.
Their camp was an attractive place,
at the edge of a clump of trees, at least
320 feet high, near a babbling trout
stream, just fifteen miles from Corte.
They bought somo fresh milk, a loaf of
chestnut bread, and some goat milk
cheese, just to get acquainted with the
herders of a big flock of goats and a few
sheep. Later they were welcomed to
huts of the herders, which shows tho
best way to treat tho natives of any re
gion, more especially In a region where
native cavalry Is put at one's disposal
by good-natured officials. If they had
put themselves on pinnacles for tho
herders to look at, half tho fun of tho
trip would have been lost, or gained, In
Coyote unci Jack llnhntt.
The Hon. H. H. Sapplngton was in
the city Friday and brought up Beveral
coyote skins to bo punched by tho
county clerk, says the Boyernan, Idaho,
Chronicle. Mr. Sapplngton relates an
incident, to which ho was an oye-wlt-ness,
that proves tho coyoto to bo a
sharp-witted beast. He was out in the
hills near his ranch, when he noticed a
coyote chasing a jack rabbit at the tn
of his speed. Away they went, the rnb
blt gradually curving his course and fin
ally coming back to the starting point.
Now suddenly a second coyote sprung
out of hiding and took his turn at
swinging around tho circle, the tired
coyote resting. They kept the perform
ance up until they wore out tho poor
Jack. Mr. Sapplngton was of the opin
ion that tho coyote, in order to secure a
dinner of jack rabbit, hnd entered into
an arrangement with a brother coyote
to join him in the hunt, for no wolf
can singly run down a Jack rabbit, and
If the latter should run In a straight
course no number of wolves could possi
bly catch it; but the rabbit nearly al
ways runs in a wide circle, because It Is
its naturo to return to its native slope or
Fragrant ICimh Jura.
Rose Jars are made by putting a layer
of petalB of any fragrant variety of rose
In the bottom of a Jar. On this scatter
somo coarse salt; close the Jar tightly
and place In the sun. Next day, or as
soon as you havo enough material to
make another layer, put in more petals
and another sprinkling of salt. Con
tinue this as long as you havo flowers.
Then add cloves, cinnamon, orris-root
and other fragrant articles, and mix
the whole mess well. Keep tho jar well
closed. Ladles' Home Journal.
ot Will Men, lit I.e.mt.
West Virginia has produced what
might bo called a superBcrvlceablo in
ventor, who wants to take out a patent
for a bicycle screen to hide tho feet und
ankles of women who rldo wheels. It
is doubtful whether this device can ever
be made popular with either sex.
There can never be a union of the
denominations excepting upon tho basis
of consistency and consocration. When
all sects live alike close to Christ in
practical, everyday living, thon union
will bo possible. Rev. Dr.Euster, Meth
odist, SpoKane, Wash.
Morn Willi Hnlr uiul Troth.
A baby boy, weighing seven pounds
and having a heavy head of hair and
two rows of taeth, was born to tho
wife of Samuel Meglonn, a merchant
of Lexington, Ky., a few days ago.
English papers say that Crawford
Mnrley, who recently tiled In New Zea
land at the ago of 83, wns the Inst sur
vivor of thoRo who hnd a ride on Ste
phenson' No. 1 engine when tho Stock
ton and Darlington railway was llret
opened. It was about thirteen years
of ago at tho time, and, with two other
boys, he went to see tho iron horse,
which was brought from Newcastle on
a dray by eight horses. When tho lo
comotivu hntl been placed on the line,
Geortrc Stephenson's brother Joseph,
who was in ehnrge of it, asked the Inds
to run td a farmhouse for some buckets,
nnd the boiler was filled from a spring
near at hand. The lire having been
lighted and Btcnm raised, tho boys, in
return for their assistance, were in
vited to have a ride.
(limn for n (llrl (Iriiiliiiitc.
A dress of white crepon mntlo with a
five-yard skirt interlined with stiffen
ing to a depth of fifteen inches. Round
waist in buck, pointed in front, largo
leg-of-mutton sleeves, bolt uud collar
of five-inch tnitetn ribbon bowed at
tho back, lloxplaid of tho poods down
the center front of tho wnlsU llretel
les of ribbon from belt to shoulders,
back and front, with short baw of four
loops nnd four ends. Ladles' Homo
Ilnlt'n Cutiirrh Curo
Is a constitutional cure. Price, 7Gc.
I'ntlltOFH III (Mil Titnrft.
Gerard knew the potato ns a dainty,
and it Is recorded that the tubers wero
sometimes roasted nud steeped In suck,
that is sherry and sugar or baked
with marrow and spices, and even pre
served and candled. Shakespeare
mentioned them, but ho evidently re
garded them as a mere curiosity.
It tho Haliy IS Cutting Tcotn.
lotiire ami ue that oil anj ell tried remcOjr, Mrs.
Atasiott 's Kooimxa Brnur- for Children Teething.
Vlliy Kipling Uccl.no.
Rudvnrd Kipling declined nn offer of
1,000 'for a 1,000 word article telling
"Why America Could Not Conquer Eng
land," on tho ground that no true llrit
ton would botraystato secrets. Thus
Rudynrd Ingeniously avoided confess
ing that no reason exists why America
could not whip tho British, und inci
dentally ho is getting moro than 51,000
worth of free advertising. Boston
1 Lolleve my rrouijt uso of Fiso's Cure
prevented quick consumption. Mrs. Lucy
Wain e, Marquette, Knns., Hoe. 12, lMtt.
Dlftponlttmi of tho CorimtnlkH.
Whether stalks nro to be cut and
plowed under or raked and burned is a
question every farmer must decide for
himself. If tho land is "heavy" and
zompnet, and tho corn crop was free
from insect pests, it will bo wise to
turn under the stalks, ns the mechan
ical condition of the soil will be im
proved. But on tho other hand, if tho
loll is already light and mellow, and If
;hinch hugs wero abundant the previ
ous summer, by nil means rake and
burn the stalks.
TITS -tlFlttopioIfr "ly Dr.Kllnr'nOrrU
Nrrtn ltrRtiirvr. f,i,Kltntti-rtli'itirtilnj hum.
Uiirrlou'iiirti. Tri-allMJiiiiil V-trrtillioiilchv. ti
Whum.. bunl tour. Kllut.sai. VI .usi.,FI.Ua.,l'u
Tho pearl fishery discovered on the south
oiiht of India is vcrv rich.
An able nnd suggestive symposium
ander tha title of 'The Knginecr in
Naval Warfare" is presented ub tho
ipening feature of the May number of
.he North Americnn Review, the con
tributors to it beintr such eminent uu
.hurltU'S as Commodore Ceorgti V. Ml
rille, engineer-ln-chief of the I'nited
Stutes navy; W. S. Aldrich, professor
of mechunicul engineering in the Uni
versity of West Virginia; Ira N. Mollis,
rrofessor of engineering in Harvard
University; Gardiner G Sims, of the
American Srocjciy of Mechanical Knpin
crs; and George Uhler, president of
the Marine Engineers' lieneficlal Asso
ciation. N'imv uiul Cnrloua Intention.
The United States Patent Ofllco Is
tucd 406 patents last week, the most
noticeable and curious of which em
braced a scrubbing machine patented
to a Kansas woman, operated like a
carpet sweeper and embracing a set of
revolving mops and brushes. A New
York inventor received a patent for an
apparatus for dispensing fojrs with
which he hopes to realize a fortune in
London alone. A I'rovidenco inventor
cot a patent for a pin and a New York
inventor one for a needle having a
thread opening in the shape of the
figure IS. Then follows a method of
producing photographs in colors pat
ented ton Washington inventor, u de
vice for utilizing tho power of waves, a
removable armor for pneumatic tires,
a curious fly catcher comprising n
reservoir hung to tho ceiling having n
depending string, upon which string
the flies alight and nro held and pois
oned and a German invention compris
intr an electric plow. Kreo inforran-'
tion relating to patents may be had of
Sues &. Co., Patent Lnwers, liee lluild
Ing, Omaha, Nebr.
A w fitch which Is in good tunning order
in ono j ear's time ticks I.'iT.Cj'JU.UOO tics.
Tcoplo ah a rulo hear I otter with thoir
right than with their lo t ears.
Houghion, Miiilin it Co. have ar
ranged for the American publication of
the unpublished leitersot Victor Hugo.
These will probably be comprised in
two volumes, tho us,t containing Hu
go's letters to his father while study
ing in Paris; a charming group writtun
to his young wife; an interesting series
to his confessor, Lamennals; letters
about some of his volumes, "Hcrnnni,"
'I.e. Uoi b'ninuse," etc.; to Itis little
daughter, l-popoldlne; and u very in
teresting series to Sainte-Houve, who
was in love with Madame Hugo. The
second will include his letters in exile
to I.edru-Kollin, Mnrzlni, Garibaldi,
und I.amartime, with many of curious
autobiographical and literary interest.
Half Fare lUciirmiin ilu the Wulmali,
Ihe thort line to Bt. Louis, and quick route
Katt or Kouth,
Kxcurblons to u ipoiuts Kouth atone fare
for tho round trii with Ci.W added.
Xntioual Hejiuliiloaii Convention nt St,
National Eduaitiounl Association at
Chiietinn Knduavor Convention nt
Nntionnl People nnd Silver Convention nt
l'or rate, time tsl es aud further infor-
Uintiqu. call at the Wnlash ticket olllco,
1416 Karnum St., Pnxton Hotel Mock, or
write Guo, N. Ci-aytox.
Jf. W. Pas Agt , Omaha, Neb.
Ktrjrchtilno for l'rnlrlo tine.
I will glvo you a rcclpo that is a dead
shot on these pests. Three parts corn
meal, a part of granulated sugar; mix
with wnter so that it can bo molded up
In llttlo pieces one-half ns largo m
hulled hickory nuts. Feed these three
days, nnd tho fourth day ntltl one
eighth ounce of strychnine crystalliz
ed, l'rairlo dogs havo a tnsto for gran
ulated sugar. February Is tho month
to give this to them. 4 gavo ono doso
to tho dogs nnd picked up twenty-six
outsldo of their holes nt ono time.
The ltork of (lllirnttrr
1h not steadier tliim n system lltiaratoil from
the sliiu-klos of chilli nud fovor, blllouu re
mittent or (hmiUiipiio by lloMottei's btom
uoh Hitters, a pot feet antidote- to mulnrhil
1'olsoti In nlr orwuicr. UN also an une
nmph'd remedy for bilious, rliotimntii' or
klilney e "inplultits, ilyniuipila nnd nerwiui
new It ttuprou uppetlto ami sleep uud
Dulnc thn Ilrnt.
Lady of the House What do you
mean by sitting there all tho nftcrnoon
and doing nothing? Didn't yon tell
mo when I gave you your dinner that
1 had only to show you tho wood pllo
and you would do the rest.'
Weary Wrnggles Oat's wot I said,
and I been restln ever since, lady.
Now York Press.
When Nut urn
Needs assistance It mny bo best to ren
der It promptly, but one should remem
ber to uso even tho most perfect reme
dies only when needed. The best nnd
most simple and gentle remedy Is the
Syrup or Figs, manufactured by tho
California Fig Syrup Company,
To Mnkct It l'opulnr.
"I'm afraid tennis will not be ns
popular as usual this year," said tho
dealer in all that pertains to outdoor
"I think you nro right,"' admitted
his chief clerk. "The girls and young
women arc losing Interest in it."
"And I have a large stock of tennis
goods on h ti lid," sighed tho dealer.
"If wo could only get tho interest of
"That might bo possible, If"
"If you can devise a bifurcated
tednls costume for them." Chicago
Cm'i Cough Ilntiam
Imlir olilet ftml b't. It will hrcak up nColuqulolc
trtiiaaanitliltiirelsu. It It ulways reliable. Trylw
Your idol is protably n prent boro to
other J eoplo
Billiard table, Forond-lumd. for sa!a
cheap. A J ply to or address, B.C. Akix,
Ml S. Uth St., Omaha, Nob.
IT OFF" FROM RETURNING. THAT'S BUSmESS.rS
f teal Cocoa '
Tie test of 115 years pwes
tie purity of Walter Bater &
Cos Cocoa aid Clocolate.
WALTER BAKER & CO., Limited, Dorchester, Mass.
khtt. i mt
"Pass Your Hate.''
? have been reduced except tobacco
u Rattlf Av "
Low Price; High
3 Flavor For
i t i. x
$ cmnwoi. iwiv.v.aouiuv.11 "
;- n wn rii'i ir' t 'j j t
as of other high grade goods. The V
5 cent piece is nearly as large as '
other 0 cent pieces of equal quality
THE RECORD OF
Tltc Greatest ricdlcnl Discovery
of the Age.
DONALD KENNEDY, OF ROXDURY, MASS.,
Has discovered in one of our common
pasture weeds a remedy tint cures every
kind of Humor, from the worst Scrofula
down to a common Pimple.
lie has tried il in over eleven hundred
cases, and never failed except In two cases
(both thunder humor). He has now in his
possession over two hundred tertlficales
of Its value, all within twenty miles of
Boston. Send postal card for book.
A benefit Is always experienced from
the first bottle, and a perfect cure is war
ranted when the right quantity Is taken.
When the lungs are affected It causes
shooting pains, like needles passing
through them; the same with the Liver
or Dowels. This is caused by the ducts
being stopped, and always disappears in a
week after taking it. Read the label.
If the stomach is foul or bilious it will
cause squeamish feelings at first.
No change of diet ever necessary. Lit
the best you ca.i get. and enough of It
Dose, one tablespoonful In water af bed
time. Sold by all Druggists.
The many imitations of
HIRES Rootbeer simply
point to its excellence the
genuine article proves it.
Mad obIt br Tht Oiirk, K. llr On rhiltitclptil.
A2 packftgtt niakoi Araltotji. SoMccrynliric.
lUnmlnatlon int .Ailnlce to ratnll)lllty of.
Invr ntlon. Hnil for " lnvntori' Unltliir How to 0t
al'ateut" ri.TE15I 0TAE5SLL. WASmSIOlt, 0. 0.
CIUITI.U C'KISHIt f)Ol.I8t0rki, Mrvclotit
iiruttUi rtUlilrndtmyiTnotilyt roaiornufrce. Van
T I A PftftQ ftlf WES NOT "FOOL 'ROUND";
JIJ1WjJVO uijl1t goes straight 1o
WORK ON PAIN AND DRIVES IT OUT AND "SHUTS
all commodities .
ts itn tn Ante' .
Grade; Delicious '
10 cents you get
"L i'D-j.l. Atf V
v r- t m m ii i t j- -r
i V- L 1 1 ii Ik
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