The Omaha guide. (Omaha, Neb.) 1927-19??, August 04, 1945, Page 7, Image 7
EDITORIAL - COMMENT THE MUSIC OF DEMOCRACY By Ruth Taylor One thing that is stressed in tales told by those who have watched our armies at thier far flung battle stations the world over is the desire of our boys for music. Every entertainer has come back with the feeling that the greatest audience in the world is our GI’s. Lily Pons in her first concert in Germany—where she sang the songs that Germany had barred be cause their writers were non-Aryan—said: “No concert or opera audience has ever been more ap preciative. « But is that surprising? Our boys are used to music—of some sort or other. It has been part of their daily lives. It speaks of the homes from which they came, of the homes to which they hope to re turn. i 1$$ America since its inception has sung. But Am erica itself has been an orchestra. What is democ racy but the blending of many instruments'? Some times one instrument plays a solo role for a few minutes, sometimes another, but all are parts of the whole symphony. The orchestration has a place for each. If you listen closely you can distinguish the various instruments, each according to the score supplementing and complementing each other Into this nation have come people of different races, of different faiths, of different classes. Blend ed together, like the instruments in the orchestra, they have become an entity. They have made what Walt Whitman called “the music of democracy”. We are proud of our heterogeneous population, proud of its homogeneity. We are proud of the tra ritions of the past, prouder of the present ability to work and fight and live together unhampered by the prejudices, "hatreds and petty biases of more narrowly circumscribed nations overseas. But we are proudest of all of the hope—no, the determin ation to shape a future where the brotherhood of man fill be recognized all over the world and the , nations will live together in harmony as their sons and daughters live in good will in our own country. A far off ambition in these warring days? Yes— but as man has progressed so will man progress till further. As the great democracy, a nation with a polyglot population, we have the task of playing so beautifully our unfinished symphony, that the rest of the world will join in to make it a perfect whole. Then will the music ofdemocracy fill the earth with celestial liarmonv. _:_ i VETERANS WILL GET JOBS Men and women who left insurance jobs to serve with the nation’s armed forces, will find that the busi ness has a twofold educational program waiting for them upon their return to civilian life. Immediately available will be printed summaries of all important changes that have taken place in property, casualty j and inland marine insurance. Selected centers will provide refresher courses. Also available will be ad vanced and special adult educational courses designed to fit them for better jobs. Plans are being developed for providing adequate educational facilities for those returning veterans without previous insurance experience, who desire to enter the business either as agents or company em ployes. There will be jobs for many new' employes. ' The extensive progress in broadening fire and property insurance coverages, in providing new" types of protection and “all-risk” policies to fit the policy- ■, holders’ changing needs, makes it desirable for vet erans who plan to re-enter the field of general insur ance to use this educational short-cut to get up to I date as quickly as possible. Postwar educational planning is being coordi nated by the National Association of Insurance Agents and its affiliated state associations. Experts from fire and casualty insurance companies are giv ing time to help mke the postwrar plan efficient and comprehensive. It is anticipated that short-course schools will be set up on a state-wide basis at some central univer sity or college. Other courses w'ill be given by local boards of insurance agents and in the home offices of many companies. HOW DO THEY REASON There is no way to express adequate contempt for well-paid w'orkmen and labor leaders w'ho strike and advocate strikes in war production plants today. Such men deserve special punishment in the hereafter —possibly the torment of their own souls for shirking in their solemn duty while their brothers and sons die on the battlefields, will be some retribution. Radar Magical Beam That Bounces Back on Contact Lightning Calculator Estimates Distances Upon Deflection of Electrons; Study Of Apparatus Still in Infancy. By BAUKHAGE News Analyst and Commentator. *» *> U service, Union Trust Building, Washington. D. C. (In a previous article Mr. Baukhagi told. some of the little known facts in the history and development of radai and recorded many of its possible peace time uses. In this article he explains what makes radar tick and how it per formed some of its marvelous feats in this war.) “Impact,” a publication of the of fice of the assistant chief of air staff, intelligence branch, for the first time lifting the veil which has cov ered descriptions of radar, says suc cinctly: "A radar set is nothing more than a machine for sending electrons out into space in a steady stream in a desired direction. These electrons travel with the speed of light in a straight line until their energy is dissipated, or unless they bump into something.” That bump is important. If a stream of electrons is shot into the air like a searchlight and a plane flies across the stream, the elec trons which hit the plane bounce back. They bounce right back to a screen in the radar scope and are revealed in the form of a “blip” of light, just as an echo bounding back on your eardrum is reflected in the form of a sound. The principle of the real echo is used in “sonic” location of obsta cles—ships use it to locate shoals, for instance. And, recently, it has been demonstrated that bats use the same principle in avoiding ob stacles (which they can’t see since they are blind) by uttering a tiny “beep,” the pitch of which is prob ably too high for the human ear to catch. Their beep bounces back in time to warn them to duck. But radar’s electronic “blip’’ is better than a sonic “beep.” One reason is that an electron moves with the speed of light which is fast er than sound. hcho Caught On Radar Receiver Perhaps at this point we ought to recall to your minds what an electron is. A short definition of an electron is “the most elementary charge of negative electricity.” Electrons plus protons (the positive charge) are w'hat atoms are made of and atoms are what molecules are made of and you and I and the universe and all it contains are, as we learned in high school, nothing but various groups of molecules. Ordinarily' electrons pursue the even, if rapid, tenor of their ways well within the bounds of their own atoms. But radar has changed all that. It has made it possible to project those electrons out into space and then, if they hit some thing and bounce back, to catch the “echo” on the “scope” of the radar set in the form of a “blip” or blob of light. We can’t go into detail as to how this operation takes place, but we can tell you in a general way. The scope of the radar set is round. It is like a map. North at the top, south at the bottom; east to the right and west to the left. So that you will know where you are a little light appears on the screen just where your set is located on the “map” you are looking at. By mov ing the instrument, you can keep yourself in the middle. If you see another spot of light on the screen up where 12 o’clock would be on your watch dial, you know there is a plane (or other object) north of you. If it should be a plane and it were coming toward you (which the instrument would reveal) and it finally appeared right on top of the light that showed your location, you’d know that there was going to be a collision. Radar can “see” a ship 30 miles away—and see it in the dark, through a wall of cloud or mist, which no human sight could pene tate. Different substances give stronger or weaker “echoes” on your screen, water little or none. Land more, built-up areas more than fields. Rocks more than softer surfaces. In addition to locating an object in relation to the observer (the loca tion of the radar set), the distance from the object can be calculated by the length of time it takes for the electrons to reach the object and bounce back. The elevation (angle of height from observer) and the deflection (how far to the right or left) are calculated just as a sur I-— veyor makes these calculations by observation from two known points. And you don’t have to be an en gineer to do it either—it is done automatically by a lightning calcu lator. I have stood in awe before these calculating machines, which can “think” more accurately and a thousand times faster than I could figure, and watched how they direct the aim of the turret, waist and tail guns on a B-29. As I said in last week’s article, the enemy has radar, too. The Ger mans were working on it with.in vestigation and experiment which paralleled ours and those of the Brit ish. In the early days of the war the Germans had receiving sets on high hills along the coast of France. The electron beam, like that of tele vision, moves in a straight line and since the surface of the earth is curved, this curve gets in the way if the image and receiving set are too far apart. Therefore, land sets are placed as high in the air as possible. We knew that the Germans had some kind of an electronic device and they knew we had one. One of the early commando raids, which the papers said was successful in destroying a German “radio sta tion,” really destroyed the radar in stallation. Poke Out Japs’ * Eyes’ One of the reasons why Iwo Jima and Okinawa were so important, be sides the fact that they make ex cellent naval and air bases, is be cause the Japs had their radar de tection stations on these islands and were able to detect the presence of our bombers and intercept their flight. You will also recall that a number of little adjacent islands that hardly seemed of any impor tance were seized by our troops. In all probability it was because i they had radar installations which could detect and give warning of planes leaving the larger island for Japan. As we put out her “eyes” one after another, Japan becomes more impotent. There have been many cases, you may have noticed, where the Japs, on land or on small ships, have been taken by Surprise. ! I have no information on this sub- 1 ject, but in some cases it may have \ been due to the fact that they j lacked radar equipment. It is be- 1 lieved that what radar knowledge Japan has came from the Germans. Of course, there is one phase of ' radar detection which in the past ! has sometimes prevented use of data concerning the detection of a plane or ship. That is the fact that until the object is very close it can not be identified. It is merely a “blip” of light. Therefore, it is im possible to tell friend and enemy apart. Some sort of identification j has been developed, details of which i are still, I believe, “top secret.” An example of how this worked to j the disadvantage of the British was in the engagement in which HMS \ Hood was lost. On May 21, 1941, : the Hood was lying in the strait be- J tween Iceland and Greenland when . suddenly out of nowhere she was ! hit by a salvo from the 15-inch guns of the powerful Bismarck. The Bismarck had accurately located the Hood with radar equipment; the first reported successful use of redar in such a naval operation in the war. It is said that the Hood had likewise detected the presence of a ship at the spot where the Bis marck was, but knowing that a number of friendly warships were in the vicinity, did not dare to take the chance of attacking first. Many improvements have been made in radar which are not as yet ready for the public eye and all say the study is only in its infancy. Scientific achievement seems limit less and the one virtue of war is that it spurs inventive genius to \ great strides of progress. When peace comes radar will likewise open new vistas of which the layman hardly dreams. • * • Harry Truman didn't want to be vice president. James Byrnes didn't ask to be made secretary of state. Neither wanted to mix into inter national affairs—but they found themselves on the same boat en route to Germany. BRIEFS... by Baukhage -—---—_ i Japs are making kitchen knives from American incendiary bomb cases. They ought to be ready to set up housekeeping soon since we have begun throwing everything at them but the kitchen stove. • • * One of Hitler’s favorite tunes was “Who’s Afraid of the Big Bad Wolf.” That was before he got a bear by the tail. Life Insurance Payments Show Increase for 1944 Seven persons in the United States who died last year left over $1,000, 000 life insurance, according to a special survey of the National Under writer, Insurance newspaper. The largest claim paid by life insurance companies in 1944 was just under $3,000,000. There were 2 claims paid between $900,000 and $1,000,000 ; 21 between $500,000 and $900,000 ; 98 be tween $200,000 and $500,000 ; 276 between $100,000 and $200,000 and 1,751 between $30,000 and $100,000. An American flier back from a Jap prison camp says the Japs, real izing they are beaten, are treating our prisoners better. Nothing like a good licking to bring out one's ' virtues. * • * i The new DDT insecticide perfect ed by the army kills everything but human beings. Another secret weapon against Japan. Life insurance p-ym^its in 4944, by companies in the United States and Canada, amounted to $2,916, 720,689, an increase of $132,244,048 over 1943. Death claims continued to rise during the year and totaled $1 360,972,674, the largest amount ever paid in one year; accidental death benefit payments, however de clined $829,223 to $20,356,949, the low est since 1929; the death benefits sum ming to 47.35 per cent of total payments, the highest percentage paid to beneficiaries in 26 years. Matured endowments increased 550,143 to -» high of $447,828,401, <1Uectt&me Hepxviiesi (in WASHINGTON by Walter Shead If WNU Correspondent 4 _ What About ‘Americanism’? WNU Washington Bureau 621 Union Trust Building. oow wide and how deep is your A * Americanism? Will it embrace our new concept of national life, in cluding the good neighbor policy and tolerance here at home, as fixed by our foreign policy? Does your Americanism contem plate protection of your religious be liefs by recognizing the right of oth ers to their religious beliefs? Does it tolerate and respect the rights and opinions of others? Does it follow the basic chart we have set down for world peace and international life . . . that world peace and the good neighbor policy cannot succeed unless the peoples of the world WILL that we have peace and live together as good neighbors? These questions have been raised by the senate hearings and debate on the ratification of the charter of the United Nations. They were raised also on the first pronounce ment of James F. Byrnes, new sec retary of state, after he took his oath of office. He said: “The making of an enduring peace will depend on something more than skilled diplomacy, something more than paper treaties, something more even than the best charter the wisest statesmen can draft. Important as is diplomacy, important as are the peace settlements and the basic charter of world peace, these cannot succeed unless backed by the will of the peoples of different lands, not only to have peace, but to live together as good neighbors.” And that means that we must start here at home at being good neigh bors, one to another. We were an intolerant, bigoted nation 26 years ago. We kicked the Versailles treaty and the Covenant of the League of Nations overboard. Our Americanism then was in the narrow sense . . . we thought we could live within ourselves, self-suf ficient . . . apart from the rest of the world. As a result of this atti tude of intolerance, all sorts of “isms” and movements grew up in our national life . . . neighbor was arrayed against neighbor . . . social distrust and unrest festered. “Today,” concluded the new sec retary of state, “there can be no doubt that the peoples of this war ravaged earth want to live in a free and peaceful world. But the supreme task of statesmanship the world over is to help them to under stand that they can have peace and freedom only if they tolerate and respect the rights of others^ to opin ions, feelings and ways of life which they do not and cannot share.” Postwar Changes These postwar years will see many changes in the national life of our nation. Returning veterans, seared by war and broadened in their contact with other peoples, will have a strong influence on the af fairs of the country . . . decentraliza tion of population . . . and the mass movement of population as a result of war dislocations are already felt . . . the political pattern of the nation in changing . . . old political lines, such as once divided the North and the South, are being wiped out and recent events point to a new lineup which will see the great cen ters of population and the small towns and rural areas divided by widely divergent viewpoints. A generation ago the most out spoken voices of liberalism came from the rural sections of the West and Midwest . . . Beveridge, Norris. LaFollette Sr., Bryan, Walsh of j Montana, Kenyon of Iowa, Olson of Minnesota and others . . . while lie reactionaries and so-called con servatives represented the East and the populous centers of the North, roday the pendulum swings the oth :r way with representatives, gen irally, from the West and Midwest he pillars of conservative thought, while such men as Aiken of Ver mont, White and Brewster of Maine, saltonstall of Massachusetts, To iey of New Hampshire, and others irom the larger cities become the ' supporters of liberal thought. In the cities, the influence of labor inions, no doubt, has caused a swing from conservative to liberal md given impetus for reform from he industrial East and North. And so the picture presented indicates he future will see the mass thinking if the large areas of population pit ed against the individual thought if the small towns and the rural ireas. ifte purest form of Americanism ■oday is found in the rural sections | >f the nation, and if the present ten iency toward decentralization of lopulation and industry is carried hrough, as it will be, the influence of he small town and rural comma lity will be felt more and more on he national life of the nation. The experiences following the last war ihould be a warning that there is 10 place today in this pure Amer canism for the forms of intolerance ind bigotry which polluted the body >f our social and political life during hat period. it double the amount six years ago; annuity payments also reached a new high of $198,308,377, increas ing $7,436,535 over 1943; disability payments continued to decline, were $107,545,480, a drop of $23,973,553 from the peak figure in 1940 and $3, 415,373 lower than 1943; surrender payments declined for the sixth con secutive year to $287,240,014 or $64, 455,160 less than the year before. Dividends to policyholders were $434,468,784, showing an increase of S35.965.030. These payments to poli cyholders amount to 52.65 per cent of ail payments. S The Omaha Guide i + A WEEKLY NEWSPAPER JL || I Published Every Saturday at 2)20 Grant Street OMAHA, NEBRASKA—PHONE HA- 0800 Entered as Second Class Matter March 15. 1927 at the Post Office at Omaha, Nebraska, under Act of Congress of Marsh 3, 1879. C* C- Galloway,. Publisher and Acting Editor All News Copy of Churches and all organiz ations must be in our office not later than l :00 P- m. Monday for current issue. All Advertising Copy on Paid Articles, not later than Wednesday noon, preceeding date of issue, to insure public ation. SUBSCRIPTION RATE IN OMAHA M ONE YEAR .$.1.00 B SIX MONTHS . $1.75 H THREE MONTHS .$1.25 B SUBSCRIPTION RATE 0U7 01’ TOWN O ONE YEAR . $:i.50 M SIX MONTHS . $2 00 i| National Advertising Representatives— jKk INI'ERSTATE UNITED NEWSPAPERS, IncWk 545 Fifth Avenue, New York City, RhoneB MUrray Hill 2-5452, Ray Peck, Manager I >: BECAUSE OF INCORRECT ADDRESSING. FIFTEEN* PER CENT OF ALL OVERSEAS MAIL NEVER REACHES SERVICE MEN" r^f /? >'ADDRESS THEM COPPECTL Yf* PUERTO RICO FACES REVOLUTION By Harold Preece This week, we Americans celebrate Independence Day. It’s a time for flag-waving, and for congratulating ourselves on helping to build the world security organization of the United Nations which -met at San Francisco. But after you’ve listened to the ra dio speeches on the glorious Fourth and what was done at San Francisco, think of what July 4 and the United Nations charter would mean to you if you lived in the captive colored nation of Puerto Rico. If you lived in Puerto Rico, you might think that the American flag was pretty and that George Wash ington, the white Virginian whom you had learned about in the American controlled schools, was a great man. But, maybe, you might be wondering when your country’s flag—the cap tive flag of a captive people—would take its place among the banners of the world’s free nations. Black Washington Maybe, too, you might be thinking of Puerto Rico’s Washington who was a black man—the great-souled Emilio Betances, father of the short lived Puerto Rican republic, cm sited by the Wall Street sugar tmst when the Americans replaced the Span iards in 1898. And you might have less than cheers for the San Francisco charter, remembering that Aryan Argentina is inside the United Nations but that colored Puerto Rico is out. You might feel bitter in your stomach be cause Argentina, which helped Hitler, bad her delegates seated with honor it San Francisco. But Puerto Rico, which fought Hitler, had her dele gates, elected by your country’s Na tionalist Party, shunned and denied a bearing before the fomm of nations. And maybe, you might feel that there was something hypocritical ibout a big natio nwhich celebrated its own independence, while denying independence to a smaller nation. I don’t want to be an alarmist, but 1 do want to sound a warning given me b yresponsible Pnuerto Ricans who want to strengthen the weaken ing ties between our country which is the owner and their country which is the owned. If independence is not granted to Puerto Rico, the time may come very soon when Negro boys from Harlem and Arkansas may be conscripted to shoot down Negro boys in Ponce and San Juan. VERGE OF REVOLUTION’ Puerto Rico is on the verge of revolution against American imper ialism, so my friends in that country tell me. Congress should long since have passed Congressman Vito Marcanton io’s bill freezing the Puerto Rican nation, but the bill still gathers dust in the pigeonhole of a House Com mittee. Moreover. Puerto Ricans know that the Sugar Trust which owns the island, as the Cotton Trust owns Mis sissippi, will never consent to the United States placing their country in the faulty international trusteeship system worked out at San Francisco. Today, once-liberal American Gov emor Rexford D. Tugwell has started to act like the royal British govern ors who oppressed the people of the 13 colonies. Imperialism had to make vague promises and a few liberal con cessions to win tiie support of the col ored peoples for Worid War II. But now imperialism, represented in Puerto Rico by Governor Tugwell, sheds its new silk gloves and takes up the old, familiar whip as the col ored peoples demand that promises be kept and concessions be broad ened. Just a few weeksago, Governor Tugwell vetoed a bill establishing the j eight hour day—one of the main de mands of Puerto Rico’s Negro sugar workers during a recent five-week strike supported by four million or ganized Negro-Indian workers of Latin American. At the same time he farmed the flames of revolution, by signing a smelly “labor relations act,” which according to the General Confedera tion of Workers (OGT), “is an in strument to serve the interests of the capitalists and a negation of all the rights and all the conquests achieved by the workers of Puerto Rico during the past 25 years.” This infamous law completely out- . laws the right of the island’s colored workers to strike against the Sugar Trust and the other powerful Ameri can monopolies which own Puerto Rico and its people. Maybe, it’s just a coincidence that Tugwell was a lawyer from the American Molasses Company, a branch of the Sugar Trust, before he was appointed Gov- I emor of Puerto Rico. ‘SUN-UP TILL SUNDOWN’ The eight-hour day bill, vetoed by Tugwell, also contained a provision for overtime pay. Lack of overtime pay has been one of the sore spots in | Puerto Rico where the sugar workers, I -- like the cotton workers of Mississippi, toil from sun-up till sundown for wages which, before the war, aver aged less than 50 cents a day. Two months ago, Tugwell vetoed a bill which- would have required the island s schools to be conducted in Spanish, the language of the people, rather than in English. But since im perialism always tries to destroy a nation s language as a preliminary to destroying its nride, Tugwell declared that the schools would have to be taught in English so long as Puerto Rico remained an American colony. “Evidently Tugwell’s policy of con cessions to Puerto Rico was only ap peasement for the dark days of war crisis,” writes the distinguished Puer to Rican patriot, Juan Antonio Cor retjer. “Now, he seems to be showing his true self. “U. S. Progressives and the labol movement must take notice of what is happening—and join us in a uni fied demand: Hands off Puerto Rico.” ASK FOR HIS SCORE You have probably run across him—the man who sorrowfully de clares that he hates the idea of an other war, but that his study of the world situation forces him to con clude that well have to fight Russia. If you run across him again, ask him for his score. What did his study of the world situation “force him to conclude” about Munich, lend-lease, the destroyers-for-bases deal, the in tentions of the Japanese selective service? If you find, as you probably will, that he batted around .00002 on these and others like them, you will be forced to conclude that as an appraiser at world eevnts he is not so hot—and if he is determined to fight Russia let him try it on his own. --LJ—'-"1 WHAT? YOU DON’T WANT IT? We Pay Cash For It! 1 i We pay cash for that old piece of furni ture and cooking utensils that you don’t want. We call for and deliver. We pay cash right on the spot. • The three J. & J. Bargain Stores. Num bers 1 and 2,1604-6 N. 24th St., Ja. 9452; Number 3, 2405 Cuming St., Ja. 9354. Mr. Andrew Johnson, Proprietor.