The Omaha guide. (Omaha, Neb.) 1927-19??, July 13, 1935, Page SEVEN, Image 7
VV.V.V.V.V.V.V.V.V.V.V.V.V.V.V.V.V.V.V.V.V.V.V.W.B.VMVAV^AV.V.V.V.V.V.W.V. . . . EDI! ORIALS . . . Wi’jVyVW/.V.V.V.V.V.VWW.VAWW.WAVAV.V.VAVAV.V.VAV/.V.'.W/AVW.W. The Omaha Guide Published every Saturday at 2418-20 Giant St., Omaha, Neb. Phone WEbsrer 1750 Entered as Second Class Matter March 15, 1927 at the Post Office at Omaha, Neb., under the Act of Congress of March 3, 1879. Terms of Subscription $2.00 per year. Race prejudice must go. The Fatherhood of God and the Brotherhood of Man must pre vail. These are the only principles which will stand the acid test of good citizenship in time of peace, war and death. Omaha, Nebraska, Saturday, JULY 13, 1935 Federalism VS. State's Rights. QUALIFICATION of the NRA by the Supreme court is generally regarded as a momentous decision ing controversial issue as to whether it is lawful tutional implications. The rank and file of our citizenry is gradually awakening to the fact that the nation is very apt to be stirred over the burn ing controversial issue as to whether it is lawful for the Federal Government to enforce in states code provisions establishing fair trade and practices forbidding throat-cut competition and determining higher wages and shorter working hours for labor. Not even the most ardent advocate of the New Deal wll contend that the NRA was without imper fections. Hastily put together as an emergency measure to bring about business recovery, it intro duced some objectionable features which were un avoidable under the circumstances. However, in es sence the aims and objects sought were admirable and commendable. Since the wings of the Blue Eagle have been closely clipped by the Supreme Court, the idea has been advanced that business voluntarily effect an agreement to observe the eodes without government al coercion. New Dealers assert 90 percent of the business men are willing to live up to such an ar rangement, but that 10 percent are chiselers whose disinclination to play the rules of the game fairly is provocative of double-dealing and chaos. It, therefore, is expecting to much to look forward with optimism to commercial practices to be honor ably observed by all. Charles L. Bernheimer, chairman of the commit tee of arbitration of the Chamber of Commerce of the State of New York, believes that in the event the administration offers no other solution, some of the most effective features of the NRA codes invali dated by the Supreme Court decision may be sal vaged by substituting an arbitration clause for the part of the decision which deals with court juris diction. He opines: “Now that the Supreme Court NRA decision has been rendered, and now that we are without something which was in its entirety not satisfactory to most of us it has become nevertheless evident, with a few dissenting voice being heard, that we must make a prompt effort to preserve the good part of the codes and make them fit for our Consti tutional structure.. The administration is groping lor a solution- It wants the NRA codes. The great bulk of our business people want them; the employ es want them, and the mass of our population, the consuming public, likewise. They have all in the main been well served by them. Business industry has taken hold. The Negro worker cannot enthuse over the NRA which often worked to his disadvantage, although it was not the intention of the New Deal that he be discriminated against. Scores of cases may be cited wherein a company was ordered to raise the wages of employes and Negro workers lost their jobs because of the employer’s contention that if he had to pay more money it would be to white help. The split between the Roosevelt administra tion with Governor Talmadge of Georgia, who re fused to pay Negroes NRA wages, is well known. In any national political controversy on the is sue of State’s rights versus Federalism, it is hardly possible that the Negro will take the side of State's rights, which has meant disfranchisement, “Jim Crowism and other forms of discrimination and persecution to him. Having secured his full citizen ship under Federalism and made his greatest prog ress under the protective wing, and even at this vein- moment is seeking to stamp out mob violence by Federal legislation, it is doubtful if the scant i benefits derived from the NRA will impel him to embrace the philosophy of State’s rights as a pana cea for political, economic and social betterment * ^ hj' Fire Loses Have Dropped By E. Hofer. I)1 KL\G the five-year period from 1930 to 1934. the stock fire insurance companies of the nation earned, on an average, a smaller underwriting profit than the five per cent which the National Con vention of Insurance Commissioners has fixed as reasonable and necessary for the continued finan cial strength and operating efficiencv of the indus try. During the last two years of that period, how 3* "°mpanies di<* earn a good operating P n made possible by a substantial reduction in the national fire loss. And this has resulted in a misinformed belief that fire insurance premium rates should immediately be reduced. The President of the National Board of Fire Underwriters recently commented on the factors that j caused the improved underwriting experience. It was partly due to the absence of major conflagra tions during the two years, and partly due to de cided diminution in the number of fires of suspic ous origin- But the main cause of the reduction lies in the fact that during periods of depression inven tories of insurable goods carried by commercial con cerns are much below normal. As a result, there is a heavy reduction in the amount the insurance com panies have at risk. In addition, the curtailed staffs of industrial plants during depressions are made up of the more efficient and carefeul employ es. Consequently, it is logical to assume that better times will again see increased stocks of goods on hand—and will again provide jobs for careless, run of-the-mill employes. And then the fire loss will probably soar once more. It takes more than two or three veal's to es tablish averages for future insurance underwriting. If fire loss is down permanently, insurance rates, will follow, as soon as time has justified reductions. Hastily forced reductions, based on insufficient data, I would simply force retrenchment of the insurance industry’s many essential activities, to the detri ment of every property owner and policyholder. NEW YORK WOMEN ON LYNCHING rJ7HE New York State Women’s Democratic News is a monthly published in Manhattan. Its president and editor is Mrs. Daniel ODav, whose highly esteemed friend, Mrs. Franklin D. Roosevelt, is a regular contributor. In its current issue the leading editoral is devoted to discussions of the Senate filibuster against the anti-lynching bill. Views on the subject are enunciated with such cour age, vigor and compelling candor that they are gladly republished herewith: We want to talk to you this month about the defeat of the anti-lynching bill. It had the ardent support of the Junior Senator of New York, Hon. Robert F- Wagner, and the Congresswoman-at-large, Mrs. O'Day. Many of us feel that, in this session it should have been possible to pass this bilL It would have accomplished very little in eliminating the evil but at least it would have been a step in the right direction and it cannot be that any of us really want lynching to go on.. Of course, in some southern States they are so actuated by the feeling of fear of the bad Negro that they seem to forget that there are hundreds of thousands of good ones whom it is nothing short of crime to treat as they are treated at present. To have this bill finally laid aside because cer tain southern Senators insisted on filibustering to prevent its coming to vote is one of those injustices which makes us feel that our particular form of government is not always representative of the true feelings of the people of the country as a whole, or even of the majority of the people, that some, of these representatives claim to represent. Lynching is a blot on our national honor and means that in the States where it occurs, people haven’t, yet learned to abide by the law and to in sist on justice to all men, no matter what color they may be or what creed they may profess.. Until we do this in every State in the Union we cannot feel really secure that we ourselves will receive justice. In our own State there is little chance that this law would matter to us any way or the other, but we are a part of the whole United States and therefore we feel that our people, men and women alike, should make it their business to try to influence their friends and relatives to think this whole situa tion out and begin to take such seps as are neces sary for the elimination of lynching as a form of justice. What a refreshing, heartening editorial ? No pussyfooting, straddling or qualifying. Not only do the sponsors of The New York State Women’s Democratic News make themselves perfectly clear in their unalterable stand against lynching, but they voice criticism of the short-sighted, unfair policy of condemnating an entire race for the questionable acts of a few. That paragraph making ironical ref erence to representative government should be read and re-read by every member of Congress. The white Americans who believe the Negro ! should enjoy the full protection of the law as pro vided by the Constitution are many. But very few are articulate when it comes to championing the races cause publicly. One political demagogue can attract more attention and more conspicuously get into the headlines by viciously attacking the Negro than 1<>0 sympathizers who are reluetant about get ting into a a free-for-all discussion on the race ques tion. It. therefore, is a unique and gratifying experi ence to read in print what the Democratic women of New York think about lynching, filibustering and representative government. They do not care what others of divergent views may think of what they think. Now every field and tree is in bl-om. the woods are in full leaf, and the year is in its highest beautv —\ irgil. * * A ECONOMIC HIGHLIGHTS Happenings That Affect the Din ner Pails, Dividend Checks and Tax Bills of Every Individual. National, and.. International Problems Inseparable from Lo cal Welfare. In the eyes of industry, the fed eral deficit looms large. Busi ness men, in company with invest ors, property owners and other taxpayers, have watched the gov ernment charge present activities against future income and are wondering how long it will be before the paying off process is reflected in exorbitant, perhaps confiscatory taxes. In the eves of the politicians, the deficit also occupies a large ; part of the landscape. During the political war that will be fought next year, the deficit will be an out standing issue. Repub licans will claim that the Roose velt Administration is imperiling the country's credit, is running us into bankruptcy at express 1 train speed. Administration spokesmen will poo-pooli that, and answer that vast expenditur | es were essential to fighting de pression, and that the country’s credit is easily able to stand the j bill. Irrespective of which is right, federal finance presents a depres i sing picture, and has done so | ever since 1930, when the last sur plus was recorded on the Treas ury’s ledgers. That year’s sur i plus amounted to $738,000,000 S and in the ten preceding years | the government’s receipts had ex ceeded expenses iby the hand some sum of 10 million dollars. In 1931, the red ink period be j gan, when the federal government | I spent 463 million dollars more I than it received. Then, in 1932, the era of really large deficits set in, with a total of 2 billion 741 i million dollars. For the next two ■years the deficits were 2 billion 607 million dollars and 3 billion 606 million dollars respectively, j And for the fiscal year which en ded on June 30, 1935, it is estimat ed that the deficit came to 3 bil lion and 65 million dollars It is a notable fact, according to the United States New^s, that j the 1931 and 1932 deficits were' not due to greatly enlarged spend ing, but to a falling off in reve nue. Since then, taxes have been raised and revenues increased, but spending has gained at a much faster rate. For example, direct and indirect doles for un employed accounted for the spend ing of 3 thousand million dollars in the 1935 fsical period alone. At the start of 1934, the Presi dent said he expected that federal outgo would balance income be ginning with July 1, 1935. Now, in the President’s latest message,' he forecast that the 1936 deficit would be 3 billion 829 million dol lars: the argest in our history. Reason for that about-face, says Mr. Roosevelt, is the unlooked-for persistence of depression, coupled with the fact that only the Fed eral government seems capable of providing relief for the needy, some business men answer that by saying that one major cause of this persistence has been the vast increase in governmental ex penditures and legislative inter ference with business; that we are pursuing a vicious circle which can end only in national insolvency- This view is of course, held to be false by Administration ' economists. At any rate, more money is be ing collected. It is forecast that next year the American people will be deluged with more and. bigger figures than they ever heard before during the conduct of the national election. The people will be confused by so-cal led experts contra dieting each other. The solution to the deficit problem will not be solved by po litical speeches from either side. But until it is solved. American business will remain unconvinced that natural, sound recovery ean be achieved. _nOn_ Business is holding steadily to a level that is somewhat below that of a year ago. Fall buying is down, due principally to the hope i, of large purchasers that prices are about to break now that the , codes are out. July may witness1: a rise in the general business in dex that will bring it up with j last year,, accordng to some ex- , perts. • i = Power producton has not gone into its usua seasonal decline. ' This unlooked for strength has | reulted not from inereaed domest-j ic usage, but from large coinmer- \ c-ial users. Commercial privtae construe- j tion is also at a relatively high , level, and is far ahead of last i year. During May, Business Week ( says, machine-tool business hit a j five year high. The motor in dutrv is said to be looking for ward with confidence to a heavy i demand netx year. Steel demand < is fair, and prices are reasonably firm. Export business is well above last year, which, in turn, register ed a large advance over 153, when foreign trade was almost at a standstill The farm outlook is changing, and surpluses are taking the place of shortages. The Depart ment of Agriculture forecasts a 670 million bushel wheat crop; 70 million more bushels than is Fruit and vegetables are unusual needed for domestic consumption, ly abundant, with lower prices resulting. Only important agri cultural shortage will be meat, which will be comparatively scarce, and so will continue to de mand high prices. The cotton situation seems to get progressively worse. Only way out, says Henry Wallace, lies in increasing cotton saQes abroad; which can be done only if foreign countries can sell more goods in this country. Mothers—Let your boys be Guide newsboys. Send them to the Omaha Guide Office, 2418-20 Grant Street. No Segregation in California Camps Los Angeles, Calif., July 3, (ANP— Definite contradiction of published reports that the L. A. County Relief Administration contemplates segre gation of Negroes now members of Civilian Conservation Corps camps was made last week by Harold E. Pomeroy, assistant director, LACRA His statement follows: “tin reply to a query as to the segregation of Negroes in CCC camps in Ventura, Santa Barbara and Los Angeles counties: “There never has been a statement made by any authorizd official of the L. A. County Relief Administration that there is contemplated a plan to segregate by races men in CCC camps. “Not even the SERA Administrator for California could make such a rul ing. The reason for this is that the United States Army has complete re sponsibility for the operation of these camps. “The LACRE acts merely as a re cruiting agency.” Southern Whites Object to CCC Camps For Negroes Washington. July 3—(By Staff Cor respondent, ANP)—Southern whites rather enjoy seeing Negroes work on the roads and live in convict road camps even if said camps are located near them or their resorts, as long as those performing such services are classified as convicts and under the surveilance of armed guards. When, however, the ball and chains, shackles and the armed watcher are absent three is a difference. This fact is brought out by the howl that has come from several communities down South, protesting the establishment of CCC camps for Negroes in vicinity of white sections or resorts. Two protests that are typical come from Colliersville, Ten nessee and Elizabethtown, North Car olina and in each instance congress men, senators and other mouthpieces have been contacted to add weight and “pull” to the protest of the citi zens From down in the North Carolina town comes the plea to desist from placing Negroes in the established CCC camps, because it is adjacent to White Lake, a resort in which no Ne groes live and their presence might bring about strained relations be- i tween the races, endanger the well being of the white patrons of the resort and cause a general deprecia tion in property values Singletary Lake, however, would be an ideal *pot because it has been used solely by Negroes for several years. Paralelling the North Carolina case is that of Colliersville, where the citizens became aroused by reports from Fort Oglethorpe, Ga., that Ne groes would be sent to the CCC :amp at Frank Woods on Poplar Pike. Senator McKellar, according to re ports reaching the Capitol City , has seen swamped with letters, telegrams, post cards from cit*ens of the sec don pointing out that the placing of Negroes in the camp would cause a calamity as far as business is con rerned. In North Carolina it is said that the ■esort, WTiite Lake was erected by Megro convict labor and in the Ten lessee sector Negro road gangs, misoners are frequently engaged in railding and keeping in repair the 3ike on which the • camp is supposed o be established. Dr. Jackson Heads Rhode Island Baptists Providence, R. I., July 6, (By the ; Associated Negro Press—Dr. Andrew -•i Jackson, prominent dentist here, vas unanimously elected president of he Rhode Island Baptist Sunday : School Convention here Tuesday at : he final session of the annual meet ng of the organization. Mothers—Let your boys be Guide ' lewsboys. Send them to the Omaha 1 luide Office, 2418-20 Grant Street. 1 ‘‘1 Less Mouth to Feed” By Elizabeth Lawson “My boy would have been in school today, but not having clothes even to go in, he went off to hunt work, and he was sentenced to die in the elec tric chair.” And this letter from Mrs. Mamie Williams of Chattanooga sum up the entire story of Eugene Williams, youngest of all the Scottsboro boys. The sentence against Eugene was the first to be reversed. He was only 13 at the time of the Scottsboro trial, and the law of Alabama provides that persons under 16 must be tried in Juvenile Court. But that law went unnoticed in the frenzy of Alabama’s greatest lynch-holiday. Only after the international Labor Defense had fought, inside the courtroom and out, against this illegal conviction, did the Alabama Supreme Court, in 1932, re verse the sentence of death and re mand Eugene Williams for a Juvenile Court hearing. Poverty-Stricken Family Among Chattanooga’s poverty stricken Negro families, the Williams family was of the poorest. The fath er got only two days’ work a week. The house was gradually stripped, even of its furniture. “My furniture man has got all my furniture except two beds and a table I made myself,” Mrs, Williams ! wrote in one of her first letters to the I. L. D. “I ain’t got a chair in my house and ain’t got no stove and ain’t had one since December- I did all right cooking on the grate while it was cold, but now it is so hot, for my grate is in the room I sleep in and me and the kids nearly die after cook ing in the evening. Some days I cook out in the yard on bricks to keep from making a fire in the house. I got one dime and my baby needs some teething medicine, but I got to spend it for food. I went to the re lief for some clothes for my kids, ain’t got the first piece yet” Eugene worried a great deal about the state of the family, and about the younger children. “If I leave here,” he said to his mother, “it will mean one less mouth to feed.” With Arly and Roy Wright, and Haywood Patterson, three of his closest friends, he hopped a freight out of Chatta nooga. His mother saw him next in Kilby Prison, after he had been sen tenced to die at Scottsboro. Grew Up in Jail. Eugene has grown up in jail. One day when his mother visited him, he stood up to his full height behind the bars, and she wept. “Why do you want to grow up now, Eugene, in this place?” she said To William L. Patterson, National Secretary of the international Labor Defense, Eugene wrote: “Dear Sir, Mr. Patterson: “Just a few lines to let you hear from me. I am well and getting along all right. All with the Concep tion of beng free. But I do hope when these few lines have been de livered to you it will find you and the whole I. L. D. doing just fine- i Well. Mr. Patterson, I know you have heard of the boys’ great success (here Eugene refers to the 1932 de cision of the Supreme Court revers ing the death sentences imposed at Scottsboro—E. LJ and to say I am happy, sure as silk, because that will help me out a lots, and I know that you all are still busy in trying to get us out. I really will be glad when the day comes when Roy and I can go out in the street where I can exercise my worried bones. I remain yours as ever, EUGENE WILUAMS. Tormented in Jail. The fact that Eugene is the young est of the Scottsboro prisoners has had little weight with the jailers, 'They have tormented him, abused him, and have even gone the length of stealing from him the parcels which friends outside have sent. Last year a friend in Detroit sent him a package containing shoes and stockings • W hen no reply came, she sent him stamps, thinking that lack of postage might have kept him from answering. It was then that she got a letter thanking her for the parcels. To this letter the forged sig nature of Andy Wright was ap pended. The friend, who was famil iar with Andy's handwriting, angrily exposed this attempt of the jailers to break the boy’s morale by leading him to believe himself forgotten. Mrs. Williams, who has made a consistent fight for the freedom of all the boys, wrote the I. L. D-: “I am proud to know that my boy and the others are still alive today. I ■miss him so much. I miss his ap pearance at my home, ana also the little things he used to do in making it easier at home for his mother. “But I often sit and think that he could of been in the clay if it hadn’t been for the I. D. L. calling the workers from all parts of the world to fight for him.” Bugene has never been tried again since the Alabama Supreme Court re versed the verdict against him three pears ago. But the Alabama offi cials have determinedly opposed every move of the I. D. L. to free iim and Ray Wright on bail. Even n the case of this child, they know 10 mercy. Early in July, Eugene, together with Roy, will come once more be fore the authorities. The two boys ■will be brought into (Juvenile Court, jefore Judge B. L. Malone of Deca :ur. The I. L. D. will defend them. ThousancL of dollars, are needed for that hearing. Roy aind Eugene have pas.-ed their youth in jail, and now they must be freed. HELP THEM! RUSH FUNDS TO I. L. D. AT 80 EAST 11 STREET NEW YORK. FLOOD ,JUDGE B. L. MALONE AT DECATUR, ALABAMA, WJTH RESOLUTIONS AND TELEGRAMS. DEMANDING THAT HE FREE THE TWO YOUNGEST SCOTTS BORO BOYS. Notice. Subscribers: If you don't get your paper by Saturday. 2 p. m., 1 call Webster 1750. No reduction in subscriptions unless request is com plied with. Crawford Pamphlet is Dud at N. A. A. C. P. Convention St. Louis, Mo., July 11, (ANP)— Maybe when the delegates to the 26th annual conference af the Na tional Association for the Advance ment of Colored People return to their homes and have the opportunity to read the pamphlet entitled “Who is the N. A. Ai C. P?” so gener ously supplied to them by the Misses Martha Gruening and Helen Board man, they will conclude that they were sadly remiss in failing to take any action on the subject matter of the bold brachure. But facts are facts and the two big facts are: First, that al! those who attended the first big mass meeting received copies of the pam phlet and its subject matter was not discussed officially at any of the con ference seasons, and if there were any sub rosa discussions, informal or formal, they escaped your corres pondent. The pamphlet contained a wither ing indictment of Walter White, the executive secretary, and Charles Houston and Associate counsel, in the trial of George Crawford, the Vir ginia man now serving two life sent ences in the penitentiary for the murder of two white women. The few persons who had the op portunity to read the pamphlet before the convention opened expected the issue to be fought out on the floor of the convention. Even Mr. White thought so and when interviewed was undecided as to whether he should bring it up himself although no time had been set aside in the conference program and the delegates would have had to vote to consid er it. As it was, the pamphlet was for gotten about and the selection of the convention city for 1936, instead of the Crawford case, became the most exci ing issue of the conference. Mothers—Let your boys be Guide newsboys. Send them to the Omaha Guide Office, 2418-20 Grant Street. Swindle Woman; Old Confidence Game Greenville, N. C., (July 6, (By the Associated Negro Press)—The old “pocket-book con game” was worked here again this week and the victim, Mrs. Martha Johnson is out of just $57.50, she reported to the police last Thursday^ The lure of getting $200, as her share of a pocket book, two strange ment told they had found, caused Mrs. Johnson to go to the bank, with draw her savings and turn over the sum of money to the confidence men. She was given the old purse stuffed with newspaper clippings. Notice. Subscribers: If you don’t get your paper by Saturday, 2 p. m.. call Webster 1750. No reduction in subscriptions unless request is com plied with. Social Workers * Discuss Problems Boston, Mass, (July 6, (By the As sociated Negro Press)—Problems faced by the social workers were aired and solutions thereof were sought at Camp Atwater, near here last week when the Colored Social Workers convened with Dr. William N. DeBerry, as the host. Visitors to the convention included, E. F. Fra zier, Washington, D. C., Mrs. Vivian M/ason and Dr. Dean S. Yarborough, New York City, Mrs. Ida N. Law son, Hartford, Conn., and Dr. Ros coe C. Brown, United States Public Health Service, Washington, D- C. Mothers—Let your boys be Guide newsboys. Send them to the Omaha Guide Office, 2418-20 Grant Street. Revise Jury Lists in Virginia County St. Petersburg, Va., July 6, (By the Associated Negro Press)—Jury commissioners of Hopewell county were busy last week revising the jury lists so far as to comply with th decision of the United States Su preme Court that Negroes must be placed on juries. The revision fol lowed closely in the wake of an order from Judge Marshall R. Peterson of the Circuit Court. Mothers—Let your boys be Guide newsboys. Send them to the Omaha Guide Office, 2418-20 Grant Street.