The independent. (Lincoln, Neb.) 1902-1907, April 25, 1907, Page 14, Image 14

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APRIL 25. 1C07.
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desirable, features and indicates what
in hi -opinion me the best methods
of effecting improvement.
The policy of the government- is to
encourngo the importation of animals
of the highest Class, the object being
th-i adaptation of foreign breeds to our
special conditions and by fusing the
imported with the native blood to ul
timately become independent of for
eign breaders. That there is a necess
ity fci' the establishment of the breeds
of horses in thL country, especially
the draft breeds, no one who is ac
quainted with the conditions can doubt.
Mr. Rommel expresses the belief that
a splendid opportunity exists here for
the. constructive breeder, the man who
will apply ability, perseverance and
courage to tho problem.
Baby beef, which represents the ear
liest possible maturity of the bovine
animal, has been brought to a high
state of excellence by the American
breeder and has now become firmly
established In our live-stock markets.
Uaby beef is defined in the article on
this subject by E. G. Ititzman as "a
prime butcher's beast, thoroughly fat
tened and ripe for the block at from
twelve to twenty-four months of age.
Growth has been artificially promoted
by coatinuous heavy feeding from
birth, with the object of obtaining in
the shortest time possible the maxi
mum amount of well-matured beef."
Five years ago, and even more recent
ly, a prime steer up to twenty-four
months of age was classed as baby
beef, while today it is questionable
whether an animal over eighteen
months of age should be considered as
The flesh of young cattlo has not
developed that coarseness of grain and
fiber characteristic of the flesh of old
animals, and is therefore more tender
and delicate. The proportion of fat to
lean is smaller, and the fat does not
accumulate in such large deposits or
lumps between th? layers of muscl?,
but is more evenly distributed in flakes
between the muscle fibers.
The paper discusses the characteris
tics of baby beef, the economy and
greater profit in Its production aa
compared with older cattle, the breeds
and types best suited for producing it,
and methods of feeding. .Some of the
principal advantages derived from the
production of baby lcef as compared
with older lKt-f are stated as the quick
return on the investment, the greater
demand for the product, and the great
er amount of meat produced per pound
of feed consumed.
The .article on poultry management,
which deals entirely with chickens, is
practical in character. "It is so easy
to figure one's self getting rich rais
ing poultry," writes the author, G.
. Arthur Eell. assistant animal husband
man of the bureau, "that a great many
people with but little knowledge and
experience have embarked in the busi
ness on a large scale, only to meet
with disastrous failure. They have
neglected to recognize the fact that
ibis industry, like any other, requires
a thorough ' training and an aptitude
for the occupation. That there is good
money in poultry, however, when prop
erly managed, is shown by the many
successful poultry itu n who are mak
ing a good living from the industry."
The reader is given some sound ad
vice aa to how to make a start in
the poultry business Then cornea a
classification of the breeds, showing
which are best purely for egg pro
duction, which for meat, and which
for a combination of eggs and meat.
Full details are given concerning th
arrangement and management of poul
try, yards and the location and con
struction of houses, nests, coops,' etc.
There is a-chapter on "how to feed for
the mosr profitable egg production,"
and the raising of chickens both with
and without incubators is dealt with
in a thorough mam e r. 'Other subjects
treated are how to -produce broilers,
roasters, and capons, how to fattei
rw.-iirv how in nreoare. and shin the
-products to market, and how to test
and preserve eggs, mnany mere is
a chapter enumerJlmg the principal
diseases of poultry and giving direc
tions for treating hem.
In all respects the effort has been
made to bring the discussion of meth
ods and appliance down to date, in
cluding such subjects as dry feeting,
curtain -front houses, colony houses,
etc. The building. and methods of
some of the most successful and best
equipped poultry farms in the coun
try are described, and the article has
17 illustrations showing houses and appliances.
J. M. Russell, the nursery man, said"j
that the damage done to me
fruit crop Tuesday evening was
greater than at any time this season.
Some of the blossoms are not open
as far as others and in consequence
suffer less from the cold weather. The
prospects for a fruit crop of any size
are considered poor. The apple crop,
according to E. T. Hartley, is the only
one which is not affected by the cold.
The apple blossoms are not well out as
yet. The grapes will be as numerous
as ever and the berries and some of
the other small fruits have not been
injured to any noticeable extent. Every
day of the cold weather weakens the
fryit trees, as the blossoms are in a
susceptibh stage when the afternoon
sun makes them come out and the
cold weather kills them in the evening.
E. F. Stephens of Crete estimates
the peach crop at only about 20 per
cent of a full yield since the recent
severe frosts. He estimates the cherry
crop at 30 per cent, grapes 85 per cent
and all other small fruits a full crop.
This is an off year in apples regard
less of the freeze, as the trees bore
heavily last season.
The only fann'tfipiA;-nuito
from wheat that is all nutri
ment is the soda cracker, and
yet the only soda cracker of
which this is really truo io
needa Biscuit
soda cracker scientifically
soda cracker effectually
soda cracker ever fresh,
crisp and clean,
soda cracker good at all
'In a dust tight.
moisture proof package.
Providing Turkey rt.
Every farmer's wife has noticed how
tho turkey hen loves to hide er,"eBt
in the hedge row or orchard. Olten
they will go into the hay field when
they commence to lay their first clutch
of eggs In May and seclude themselves
so quicely that one cannot possibly
find tfcem. If you will use barrels and
boxes with good roomy nests and some
nest eggs in them, covering over the
whole a sufficient amount of brush .o
make it appear secluded, the turkey
hen will use there if they are
not too close to the house and any oi
of the barn-yard buildings. In a far
corner of the orchard h u good place to
put the nest for the turkeys, or If thete
la a row of bushes somewhere abou
the place and no; too fnmr-lhe
' house try to make a nest there. Tui
kes v ili s.KMi find any nest that you
make foi them and use them if not
reared away or given a flight when
approaehed. Remove .ill turkey egss
except the li.-.sL ves-i dally. I"t Thick
en Iu-iih do the hatching and remem
ber that dampness of the young poults
is the greatest trouble that confronts
all turkt-v mowers A domestic li-n
will oiu'r four o.' five turkey egg
very nie-lv ;uu if she Is kind and
mothcrlv fite will raise all of tin
po-.dtf. Do not faP to give her u dry
brood coop Where plenty of MUllllKllt
can net in on 'ln brood every morning.
J'rovlde plenty of fresh water, a var
iety of f. v d and ke p the yoitOKI' i
p. i'lird is! f' wwk or two until
thy nei.iuu ibout iiiti protect tlulo
('Ivt'N a bit.
f't f Mlntnifr.
The Idea hu.t b'-.n for a
long time that hem coul.l l k'pt "
cewfully from one year' end t lru
other tor Ue hir.aM t'J"H f f P r ,ne
per hen. In tl '' "r l'1' pHcd
feed it l lim"o,i.!,. for a iull.y
grower who has to buy any consider
able amount of grain feeds to keep
fowls At U per year each. A farmer
who is keeping a iloik'of Leghorns or
fome otter breed, or grades of th3
general purpose fowls, may be able
If his range Is l?.rg3 enough to keep his
fowls at a cost of $1 each per year, but
the range would have to be extra good
in order to do this and the flock would
have to be on It all the time. He
could not yard th-j flock and feed it
heavily of grains a, present prices for
Jl per hen yer year. It will run up
now closer to $ or $1.50 than to
H and it w!l! exceed these figures on
Uw large poultry farms where hens are
kept for egg.' exclusively and whero
all feed has to be purchased except the
forage grown in the runs connected
wltn tie laving houses.
It is a bad plan to neglect any colds
which the variou fowls of the flock
will contract in being exposed to tho
damp spring weather or from being
forced to roost in draughty or poorly
votitllr'ted houses. 'Jvnerallv tile con
ditions which surrounds the cause o'
a ok! will be bitd ioufh t Ming on
ft severe case of roim unless remedied.
If tho real, old-fahioited roup once
gets ii to the flock It in a hard thing to
eradicate and cannot lie ciUxnu'd wnn
any degree of surety at any time. A
few drop of kerosene in the drinking
water will often prevent a cprendtng
of eontaRioir, eold in the Hock and
will do mueh to cure the uffceted
fowls. (iu' of the mtiwt menu of
bunging abut roup n the Mrds that
hu,e cold In to iilow the uropping
bounU to become foul with damo
dropping ittid then let them toost over
tin rtith,
l.tX VlMkufH in t'ltirka.
Fion. thh Urw on tin-re will l utor
or less call for cures for leg weakness
among young chicks. - "We have found
that leg weakness la more prevalent in
the chicks that aro early hatched and
what might be called over-grown than
among the smaller birds and those
hatched , later in the season, ''Very
often the whole flock will be affected,
generally the cockerels having most of
the trouble. After they get about four
months of age they begin to sit around
all clay refusing to get out and hustle
on Ihe range. Th?y walk as much as
they can but the worst thing about
the disease is that it keeps them from
foraging until the trouble disappears.
The larger birds such as the Jiranmas,
Langshans or Cochins are more af-
feeted than the Plymouth Rocks, or
Wyandottes although the lighter fowls
have their share of leg weakness, loo
great an amount' of fattening food
whieh 1s erenerallv fed with the idea
of increasing weight of body beyond
the ability of the legs to carry same
has often much to do witn cases or
leg weakness. The best scheme is to
feed so as to prevent it. Remove the
cause of the trouble if you think it
is over-feeding that does it and givj
the chicks but little grain of a fatten
ing nature. We have never had any
trouble with leg weakness where
ground oats were liberally fed in the
mash feed and where nulled oa'.s were
triven dailv when the youngsters were
feathering or until 'they were about
three months of age. There is nothing
like good oats as a bone and muscle
forming food. Leg weakness among
the chicks does not bring with it tho
total loss of appetite, very often on the
contrary it affecting them in the op
posite direction, th?y being more vora
cious than ever.
Do Kot CroiD ilreeda.
The only cross breeding of poultry
that pays is crossing a pure-bred male
or. the ordinary barn-yard females. To
cross pure-bred chickens is follow. Tl
for instance, you to-e breeding Ply
mouth Rocks and you seek to improve
their laying qualities in crossing them
with the Minorcas, it will be an Im
portant job poorly begun. You hid
best go to a breeder of Plymouth
Rocks who is making a specialty in
his flock for the egg production and
secure enough birds to infuse new
blood into your flock. Crossing pure
bred fowls detracts in the produce
from the good qualifications of each of
the parent varieties. This luvs been
proven times without numlr. The
idea that something especially good
may be obtained hy crowing is a de
lusion. The common Impression u
that crossing of breeds will show a
marked inereM.H in health and gein ral
vigor of the flock that results from
It. There Is some truth In lhi:i but
there U no more trtith in It than lh
truth that may Ik dMiiouirut d by
the addition of new blood in a pure
bred Itock of fowl, ah id new lilood
coming from a healthy (lock of puio
bred fowls of ihe suiue variety. Much
attention imiwt Ih given to keeping ur
lh vitality In the average flock. Ttn ie
are any nunln r of poultry men who
Are drvoilng their time to tli Ireed
ing up of heavy hi) lug flock and If
If wan not u inieees they would nut
be In tho l.usineHM. They find a good
rail for the majority of hearty jbHk
ih.i it.-y cor. rs'sr' srot im hi irnod
firr . Many poultry Km per imd r-
stand that new blood must be added
annually from heavy laying flocks of'
great stamina and they make a prac
tice of buying every fall or spring
something they need in the way of
breeding males. The poultry keeper
Vho uses judgment in - the - selection
of his or her breeding bird every
spring will not have trouble in keep
ing up the heartiness and health of
their flock. This will increase the
value of the seascn's chicks many
There are any number of different
ways to break up broody hens. One of
them is to shut the hen in a tight
brod in a shady spot giving her noth
ing to live on for a week or so but
fresh water. This reduces her consid
erably in flesh arid takes away the
setting fever and after a week or ten
days' treatment she is over the idea.
We know of one woman poultry raiser
who has a brood coop about eighteen
inches square and in the bottom of
this she has a pan about one inch deep.
She fills the pan with water and
stands the hen in It for three or four
days and says that this does not fail
to break them. Her coop is large
enough to put three or four hens in at
on? time. Generally broody hens that
want to set are quite fleshy and carry
more fat than they need for ordinary
purposes. - Setting in a fever. Every
setting hen's temperature is a few de
gress higher than that of the normal
laying hen.
A Nebraska chicken woman says
that she has used acconlte in the
drinking water to cure roup In tho
flock for a number of winters and has
never lost very many fowls with colds
but it should be remembered that tho
poultry houses and poultry quarters
should be sn regulated and coostructel
that colds and roup will not result
from them.
The vice cf egg eating is one that
is prevalent at this time of the year
in a good many flocks. It all cornea
because the hens are deprived of soma
certain feeds that they should have
anil because of being shut up during
the bad weather of winter and early
spring. One of the simplest ways to
prevent eating in the flock Is to lay
a few china nest eggs around in the
scratching litter where the hen will
them continually. Then if a fowl
happens to lay on the floor or in thu
litter there will be no danger of tho
hens eating the eggs. One lien in tho
flock that has learned to eat eggs will
ie.ich it to the othrs, ll.ive the mLs
up of the floor and more or less dark.
Feed plenty of gr.'eii bone and pro
vide some green food In I lie mash or
ftunih alf.iifu ellppi'i'-'t or loft sweep
ings and tnis will help to keep thw
hens busy ard provide a variety of
foeu. A hen that "n shut up in A Hiuall
vat 1 and bonne Hie whole winter
through and f.l loihing but corn
thiee tinua a day N the one
learn to eat irk. whieh often result
In the cnreily of ejfgs during tht
vhter wh"ii the cure taker kuosvj
Ml!i(ris- alMitit It.
It Is Mea.Hoiwihle and fashionable i'w
n-P;j to uv I'lrmii-Iriic. It
yor: to do your own rctinishlug, varn
ishing nnd staining Inexpensively urtj
ucct?!fiilly. Mold hy Western Iiitnt
nnd Clii fo, 3lf tomtit Twelfth idrewL
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