The Omaha guide. (Omaha, Neb.) 1927-19??, April 13, 1946, Page 2, Image 2

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    The Negfo Press in A Changing World
Following excelfrom add
ress by P. B. Young Sr. president
and publisher of Norfolk Journal
and Guide at Wilkie Awards Din
ner, ashingtonW, D. C. March 1.
On behalf of my colleagues. 1
wish to thank Mrs_ Meyer and
her associates on the committee
for their interest and for carry
ing forward in this magnificent
way the ideals of our late lam
ented friend Mr. Wendell L. Wil
kie.
As a tribute to the memory of
that great American may I also
express the gratitude of the Ne
gro Press of the United States
for the added recognition implied
in these awards.
Our lamented friend envisioned
a free world, and he wanted our
America to lea dint he cause of
freedom. He believed that a free
America was essential to a free
world and he believed with deep
sincerity that America could not
be truly free unless all of her
people were free
In his private life and public
acts he exemplified the high ideal
which he so ably espoused.
This occasion brings to public
attention the Negro Press. It
underlines the importance of our
efforts in the United States to
Serve a high purpose in the field
of journalism, to establish and
“IT PAYS TO LOOK WELL"
— MAYO’S BARBER SHOP —
Ladies and Children’s Work
A Specialty
2422 LAKE STREET
maintain harmonious race re! a
tions, to deal constructively with
! a great human question, which
our people—at least a majority
of our people—are trying to res
olve in a spirit of justice.
I have chosen, therefore), to
discuss the topic. The Negro Press
in a Changing World.
In order that you who are not
so familiar with the origin, the
background and present status of
the Negro Press may be able to
view it in the proper prospective,
J let me review briefly these essen
{ tied details.
j I19TH ANNIVERSARY
This week the Negro Press of
I the United States is celebrating
its 119th anniversary. That may
seem singular to those who recall
that the institution of legal sla
very was abolished 81 years ago.
With a few exceptions we have
been in the habit of viewing the
sdcial evolution of Negroes -in
America in terms of what has
happened since emancipation.
But years betore this historic
change occured people outside of
the region in which slavery was
legalized were indulgisg in the
good old American custom of
striving to make this Nation free
as a whole. Thus, in 1827 there
was established in New York City
a small sheet which bore the sig
nificant title of Freedom’s Jour
nal. It was the first newspaper
dedicated to the Abolitionist
cause and ante dated Garrison’s
Liberator by (four years Free
doms Journal was an organ of
protest.
GROWTH OF PRESS
From that small beginning the
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Negro Press has grown to con
siderable dimensions. There are
now more than 200 standard
weeklies^ ranging in circulation
from a few thousand in some
cases, to a quarter million in at
least two others with a substan
tial group able to show through
the Audit Bureau of Circulations
subscribers or regular buyers in
numbers ranging from 10,000 to
150.000. There is a standard daily
published in a southern city that
has a circulation close 'to 25,000.
Six or seven of the weeklies pub
lish from four to a dozen separ
ate editions for different geogra
phical locations and their opera
tions approximate those of a daily
newspaper. There are more than
20 religious peridocjals, weeklies
and monthlies, some of which are
natiosal in circulations- We have
a dozen or more journals devoted
to education, one of which is re
cognized as an authority on edu
cation in the United States. It
compares in size, content and
circulation with the leading jou
rnals in America. There are 20
trade publications, representing
different phases of industry and
business- We have a large group
Of magazises, some of which are
organs of organizations with the
memberships nationwide, and the
circulations run into large figures 1
and at least one of these maga
zines of general charadter has a
circulation of more than 100,000.
We have a journal of Negro his
tory, evoted chiefly to historical
research and this is also recog
nized as ^ authority in its field.
There is a medical journal which
has a national circulation and this
is recognize as an authority in
its field.
AS MEDIUM OF EDUCATION
As has been pointed out the
Negro Press is diversified, cov
ering nearly all phases of humas
activities. Estimating the circula
tion of the entire Negro Press on
the basis of four readers to the
literate family it is safe to say
that 8,000,000 Negroeg read these
publications weekly. That furni
shes an idea of the effectiveness
of this agency as an educational
I
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''DAMAGE CAUSED BY
TIDAL WAVE
Washington D. C. Signal Corps
Radiophoto—Soundphoto— A gen
eral view of the damage caused
by the gigantic tidal wave that
swept the windward side of the
island of Oahu. Note building on
right which has been carried put
into motor highway.
medium.
INFLUENCE ON OTHER
AMERICANS
Who else, you may inquire, be
sides Negroes reads the Negro
Press, and what influence does it
xert on race relations, or upon
the thinkisg of other people, upon
legislation, or upon the whole
American way of life?
It is difficult to answer that
question except to say inat almost
every Negro newspaper of merit
has a substantial list of white
subscribers, and this includes a
number of colleges, universities,
and public libraries. Occasional
studies have shown that even in
the South white people buy in
considerable amounts the Negro
newspapers from the newsstands.
Occasionally we receive from
white readers letters ofapproval,
just as we frequently receive let
ters of disapproval. We have this
experience with our own people.
Some of our papers are anatheme
to colored readers because of what
is considered radicalism or sen
sationalism, and others are anan
thema because of what is consi
dered conservatism.
The war increased racial ten
sions in the United States. This
fact revealed that a great many
white people were reading the
Ngro Press, some out of interest
in th content, some out of curi
osity, and others out of concern
for possible trouble because of
the candor with which our press
was dealing with discriminatory
practices which were excluding
Negroes from participation in the
war effort, except the draft for
military duty.
LOYALTY UNDIMINISHED
In the early stages of the war it
was discovered that one of the
most assidious patrons on the Ne
gro Press was the FBI. It was a
rare day that one of our papers
did not receive a new subscription
or a visit from the FBI. The edu
cation of this agency in the tech
injustices heaped upon an Amer
ican minority solely on account
of color must have been extensive
and unprecedented. The fact that
years of watching and distilling
of every line, every word printed
in the Negro Press that could by
any process of reasoning have
been classified as treasonable
brought not one single arrest, nor
one single act of suppression,
constituted irrefutable proof of
the undiminished patriotism of
the American Negro at a time
when sabotage of the war effort
was running rampant in circles
outside of the Negro race
NO CLAIMS TO PERFECTION
We make no claims to perfec
tion. The Negro Press is made up
of humans whose emotional
reactions are similiar to those of
people whose skins are of differ
ent pigmentation. Among us are
Republicans, Democrats, Protes
tants and Catholics, conservatives
and radicals. Different members
of our press hold different views
on methods and techniques for
extricating the race from the net
work of discriminatory devices
designed to keep us in a perman
ent status of second class citizen
ship. But there is no difference of
opinion on the part of any of the
members of the Negro Press as
to the necessity for rising above
second class citizenship, and the
determination to do so.
THE MAIN TASK NOW
The main task of the Negro
Press in this changing world is
to diseminate the truth as to the
true status of race relations in
America; as to the extent that
democracy includes, or touches.
America’s minority |groups; to
point out the injustices in the
administration of law, and to obey
and decry all efforts to perpetu
ate a system in America under
which our minorities are denied
equality of opportunity in the
lawful pursuit of life, liberty and
happiness.
There is a woeful lack of in
formation in this country concer
ning Negroes. To millions and
millions of Americans the sour
ces of information are closed—
voluntarily—in some cases, invol
untarily in others. But they are
closed. And the information that
is permitted to get out is distor
ted, diluted and often misleading.
In the United States not long'
ago, a Senator of one of the more
enlightened southern stateg made
IketJlome
*1o>W4i
I in WASHINGTON
By Walter Shead
.1 WNU Correspondent
WNU Washington Bureau,
1616 Eye St.. N. W. j
Which Way Will Prices
Of Farm Products Go?
/~\N JANUARY 11, Agriculture
Secretary Clinton P. Anderson
spoke before the American National
Livestock association convention in
Denver on “New Frontiers for the
Livestock Industry.” He outlined a
production program of 23 billion
pounds of meat this year . . . that’s
20 pounds more per capita than was
consumed in 1945.
But in that same speech Mr. An
derson revealed his plans for re
moval of meat subsidies on cattle,
calves, sheep and lambs by June
30 of this year. Ten days later,
President Truman in his message
to congress on the state of the Union
gave his reasons why “food subsi
dies must be continued beyond June !
30, 1946,” and if the reaction of farm
leaders here in Washington to the
President’s recommendation reflects
the feelings of the rank and file of
farmers throughout the country . . .
then that’s bad for the farmers. For
all these leaders are opposed to sub
sidy as a principle, and particular
ly to extension of subsidies as a !
means of holding down food prices to
consumers.
Subsidies Unpopular
Dairy farm leaders are especially
hostile to the President’s recom
mendation. Charles W. Holman,
secretary of the National Co-opera
tive Milk Producers federation,
pointed to what he called “the in
congruity in the administration’s
recommendations for a wage in
crease to industrial groups on the
one hand, and on the other hand
for federal grants to subsidize their
grocery bills. The one is an infla
tionary move for the benefit of ur
ban groups. The other is a ‘hold-the
line’ edict to the detriment of agri
culture, and is in itself just as in
flationary.”
While those close to the secre
tary declared that Mr. Anderson’s
whole position for elimination of
subsidies depended on favorable fac
tors which are not now in the eco
nomic picture, it is said Mr. Ander
son is going along with his chief as
a good soldier.
Whether congress will accede to
the President’s policy on continua
tion of the subsidies, which farm
leaders contend will mean that
“farmers will continue as wards of
the government for years to come,”
remains to be seen. So far con-'
gress has paid little or no attention
to the President’s recommenda
tions, with the exception of his for
eign policy. Furthermore, there is
little reason to belhve that congress
will listen to Mr. Truman now, any
more than they have in the past, un
less an aroused public opinion
forces their hand.
Farmers, how:ver, can be thank
ful to the President for the fact that
because he refrained from declar
ing an official end to the war prior
to the first of the year, their parity
prices are guaranteed by the gov
ernment until the end of 1948 . . .
three years from now.
Price Support to Stay
And now, unless congress goes
back on its word, all farm prices
under the Steagall bill must be sup
ported at 90 per cent of parity for
1946, 1947 and 1948, for the law fixed
these prices in force “until two years
after January 1 following the date”
of such a declaration by the Presi
dent or by congress. So such com
modities as hogs, eggs, chickens,
milk, butterfat, dry peas and beans,
soybeans, etc., will get the benefit.
Regarding these prices, the Pres- I
tdent in his message said: “The first
cbligation of the government to ag
riculture for the reconversion peri
od is to make good on its price-sup
port commitments. This we intend
to do, with realistic consideration for
the sound patterns of production
that will contribute most to the long
time welfare of agriculture and the
whole nation.”
So it appears that OPA’s Mr.
Bowles stands to win out in the bout
with Anderson over subsidies, if
congress supports the President.
Bowles’ contention was that subsidy
removal will increase food prices,
and that’s what happened. Butter
is an example. Anderson felt nat
ural laws of supply and demand
should gradually govern prices. So
far congress has evaded taking a
stand on any controversial question
affecting reconversion, but it ap
pears the solons on the Hill will be
forced to vote one way or another
on this question before June 30, when
the price control act is scheduled to
pass out of existence.
The belief here generally is that it
will be extended for at least six
months. The President asks a year.
Mr. Anderson says that repeal of
subsidies on commodities which al
ready have been announced will
stand, however. As an example sub
sidies on some types of cheese were
lifted on February 1. With market
prices well above the subsidy levels,
there is obviously no need of bolster
ing prices of dairy products. It is ex
pected that prices on butter, cheese,
etc., will remain high for a long
time, considering the present nation
al income level.
the statement that “the South
makes the previsions per capita
for the improvement of white
people that are made for Negroes
Then he asked the Senate and the
world why change this, in appar
ent earnestness”? The Senator is
an intelligent, experienced man,
and must have known that his
statement was erroneous and mis"
leading. But millions of American
people read, and believed that
what this southern statesman
said was true. No other Senator
in the august body refute^ what
he said. We have seen in no Ame
rican newspaper, other than in
Negro newspapers, any refutation
of what he said. But i tis in the
record for all Americans and for
all the world to see and believe
that in the South there is no dis
crimination against Negroes in
matters of education, health, em
ployment, housing and other
fundamental necessities of life.
The fact is that in the Senator’s
own state the per capita expen
diture for the education of chil
(Continued on page 5)
I-WEEKLY NEWS ANALYSIS_
State Department Blueprints
International Atom Control;
House Probes Spy Intrigue
---Released by Western Newspaper Union_
(EDITOR’S NOTE: When opinions are expressed in these eolnmns. they are those of
Western Newspaper Union's news analysis and not necessarily of this newspaper.)
Pictured (from bot
tom to top) during tense
UNO talk on Iran are
Andrei Gromyko, repre
senting the soviet; Sir
Alexander Cadogan of
Britain, and Edward
Stettinius and James
Byrnes of the U. S,
WORLD RELATIONS:
Atom—Russ
Even as the United Nations Or
ganization’s security council strove
to compose differences with Russia
over the Iranian question, the U. S.
state department issued a special
report calling for the creation of an
international agency to control all
phases of atomic energy and avert
atomic rivalry among the major
powers. .
Written by a distinguished board
of scientists and technicians the re
port recommended the establish
ment of an atomic development au
thority that would own and lease
property and conduct mining, manu
facturing, research, licensing, in
spection or other operations. While
the authority would possess absolute
control over the production of atom
ic weapons, it would permit utiliza
tion of atomic energy in such civilian
fields as medicine, biology, chemis
try and physics.
The U. S.’s secret processes in
development of atomic energy
would be gradually unfolded to the
United Nations authority as plans
progressed for its development. Re
lease of preliminary information
necessary to discussion of setting up
the agency would be followed by
revelation of industrial know-how in
manufacture and finally the method
of constructing the A-bomb.
In releasing the report, Secretary
of State Byrnes pointed out that the
recommendations did not consti
tute official U. S. policy but could
be considered as a basis for jiis
cussion of the creation of an inter
national atomic authority.
Meanwhile, the security council
worked on means to adjust the dif
ficult situation posed by Russia’s
walkout in protest pver UNO’s con
sideration of Iran’s complaint
against the Soviets for failure to
withdraw Red troops from the
country. While Russia’s withdraw
al from the deliberations jolted
UNO, the Soviets were quick to
explain that their action did not
mean they were withdrawing from
the United Nations, but rather ob
jecting to security council proced
ure.
SPY INTRIGUE:
House Acts
Hard upon the arrest of a 29-jrear
old Russian naval officer for espi
onage by the FBI in Portland, Ore.,
the house committee on un-Amer
ican activities, headed by Repre
sentative Wood (Dem., Ga.), voted
to send investigators up to Can
ada to probe possible connections
between the Soviet spy ring uncov
ered in the dominion and agents in
this country.
Revealing that the committee had
been aware of the FBI’s investiga
tion of the Soviet naval officer, Lt.
Nicolai Redin, the committee coun
sel said that the group soon would
hold hearings on subversive activi
ties and c^ll on a number of wit
nesses, including atomic scientists
and government employees.
Meanwhile, Redin, nabbed for ob
taining information about the de
stroyer tender USS Yellowstone,
charged “the whole thing is a build
up for political purposes.” A mem
ber of the Soviet lend-lease pur
chasing** staff in the U. S., Redin
enjoys no diplomatic immunity and
was held on $25,000 bond.
SCIENCE:
Use Germans
Some 160 German scientists are
now in the United States working
on military projects involving cap
tured German equipment Including
rockets, buzz bombs, jet-propelled
planes and aerodynamic research
instruments, Secretary of War Pat
terson announced.
The original plan called for large
scale utilization of German experts
but was cut back radically follow
ing the Japanese surrender.
LABOR FRONT:
Farm Machinery Tie-Up
Government seizure of strike
bound farm machinery plants ap
peared as the remaining alternative
as negotiations between companies
and union bogged down and equip
ment was badly needed for the
maintenance of high crop produc
tion to meet domestic 'and foreign
demands.
As the government pondered tak
ing over the plants, the Internation
al Harvester company continued to
resist the CIO-Farm Equipment
Workers’ demands for union secur
ity, maintenance of membership,
dues checkoff, arbitration and meth
ods for settling grievances. Both
company and union agreed to a gov
ernment fact-finding recommenda
tion for an 18-cent an hour wage
increase.
In addition to 30,000 workers in 11
International Harvester plants, 12,
500 employees in six plants of Allis
Chalmers and J. I. Case remained
out over contract differences.
While the government kept one
eye on the farm machinery situa
tion, it trained another on the coal
industry, where parleys between
John L. Lewis’ United Mine Work
ers and the operators sagged over
the UMW chieftain’s demands for
the creation of a health and wel
fare fund.
Dropped last year during the bar
gaining over a new contract, the
health and welfare fund issue was
raised again this year by Lewis,
who gave it No. 1 position on the
negotiating agenda. Asserting that
it would cost them $50,000,000 an
nually, the operators proposed the
creation of a joint committee to
study an accident compensation
plan as an alternative.
As a walkout in the industry
loomed, the government prepared
to control the shipment of an esti
mated 29,000,000 tons of bituminous
coal above ground. Steel spokes
men said a miners’ walkout might
result in the restriction of produc
tion within two weeks.
New CAW Chief
A concerted drive to organize the
white collar workers in the automo
bile industry loomed with the elec
tion of fiery, red-haired Walter Reu
ther as the new CIO-United Auto
mobile Workers president. Avowed
foe of the communist faction within
the UAW, Reuther thwarted the
re-election hopes of R. J. Thomas,
head of the union since 1938, who
enjoyed leftist support.
In winning the presidency of the
biggest union in the world, Reuther
announced the organization of the
white collar workers in the indus
try as one of his No. 1 goals. He
also said an educational program
would be undertaken to interest the
membership in union activity and
the UAW would strive for industry
wide instead of company-wide bar
gaining to correct wage and work
ing inequalities between plants.
The stormy petrel of the UAW,
and head of the union’s General Mo
tors division, Reuther is 39 and des
tined for major leadership in the
American labor movement. Fired
from the tool department of the
Ford Motor company for union ac
tivity in 1933, he organized an AFL
local in the plant in 1935 and then
led his men into the CIO in 1938.
Children Handicapped
The American Society for the
Hard of Hearing estimates that
one million children, not includ
ing the totally deaf, are suffer
ing from some form of auditory
impairment
Since a person may suffer al
most a 40 per cent hearing loss
before it is observable, a child
may be seriously maladjusted
before anything is done to help
him, the authorities add.
GERMAN ASSETS:
Uncovered in Spain
Enjoying the co-operatinn of the
Franco government, the U. S. and
Britain, acting for the Allied con
trol council, have uncovered more
than ICO million dollars in German
assets in Spain and taken possession
as the ruling force of the van
quished reich.
Included in the assets are con
trolling shares in extensive holding
companies; 30 ships and other facil
ities of three shipping companies;
100 buildings; gold worth $1,125,000;
German paintings used for propa
ganda purposes, and a huge stock
of champagne which was to be sold
to obtain foreign exchange.
Discovery of stock of the Socie
dad Financiero Industria in a vault
under the German embassy in Ma
drid gave U. S. and British officials
control over -a far-flung holding
company comprising 17 corpora
tions. Organized at the beginning
of the Spanish civil war to supply
goods and munitions to Franco, the
holding company was supported by
the Nazis.
Among the German businesses
taken over were makers of tires
and rubber, medical and electrical
equipment, electrical appliances,
radio sets and telephones, and light
bulbs. Krupp’s extensive licensing
of patents and processes at a 3 per
cent royalty also were subject to
Allied administration.
FARM EXPERIMENT:
Dropped by Ford
In line with its announced policy
of abandoning activities not directly
connected with the manufacture of
automobiles, the Ford Motor com
pany will dispose of 10,000 acres of
farmland in Michigan originally ac
quired for experimenting in the
adaptation of agricultural products
to industrial use.
The company also decided to give
up the model school project organ
ized for the communities surround
ing the huge land holdings. One
room schools were remodeled, kin
dergartens opened for three- and
four-year-olds, and studies shaped
to permit practical application of
textbook teachings.
Under the new policy pushed by
Henry Ford n, the company will not
resume manufacture of some of its
own tires and a tugboat used for
Ford piers on the Detroit river has
been sold. Operated by a founda
tion separate from the company, the
Ford museum and Greenfield vil
lage will not be affected.
Found: An Honest Man!
Honesty still is the best policy
to Frank Barone, 71, who has
worked hard operating a shoe
repair shop in Chicago, 111., for
40 years and knows the value of
money. While reheeling some
footwear for an unknown cus
tomer, the cobbler discovered
$1,100 in ten and twenty dollar
bills stuffed deep inside the
shoes. When the customer re
turned, Barone handed over
$1,090, insisting on withholding
$10 as a reward.
PEARL HARBOR:
Reopen Hearings
Pondering lengthy testimony on
the Pearl Harbor disaster of De
cember 7, 1941, the congressional
committee named to investigate
the catastrophe decided to reopen
public hearings to obtain more de
tailed information from top military
and naval officers as to their where
abouts on the evening preceding the
attack.
Decision to call General Marshall,
Admiral Stark and Rear Admiral
Beardall back for questioning fol
lowed late testimony of Comdr. L.
R. Schulz that President Roosevelt
had sought to contact Stark on the
night of December 6 after receipt
of the first 13 parts of the Japanese
message indicating a rupture in dip
lomatic relations.
While Marshall and Stark had told
the committee they could not recall
their whereabouts on the night
of December 6, Schulz said that Mr.
Roosevelt was informed that Stark
was attending a theater. Beardall
was said to have been dining with
the late Admiral Wilkinson, chief of
naval intelligence. Schulz’s testi
mony may serve to refresh their
memories. Committee Chairman
Barkley said.
OUTDOOR SPORTS:
Licenses Up
America’s hunters and anglers
spent more than 26 million dollars
for licenses during the fiscal year
ending June 30, 1945. Although 8,
190,901 hunting licenses and 8,28o[
232 fishing licenses were purchased
this does not mean that 16,471,133
different sportsmen bought licenses
to hunt or fish, for many bought both.
There may have been even mors
since land-owners do not have to
buy a license in some states.