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About The Omaha guide. (Omaha, Neb.) 1927-19?? | View Entire Issue (Jan. 18, 1957)
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A Pictorial History of the Negroes
by Langston Hughes and Milton Meltzer
1000 Illustrations from Prints, Engravings, Photographs, Paintings,
James Egert Allen
The Association For The Study of Negro Life and History
Board of Education, City of New York
Persons interested in the history of the Negro, especially in
our culture, can turn the pages of a remarkable new volume, pro
fusely illustrated with pictures, facsimiles of important documents. I
vivid cartoons and literary reproductions all pertaining to the his
toric struggle of the black man in his meteoric rise toward full [
and first class citizenship in this nation.
The authors follow an orderly sequence and include a plethora
of background material which enables the reader to understand
the varied problems identified with the Negro in history. Adequate
ittention is given to the period of slavery without paying tribute
to the iniquitous system. The part played by free men of color
is not regarded as is often true in many histories of the past. Each ^
division of the volume is indicative of the rich store of factual in- ,
formation and real achievements so seldom found in the current
hitorical volumes issued in. the past half century. Here are the
hidden agendas of scores of meetings initiated by Negroes which
led to the formation of separate organizations so as to provide op
portunities for their leadership and accomplishments to come to
light under the glow of creative genius. The Negro church, business,
school and social organizations evolved out of this period of national
The contents of this volume should lift the morale of our na- ,
tion, breaking down artificial barriers in our culture and society and
paving a way for better communications among people of varied
To place this volume in every library, every school, and, in
fact, in every home in America would add greatly to the moral
courage and physical stamina of the entire country.
With consummate skill and graphic artistry, Messrs. Hughes and ,
Meltzer have made a wonderful contribution to Americana.
Teens Join Up to Fight Polio With $$$
Hey, teens! Here’s a question to test your P.Q. (Popularity Quo
tient.) How can you have fun. meet new friends, and do a worth
while community service all at the same time? Stumped? Well,
Teens Against Polio (TAP) has the answer for you.
Join TAP and voull not only have a good time with other
young people, you’ll have the satisfaction of knowing you’ll be
helping to finish the polio job. TAP is active all over the country
under the leadership of this year’s national co-chairman TV star Ed
die Fisher, and Mary McLane, 19, a sophomore at Seattle University.
One of the year’s most exciting projects for TAPPERS has
been serving as volunteers for the mass polio vaccination of teen
agers. The first of these important events took place .in Phoenix,
Arizona, where several thousand young people stepped forward and
"presented arras" in December in an attempt to cut down next sum
mer’s polio incidence.
Phoenix parents, school and health authorities became concerned
when over 40 per cent of 1956 polio incidence in Arizona occurred
in teens and young adults. They asked the poung people to pitch
in and help with a mass inoculation project. As a result, Arizona
civic and medical authorities credit TAP with doing an adult-size
job in the fight against polio.
TAP distributed vaccine information urging everyone over 14 to
“walk with Salk;" spoke at club meetings, urging young people to
get their shots, and generally helped make vaccination fashionable
as well as healthful.
TAP volunteers are needed to distribute March of Dimes
posters, work at campaign headquarters on the exciUng events of
he March of Dimes campaign that extends through the month of
January, and baby sit for families who will be busy helping conduct
the Mothers’ March as the final event.
For several months after mass manufacture of the Salk vaccine
started, there was only enough for children of grade school age.
Now that vaccine is plentiful, the teenagers have a job of catching
up to do Their job is to help raise money for those who have had
mlio and to do their "homework" by getting vaccinated themselves.
All you teen Jenas and Johns can help out by joining Teens
What The President Could Do
About School Segregation
Although neither of our two major parties has committed itself
to implementing the Supreme Court’! school-desegregation decision,
both hare agreed on what not to do In their platform the Demo
crats “reject all proposal! for the use of force to Interfere with
the orderly determination of these matters by the courts," while the
Republicans my, "Use of force or violence by any group or agency
will tend only to worsen the many problems inherent in the situa
tion" The Democrat! would leave enforcement to the courts alone,
and the Republican* have come up with nothing more specific than
"intelligent study, understanding, education and good will."
Meanwhile, id* states have declared the Federal decision null
end void, while a grossing number of local communities are saying,
"Come and make us (to it." and in seme intUnces mob# have been
taking the law into their own hands.
The Notion that the Federal court* can bring about campllance
through their own resources to partly responsible for the present
dilemma. A court’s entire personnel consists of a stenographer and
some attendants. It has no facilities for educating the public, no ^
public-relations funds to defend or popularize its positions, no na
tion-wide staff to counteract the obstruction of local officials. A
Federal court’s only tangible power to enforce its orders against dis
obedience is contempt proceedings; and in the rare cases when such
contempt orders are issued, obedience ajmost invariably follows as
a matter of course. When it does not, an United States marshall can
imprison the violator until he purges himself of the contempt or
pays the penalty prescribed. If the marshall is helpless, he may
deputize additional marshals or, if even more support is needed, he
may call upon the military. But the use of troops has been more
rare than willful disobedience. And it is hard to see how bayonets
could compel Southern parents to send their children into mixed
Brownell's Lost Words
Before the desegregation order, the Supreme Court was seriously
concerned about its enforceability and heard extended argument on
the question. At that time Attorney General Herbert Brownell,
urging the Court to undertake - enforcement through the district
courts, promised supplemental aid: “The responsibility for achieving
compliance with the Court’s decision,” he said in the closing para
graph of his brief, “does not rest on the judiciary alone. Every
officer and agency of government, Federal, state and local, is like
wise charged with the duty of enforcing the Constitution and the
rights guaranteed under it."
But that “duty” has never been assumed by the Federal govern
ment or its agencies. The consequence has been an ever-increasing
amount of open defiance. Since enforcement through contempt pro
ceedings necessitates force and since force has been denounced by
both parties, what remedy remaifls for effecting cobmpliance?
The Plain Fact of the matter is that some kind of force is essen
tial when law is challenged. Indeed, no sooner had the party
platforms condemning force been issued than the governors of Ken
tucky and Tennessee had to use force to curb mobs that had been
attempting to keep Negro children from asserting their rights under
The trouble with the word “force” is that unless it is qualified
it has a bewildering diversity of meanings. In its most general
sense, it includes not only the use of physical means but also of
power, compulsion, and constraints of other kinds. Some sanctions
must be emploved when the force of law as imposed by a free
society surrenders to tne law of force as imposed by mobs. Such
force not only embraces conpulsion by police and military action
but may also include extralegal devices such as political, economic,
or moral influences.
The primary responsibility for enforcing Federal law rests upon
the Executive. The negation of force in carrying out a decree can
only imply a repudiation of the judicial power, with dire consequen
ces for the national integrity.
The Executive's Failure
There is. therefore, as much need for clear debate on the issue
of how the Negro and white races are to live together in this coun
try as there was at the time of Lincoln and Douglas. But unlike
the period of Lincoln and Douglas, force need not mean only the
invasion of states by Federal troops. For the government of Lin
coln enjoyed a very limited sovereignty in an individualistic society
whose authoritv was circumscribed by the express powers of the
Constitution. The war power was confined to periods of hostility;
the welfare power reposed mainly in the states; the commerce and
other powers were confined principally to encouragement or mild
regulation; the Federal police power was nonexistent. A test of
federal sovereignty had to be made in 1861 through the war power
because there were no alternative powers with which to achieve
respect for the Federal authority.
The Federal governmnt of today, however, is a dynamic sover
eignty whose influence reaches into very aspect of the economy. Its
welfare power is now substantive, its other powers extensive. It is
the greatest single source for spending and lending money for new
ventures; it finances housing and city development, controls credit,
insures investments, grants huge subsidies to private and public
agencies; it builds dams, atom plants, roads, and public works. It
permeates almost c^ery phase of enterprise and touches every local
official and citizen.
Accordingly, a whole arsenal of devices exists upon which the
President may now draw to assert his vast prestige, influence, and
power. The pre-eminence of Federal power, along with a general
respect for law has made continued resistance to Federal authority
Wh<,n the deMgregafion decision was handed down in
1954, it was met with sullen acquiescence, but not with general de
fiance It was only when the moral force of the Court’s decree was
allowed to collapse through the wavering of the President and
through his failure to back the decisions with his prestige that
Southern dissidents were emboldened to flout the Federal authority
The law-respecting and more liberal citizens pf the South soon found
themselves engulfed in a surge of intransigent emotion that com
pelled them to join the insurgents if they were not to lose their
own positions in the community and. in some cases, their' political
futures. Now that moral force has waned, the question is how
respect for Federal law can be re-established.
One way is to do nothing, or as President Eisenhower has put
it. to wait until the “hearts of men’’ are changed. But enough has
♦ m'T!? , ‘° demonstrate that Southern resistance has es
tablished a firm foothold and even built up a “moral” case for
immoral disobedience. The irresponsibles who fatten on dissent
indifferent o/'he.T their P^wns-approving, bewildered,
indifferent or helpless. Simultaneously Southern liberalism—aris
tocratic in its origins and lacking mass support but which once gave
hope of leading the South toward real democracy-has been sub
ordmated and submerged.
Ih?re ,are a number of things that can still be done to restore
the Federal authority. A Presidential commission of eminent citizens
t he Tsimes"and°cdac°*th* Nor,h.COuld ‘Pentad to invert!^
the issues and place them in a rational light. It could hold open
hearings, bringing out the views of educators, churchmen and oth-r
prominent citizens. By patiently presenting constructive views on
the problem, such a commission could begin building a case for re
lurtl “ by f>, General 7.
cases involving defiance of the Court’s order would fortify the
From Around Nebraska
Sugar beet growers in Hamilton County, near Aurora, will
receive approximately $100,000 for their crop this year, says the
Aurora Register. A new bonus has just been issued, based on the
sugar content of the beets.
Bassett is considering the formation of a "hospital district”
in an effort to legalize the voting of bonds for a new hospital.
The town is not large enough to vote the bonds and the population
of the county is not sufficient either. As a result, the proposed
new district will include all of Rock County and a part of other
• • •
Work has started on a large-scale telephone improvement
project in Saunders county at Wahoo. The work will include a
new building, a conversion to dial and the installation of equip
ment which will make possible the dialing of Omaha, Lincoln, and
Fremont numbers direct by the subscriber.
• • •
The Wahoo Newspaper, printed at Wahoo, carried the state
ments of seven banks last week, thereby representing the status
of the banking facilities of the entire county at one time. Deposits
range from slightly under a million dollars, to approximately three
Lyons merchants started a contest “Why I like to trade in
Lyons" last Saturday with cash prizes going to several winners
each week. .Stores are providing entry blanks for the contest.
* • *
Members of the Odd Fellows lodge of South Sioux City are
providing funds for an all-expense trip to New York next summer
for some young person to visit a session of the United Nations
Assembly. The trip will take six days and the youngster selected
will actually sit in on one of the United Nations meetings, accord
ing to the Dakota County Star.
• • •
Masons at Central City are planning a new Masonic Temple,
reports the Republican-Non Pared. The building will be 44x110
feet and will be built of brick. A sketch, made by the architect,
was shown in the Central City newspaper last week,
• * •
A reduction in electric rates has been made at Fairbury.
Last summer there was a sharp increase made in rates and
the customers, in protesting the raise, reduced the amount of
current used so effectively that the plant took in less money than
before. The new rate adjustment strikes a happy medium between
the old rate and the new, stated the Fairbury Journal last week.
• • •
1500 persons turned out last Sunday to visit the new school
building at Crete. The $460,000 structure was termed “one of the
finest” by State Superintendent Freeman Decker who attended
the dedicatory services Sunday.
• • •
Stores at Ogallala have announced plans to close at 8 P.M.
Seems to me that dieting is a
thing of mind over platter!
Slide Sheet Metal
With Tipped Mallet
LOBBYISTS who work with
sheet metal will be interested
in a safety tip given by Popular
Mechanic«. Craftsmen are aware
that large metal sheets are diffi
cult to pick up and move around
on a workbench or squaring
shears. They often inflict cuts
* - *
At a time tarer and injury
preventative, the magazine sug
gests that a mallet handle be
fitted with a rubber crutch or
I cane tip and used to slide the
I sheet to the desired position.
Little effort is required to move
the sheet, at sufficient friction
ia created by the soft rubber.
Another idea from thit source:
For a too-wide door, it’s better
to plane the hinge tide, as it is
much simpler to relocate the
hinge screw holes than it is to
reset the latch.
SOIMCHI SO PURI! 's^OOOl
on Saturdays throughout the winter. Thirty retail establishment*
are joining the move.
It sounded like the days of old last week when the Ainsworth
Star-Journal reported a “shootin’” right on main street.
It seems that a lineman for a local power company was
whiling away some time in an Ainsworth cafe and was demonstra
ting his skill with a revolver to some of his friends. The scene
shifted out front of the cafe where the lineman began throwing
objects into the air and taking pot shots at them with his revol
" *"»'** M•♦»♦♦♦♦»»♦♦♦« *i
MERCHANTS INVESTMENT CO.
Aatomnbile, f»riitor« and 8i|utsr* Lnm
Aston obi )• Flaaaciag
819 First Nation*! Bank Bldg. AT 60bt*
Astrology & Psychology
How to Get What You Want
SECRETS OF THE MASTERS
Not Fortune Telling
Ph. 3-1956 or 3-6839 Co. Bluffs
1704 North 24th Stroot
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Quality Workmanship-Wa Load, Othars Follow
CLEANING — DYEING — ALTERATIONS — PRESSING
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• '/, LBS. DAMP DRY CLOTHES ... .45
ONE MACHINE LOAD CLOTHES__ .35
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Clothe* Neatly Folded
ECONOMY DRY CLEANING
3703 No. 24th St. PL 9906
Orchard & Wilhelm Company
Is Now In Progress
AFL-CIO President George
Meany announced today the ap
pointment of Joseph D. Keenan
to serve on the AFL-CIO Civil
Rights Committee. Mr. Keenan
is the Secretary of the Interna
tional Brotherhood of Electrical
Workers and a Vice President of
the Chicago Federation of Labor,
Keenan, former Secretary of
served during World War II as
Vice Chairman of the War Pro
duction Board and later as tabor
with the U. S. occupation for
ces in Germany. He was to be
Advisor to General Lucius Clay;
first Director of tabor’s League
for Political Education (AFL) and
subsequently became Secretary
Treasurer of the Building and
Construction Trades Department
before taking his present poll
tlon with the IBEW
The Civil Rights Committee of
the AFtaCIO is under the Chair
manship of James B Carey, Ha
membership also Indudes:
L. S. Buckmaster, William C.
Doherty, George M. Harrison.
Albert J. Hayes Ralph Helstein.
Bessie Hillman Emil Ma*ev.
David J. McDonald. William L.
MePetiidge Willard S, Town
•end Richard F. Walsh Milton
P Webster. Charles Zimmerman.
AFL-CIO President George Me
any. («t officio)
ITH* NtAKASXAIOWA IUCTAICAL COUNCIL ■
“MO LOOKIN'—DINNER'S COOKIN' “
Tttaee uctopua notMi bad don* it a«Ai!
(jtMJ€§0 puUed out the ,,. and then in ten!
One night before dinner, George ant turnedf down
To view a peat comic... a (ter of renown.
H it hi* in a rat* • • • aha'a <hoHlin(, ‘ Now l*»M
Wa naari mot* iwana •uwg... t* via* AND to oakT
CALL YOUB ELECTRICAL CONTRACTOR TOR A FREE ESTIMATE ON FULL HOUSEPOWCR
But just at the opening lines of the play.
The picture blacked out... and the sound faded 'way!
MODERNIZE YOUR HOME WIRING
, JR ,P ■ i
r For FULL ^
Why be like George and pul up with the incon
venienre ol double sockets in the double sockets,
blowing (uses, dimrn.ng lights, slow heating ap
pliances and shrinking TV pictures? Now you
can have the convenience and safety ol FULL
HOUSEPOWRR , . . with no fuss or muss . , ,
and take up to 5 years to tray lor it. You’ll be
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convenience and economy of FULL HOUSE
POWER Find «it whrlkr your home’s wiring
NEBRASKA-IOWA ELECTRICAL COUNCIL
lies W. O. w. IwWirg, 0<MU. N.c.u.
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