The Omaha guide. (Omaha, Neb.) 1927-19??, April 13, 1935, Page THREE, Image 3

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the federal office of
The emergency in education
this year is fully as extensive as
last year. More than one-eighth
of the school children of the Unit
ed States are in school districts
without sufficient funds to oper
a.e schools the customary school
This is the central conclusion of
a final report on the financial
situation in rural schools and in
dependent school districts for the
current school year, presented by
United States commissioner of Ed
ucation John W. Studebaker iO
Secretary of the Interior Harold
L. Ickes. A copy of the report
was also forwarded to Relief Ad
minis.rator Harry L. Hopkins.
The survey was requested by
Secretary Ickes last October at
the time President Roosevelt au
thorized the relief funds to keep
financially distressed schools open.
A preliminary report was submit
ted on December 10.
Approximately 42,200 schools
are in districts reporting insuf
ficient funds to opera.e schools
for the number of months to
which they were accustomed in
past years. In these schools, lo
cated in 25 states there are 3,429
020 pupil and 102,116 teachers, j
“Although numerous reports of
sounder financial conditions in
school districts—especially city
school districts—have reached the;
Federal Office of Education, this
improvement should not obscure
the continuing emergency in
many rural school districts and
oven some city school districts,
declared Commissioner Studebak
er, commenting on the report.
Other outstanding facts disclos
ed the survey are:
In 467 school districts in eight
s.ates there were on available
funds to operate schools this year,
la these dis.rict there are 57,090
pupil and 1,745 teachers.
Without the receipt of additional
funds the school lerm for one
eighth of the school children of
the United States will be short
ened on an average of 3 months.
Deficits in opertaing funds re-;
ported by officials of the schools
involved a total of $31,816,010.
Adding deficits estimated official-1
ly for six additional States the
total is $37,316010.
Of this amount $24,544,874 rep
resents salaries for teachers.
Rular schools reported wtihout
sufficient funds total 37,513, with
2,122,468 elementary school pu
pils and 562,712 high school pu
pils. !
City or independent schools
without sufficient funds for norm
al terms total approximately
4,700, with 687,650 elementary
school pupils and 501,165 high
school pupils.
“It is rather difficult to define
what a sloced school is,” says
Dr. Howard A. Dawson, who pre
pared the survey at the request
of Commissioner Studebaker.
“But it is relatively easy to de
termine whether or not a school
has any money with which to pay
its teachers. In many cases,
hist year and this, schools which
did not have any money remained
open only because the teachers
served in a missionary capacity.
From a technical standpoint, at
least, such schools may be desig
nated as closed schools.”
Some schools began the year
without funds; others were' able
to operate a few months. This is
revealed by summary showing
that 1,745 teachers are in schools
that are financially unable to op
erate at all, 4,018 teachers in
schools able to operate less than 3
months; 11,712 less than 4 months;
26,968 in schools less than 5
months; 38,698 less than 6
months; 59.320, less than 7
months; 85,551, less than. 8
months; and 102,116 teachers in
schools that ar financially unable
to operate in excess of 8 months.”
“One of the significant facts
revealed by these data,” continu
es the report, “is that the aver
age salaries paid to teachers in
these distressed school districts
are certainly among the lowest
salaries in the United States.
Sixty-four per cent of the teach
ers affected are in States where
the average salary paid to teach
ers in distressed school districts
is less than $100 a month.”
How low teachers salaries go in
the United States is revealed by
the facts assembled for districts
in which received Federal emer
gency aid last year. The Relief
Administration agreed to pay
these teachers the salaries called
for by their contracts with board
of education up to $100 per
month. Reports show that the
|| average contract salaries of ele
mentary teachers in aided school
districts was less than $58 per
month and one fourth of all ele
mentary teachers received less
than $50 per month. This is less
than the minimum for unskilled
labor in most codes.
In 16 S ates many teachers-Te
ceived less than $20 per month.
In 22 States a considerable
number of teachers received less
than $40 per month.
Local school officials were
asked to report the causes of the
financial emergency in their
school districts. Following is an
analysis of the reasons given in
order of greatest frequency:
Delinquent or unpaid taxes.
Decrease in taxable valuation
resulting in lower returns from
general property:taxaiion.
Drought conditions.
District carrying the maximum
current or bonded indebtedness.
Unusual or unexpected increase
in population.
Maximum tax limitations too
Insufficient State aid.
Reduced valuations due to ac
quisition of property by United!
States Government.
Calamities, such as storms.
Small weak school districts.
State salary schedule requires
increased expenditures.
Nonpayment of taxes by cor
porations holding cut over lands
or abandoned mines.
“There is no reason to believe
that reports concerning all dis
.ricts in distress have been re
ceived,” according to the report.
“But the data presented are more
complete concerning this educa
tional problem than any hereto
fore presented.”
Commenting on the report
United States Commissioner of
Education John W. Studebaker
said. “Last year the emergency
in education was relieved by the
agreement of thu Relief Admini
stration to place teachers of
schools faced with closing short
of the regular term on relief
rolls. Approximately $14,500,
000 was advanced to 33 States.
This money was used to pay sala
ries of about 100,000 teachers of
3,000,000 pupils for periods rang
ing from a few days to 16 weeks.
“This year,” continued Com
missioner Studebaker, “the Re
lief Administration placed on the
relief rolls teachers in sections of j
four States; South Dakota and
North Dakota, Arkansas and Ala-’
bama. More recently four addi-i
tional States—Oklahoma, Missis
sippi, Florida and New Mexico—
have been added to the list to re
ceive funds for teachers in schools
faced with closing. Fourteen ad
ditional States have applied for
aid. According to the Relief Ad
ministrator approximately $5,VOO
DOO has already been authorized
for this purpose this year. This
authorization should not be con
fused with the unemployment of
needy teachers for special adult
classes and nursery schools.
“Legilatures of 44 States are
meeting or have met this winter.
All of them have school legisla
tion under consideration or pas
sed. One State, Ohio, has taken
action on a new school financing
program. Information reaching
the Federal Office of Education
is that all of the States included
in this report, with the possible
exception of Ohio, will experience
considerable difficulty in keep
ing financially distressed schools
open this spring.
“States have not shirked tneir
responsibilities to education,’’
said Commissioner Studebaker.
“Most of the Sttaes which now
have many districts in need art
States that have for years led
the list in percentage of funds
for schools supplied from States
sources. Many States also have,
at the urgenee of the Federal
Government, extended and raised
their tax system to the breaking
point to cooperate in financing
general relief. The curtailment
of school term, teachers’ salaries
and services does not indicate
failure of the part of localities or
States to do what they can for
themselves. Quite the contrary.
“Adminisrator Harry L. Hop
kins has declared that aiding the
distressed schools through the Re
lief Administration is not satis
factory. The difficulties of the
FERA* faces in aiding schools
have been revealed in reports to
the Federal Office of Education.
The Relief Administration w-as
created to aid individuals rather
than schools. Rules practicable
for individual relief prove awk
ward when applied to a school
“First of all, as Mr. Hopkins
says, the placing of teachers on
relief rolls is anything but desi
rable. Then, other difficulties
crop up in applying relief rules
to the school situation. In some
rural schools both man and wife
are teachers. If such schools were
to be kept open, only the men or
the wives could be paid from re
lief funds. This means that in
each of these cases one teacher
must; teach without compensa
tion, or resign. Then a new
teacher must be employed. Last
year, moreover, the Relief Ad
ministration paid teachers their
contract salaries up to $100 per
month, although few received
anything near this figure. This
year the limit a teacher may re
ceive teaching a school included
among those eligible for aid is
$00 per month. The individual
viewpoint in relief also means
tha. nothing may be advanced
for books, operation of the school
bus, or to purchase fuel, even in
cases where there was absolutely
no money for such needs and no
way to raise ihe money. As Ad
ministrator Hopkins points out,
schools are in a different cate
gory, and if the Federal Govern
ment is going to help keep
schools open for children it should
set up a special program for this
purpose. In other words, what
is needed is ‘school-relief,’ not
individual teacher relief.
Cities of 5,000 and more popu
lation are excluded from relief
for schools.
Some of the most distressed
situations in the country are in
cities 5,000 to 10,000 population.
Provision also needs to be madef
for assisting the schools in such
The girls of: the Blue Triangle and
Up to Date Clubs enlisted their smal- !
ler sisters and brothers to take part
in a Health Parade in celebration of
National Negro Health Meet on Sat
urday, April 6th Several girls dec
orated their doll buggies attractive
ly; other girls wore the head dresses
of Red Cross Nurses. Still others car
ried striking health posters. These
posters were the work of MiSs Ethel
Cole, former Robin Club sponsor.
Doris Newland, a member of the Up
to Date Club assisted while the pos
ter drawn by Betty Riggs, Blue Tri
angle club member, was on display
a the “Y” for constant inspiration to
better health practices. Several small
boys characterized famous health doc
tors—‘Sunshine’ ‘Fresh Air', ‘Health’
‘Sleep’, etc.
The ‘Y’ yroup joined the Urban
League Center group at the “Y”; the
parade beginning when the police es
cort arrived- The Boy Scouts of
Troop 79 set the pace and the route
was down Grant Street to 24th,
South on 24th to Lake and East on J
Lake to the Center where the child
ren entered the auditorium under an
arch formed by flags held by two Boy
Mr. De Loach of the Center staff,
led the group in singing and present
ed two dance numbers by his grade
school tap dancing class. Miss Palm
quist, city visiting nurse, was then
introduced by Miss Rachel Taylor.
Miss Palmquist made a very interest
ing talk encouraging the boys and
girls to keep on “Safety Hill” in
other words to strive for and maintain
the perfect health condition. Miss
Ethel Cole and Mrs. Dolores Richie
helped the “Y” staff in preparing
their unit for the parade.
The Public Affairs Committee of
the North Side Y- W. C. A. is to be
congratulated on its splendid piece of
work in the support of the Costigan
Wagner Anti-Lynching Bill; due to
the splendid cooperation of Dr. Wes
ley Jones, President, Local NAACP,
Dr. A. L. Hawkins, President Negro
Business and Professional Men’s
■ League, Mr. J. L. Taylor, Mrs. Jessie
Cain, Mrs. A. L. Hawkins, Mrs.
Viola Turner, Captain J. H. Rose,
Fire Station No. 4, members of the
Committee of Management, namely,
Mrs. John A- Williams, Mrs. Herbert
Wiggins, Mrs. Minnie Dixon, Mrs.
Walter Seals, Mrs. Charlotte Craw
ford, Mrs Clara Dacus, Mrs. C- B.
Wilkes, Mrs. Frank Gray. These
petitions were circulated through the
entire community. Members of the
Quack and Trojan clubs of the Y. W.
C. A. and citizens of the community
signed the letters which were for
warded to the President and Senators
Burke and Norris- It was the aim
of the committee to send 500 letters.
If there are any persons who have
not signed letters and who are inter
ested in doing so, come immediately
to the Y. W. C. A. Members of the
Public Affairs Committee are: Miss
How to Get Rid of
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Jennie Robinson, Chairman assisted
by Mesdames lone Hanger, J. S. Wil
liams, S. H- Dorsey, Howard Battles,
Malcolm Scott, J. H. Kerns, Jessica
Wright, Mary Frazier, Isaac Bailey,
Kate Wilson.
To meet the demand of girls for
training in household employment, a
request was made by the North Side
Y- W. C- A. to the Board of Educa
tion for a training school for house
hold employees. Early in the fall
temporary plans for such a school
were set up but because of lack of
finances, the project was not devel
oped. The matter was again taken
up at a later date and with the united
efforts of the North Side and Central
Y. W. C. A. and the Federal Employ
ment Bureau and the Board of Educa
tion, the school will open Monday,
April 15th. Classes will be held at
the Y. W C. A ■ residence on 20th j
and Cass Street and will include in
struction in all of the arts of efficient
household training. Lessons in cook
ing, cleaning, house management, the
use of electrical equipment, table ser
vice, meal planning, and other things 1
- - I
I f Umn~. «W H.jhh EJtMMm
! I Mm |M7 M» Dynm** W i(
HiJJe* Drives
This kind of a' “drive” needs
explaining. It is something within
that makes us do things.
In a recent article I wrote of
the inherited desire
of children to buu.\
to create, actually
to work out their
ideas. Snow sculp
turing was the inci
dent I used. I cou;d
have mentioned mud
castles, paper dolls,
or building blocks. The “dnve' to
make something is there and it
must come out. To suppress it b
to do the child real harm.
Another good example is the
girl’s love of dolls, or tbe boy’s
insistent wish for pets. Rea! drives
are there, planted by nature dur
ing the history of the human race.
In effect nature says of the girl
“she's destined to become a moth
er; she needs to be prepared.”
Within the female child nature
plants an urge or drive which
comes out at a certain age as a
desire. The doll may be a re
modelled clothes pin or made of
rags ot the best man can make.
But the- girl gives it her love, while
she nurtures it, cares for it with
a very real devotion. From it she
acquires a sense of ownership. Sne
has practiced sympathy and the
feeling of mothering.
The boy from care of his pets
is a changed character. A life de
pended upon him. He gave affec
tion and care. He practiced toler
ance. He was rehearsing the busi
ness of fathering. There are many
other drives to be discussed later.
To utilize them is real education.
They represent the basis of that
great educational field called
“physical education." They ex
plain the demand for education
through play.
Next week Dr. Ireland will tell
something more about the hiduen
drives of children.
rr'S‘ by D». ALLEN a. ntELAND
. Drmtttr, Phytic* md Ht*ih Edmttd—
* Nn> Iwtdy ilMt Dtpaamm ft PwUti lmtlrmctitm
More About Drives
I Last week I introduced the sub
ject of “drives" or impulses. These
! are inherited urges to do, to be, or
* to make believe. They appear in
every normal child
the world over, and
they always have
since the earliest
ages of naan on
I tried to show
that they represent
nature’s attempt to
educate the human child, or for
' that matter the kitten or the puppy.
■ Nature says “Do” that you may
acquire experiences and get the
rough corners smoothed off. I men
tioned the child’s desire to con
' struct something, the girl’s irre
• sistible yearning for a doll, and the
boy’s longing for a pet.
Think how universal those urges
are. A nature that can grow a
tree from a seed, that can create
a miracle like a child, isn’t going
to leave the development of its
produces to mere chance. No! A
power that great will provide, and
it does, rain, sunshine and soil for
the tree, and deep-seated urges for
We must remember here that the
school and its subjects is a man
made institution, hence artificial.
But the play of children is nature’s
educational medium. It is the
child’s work, his business, the rea
son ho is serious at play. For other
drives, look to the significance of
curiosity, imitation, emulation, hero
Examine the question, “why do
giris play at keeping house, boys
at playing fireman or soldier, why
do they love to collect things, why
do they have crushes, why are they
so insistent in asking questions?”
Then, you will see education, na
tural education at work. It’s really
a wonderful discovery. And you’ll
find the answer to some of your
questions about play at school and
education through physical activity.
Dr. Ireland will write about
snow amd ice play next week.
w.ll be given. Mrs. Helen Mahammitt,
a member of the staff will teach the
cooking. The class will run for six
weeks and will be held from 9:00 un
til 4:00 o’clock daily. The last two
weeks will be spent in practice work;
the girls being ass.gned to homes
where they will put into reality the
things they have been taught in the
school. The training school for house
hold employees, while a recent ven
ture in Omaha, has become an insti
tution and a legal department of tha
Board of Education of many cities.
Its effort is primarily to train house
hold employees so that hours, wages
and working condit.ons may be im
proved and new standards for work
be set up. The following girls from
the North Side Y. W. C. A. will at
tend the school: Miss Edith Smith,
Ethel and Juanita Cole, and Miss
Elizabeth Hunter
A most appreciative audience lis
tened to a well prepared debate at
the North Side Y. W. C. A- on Fri
day. The subject: “Resolved that Re
lief Should Be Abolished” was very
ably handled by the two teams.
Speaking for the affirmative as cap
tain, Mr. Lycurgus Curry, proved his
ability as a debater and an orator.
He was ably supported by Mr- Fred
Wakefield and Miss Helena Thomas,
member of the Trojan Club. Miss
Celestine Smith, Secretary, Trojan
Club gave an intelligent concise pre
sentation favoring relief. Her sup
porters were: Miss Ola McCraney,
Vice President, Trojan Club and Miss
Jearldie Harvey, also a member of the
Trojan Club, who backed her up in all
of her arguments. It was a tense (
moment when the judges Mrs. Robbie j
T. Davis, Mrs. Thelma Hancock and
Mr. J. Dillard Crawford announced |
the decision in favor of the Affirma- j
tive. The Y. W. C- A- is proud of
these young people who so loyally and I
convincingly and with dignity present
ed this debate. The affair was spon
sored by the General Education Com
mittee of the North Side Y. W. C. A.
(For the Literary Service Bureau)
Daughter Made Mistake — Father
Wants to Drive Her Away From
Home—Mother Says NO—Mother Is
Right—Should Try to Save The Girl
From Utter Ruin.
(For advice, write to Maxie Miller,
care of Literary Service Bureau, B16
Minnesota Ave., Kansas City, Kans.
For personal reply send self-addressed,
stamped envelope.)
(For The Literary Service Bureau )
Maxie Miller: I am a man and a
father. My youngest daughter has
gone wrong. She is to be a mother.
Don’t any folks know it, but I am
disgusted and want to make her leave
home. My wife says it is my duty
to hold on to the girl and try to save
her. But I’ve done my part by her
and don’t think I should share her
disgrace. I wonder what you will say
about this case. What do you think
I ought to do?—Sad Father.
Sad Father: Your wife is right.
This girl made a mistake, but she’s
your child ‘right on”. Yes, try to save
her from drifting farther. Since it is
not generally known why not send
her for a visit to some relative then
think out some way to properly care
for the child. Think it over. You’ll
be a sadder father if you drive this
girl to utter ruin.—Maxie Miller.
Eastman, Georgia—Charged with a
malicious attempt to attack Miss Mur
raylean Roy, trusted servant at the
luxurious W. L. jJessup home here,
two white men have been jailed with
the serious charges of burglary and
assault facing them.
The two intruders entered the home
of W. L. Jessup, wealthy white citizen,
and tried to force Miss Roy to tell
where the family kept their money in
the house, which she refused to do.
The bandits pushed her into another
room and attempted to attack her.
When she fought back, they slashed
her about the stomach with a pen
knife. After their unsuccessful efforts
to assault her, they fled but were ap
prehended near Hazel, Ga., about 40
miles away.
Mr. Jessup has promised that Miss
Roy’s assailants will be punished to
the full extent of the law.
Attorney Ray L. William*, Room 200,
Tuchman Bldg., 24th and Lake Street.
In the matter of the estate of
Samuel J. Green, Deceased.
Notice is hereby given: That the
creditors of said deceased will meet
the administrator of said estate, be
fore me, County Judge of Douglas
County, Nebraska, at the Count
Court Room, in said County, on the
20th day of May, 1935 and on the 20th
day of July, 1935, at 9 o'clock A. M..
each day, for the purpose of present- j
ing their claims for examination, ad- I
justment and allowance. Three months
are allowed for the creditors to pre
sent their claims, from the 20th day
of April, 1935.
egins 3-30-35 Bryce Crawford,
Ends 4-13-35 County Judge.
Attorney Ray L. Williams, Room 200,
Tuchman Bldg., 24th and Lake Street.
In the matter of the estate of
Lizzie Conners, Deceased.
Notice is hereby given: That the
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« Mrs. Dorsie Williams of Danville,
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creditors of said deceased w.ll meet
the administrator of said es ate, be
fore me, County Judge of Dougins
County, Nebraska, at the County
Court Room, in said Count-, on the
20th day of May, 1935 and on the 20th
day of July, 1935, at 9 o’clock A. M.,
each day, for the purpose of present
ing their claims for examination, ad
justment and allowance. Three months
are allowed for the creditors to pre
sent their claims, from the 20 h day
of April, 1935.
Begins 3-30-35 Bryce Crawford
Ends 4-13-35 County Judge.
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