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About The independent. (Lincoln, Neb.) 1902-1907 | View Entire Issue (March 5, 1903)
THE. NEBRASKA INDEPENDENT
r. U U TAI
L Private Diseases
of MEN It "WOMEN,
uiF r.URE. :
r. . J a .11 ariK1t ra SAS of
tt m jruaraniee in turn ----- -
the Nose.Throat. Clie. Stomach. Liver, Blood.
8k in and Kidney Diseases, wrLt Manhood,
NitUtKmisiioni., Hydrocele, J"coeI1'V,1ao,
orrhea. Uleet, Pile, Fistula and fcul Llaera
DiabetM and Hriarbt's Piaeaae. 00 '
cage of ('AT-4KKH, RU.IMA1IM, IVH
PKI'SIAor VFHILIS w cannot carsj.ir
arable. "- - : t .. i'--v..
BOMB TRKATMFNT BY MAIL. .
"Examination and consultation free. Call, or
ddrets with stamp, P.O. Box 24, . , t
Df s. Searles & Scarles SSS;
' LINCOLN, NEBRASKA.
t Hardy Trees and Fiaais.
Coinpleta Assortment, - -
or Mrt ior mt
. ':.: irest, Including;
So verities of best Strawberries.
, i8 varieties of Raspberries. -Buy
direct and sata aneutaproflta. We
pay freight on $10 orders. Bend for free
.North Bnl Knwrlw, "North Hand,
Money and the Taxing Power
BY W. H. ASIIBY.
AH Rfghta Reserred.
In Its original form the method of
exercising the taxing power was by
the direct seizure, for the public use,
of the services and commod
ities required, and their direct ap
propriation to supply the governmen
tal need. ' !
' This ' to --a great extent- was the
method "employed in England prior to
the conquest by Gorman William. That
tyrant and his successors found it to
their interest to gradually change that
system into the . one now in use : in
England and America, under which all
the vast multitude, of articles consti
tuting the Wealth of modern man in cluding
his personal capacity for ser
vice, are made subject to taxation;
while taxes can only -be- paid in one
specific article, viz.: "coin.". -
Taxes,-however, were levied and
collected in England and elsewhere be
fore coin existed there. Taxes levied
and paid in kind; "antedate coin by
ages. The-levying, and collecting 'of
taxes in. kind creates no necessity for
"coin." An analysis of the process of
taxation, however, discloses the fact
that no matter" what system of taxa
tion may be adopted, the taxing pow
er cannot be equitably exercised in
any way, except by the use of a sys
tem of; "money;" although "coin" be
entirely unnecessary in the -process.
This analysis will at the same time
illustrate how widely distinct - from
each other are .the two things, "Mon
ey" and "Coin." V :.
25 Grafted Apple Trees for $i
20 Budded Peach Tree for $i
50 Concord Grape Vices for f 1
'- They are home grown, healthy and sure to
grow. Catalogue at.d due Mil for 25c, free. - ,
Box 8. Falrbury, Neb.
3 Apple tree, 3 feet "
3 1'each trees, 4 f eet.
3 Cherry trees, 3 feet. ,
0 ( urrants. 1 year. .
"25 best strawberry plants.
lu One year Mulberry.
Send tor catalogue at once.
Wakefield," V - - - - - Nebraska
50 Concord, $1.00
1000 Mulberry, $1.00
50 Asparagus, 25c
Immense stock, fine quality, low price. "Freight
' prepaid on $10.00 orders. Genera 1 catalogue free.
CAGE COUNTY NURSERIES, Beatrice, Nebr., Bor Vfl
I Trees That Grow
I The best And hardiest
varieties. See our prices,
. 1 uraiwa Appie, f 9.
- Bwtd.4 PHk,S.
or fc-nglish free.
Carl Sonderessrer, I'rop.,
Honest in Quality and
Price. We pay freltf ht
Crafted Apples 4c each:
SS Uuillc.l Chemcs l&c each; liudded reaches ic earli;
good varieties; Concord Crapes $3 !er 1 000 Ash l;
. B.aad n.Uxralt, Runlui Malbwr, ,Jto. 1 m prlr.. kick quaUtv Cataloc frM.
Galbraith Nurseries, Box 35, Fairbury, Nebraska.
GREAT CROPS OF
: AND HOW TO GROW THEM
The best book c a sttawlrry growing ever writ
- ten. It lells how to grow the biggest crops of big
berries ever produced. The book, isa ttettt.se on
FlitHt Fliiolutry aud explains how to make
.plants bear litjf Hrrt ud l ots of Them.
The fn:y thoroughtred scientifically gtown
8tiwbriy Klautatobe had for spring plaui-
ing. One of them is woith a dozen ct rutnou
dcrtib p ants. They grow BIG RED BER
RIES. .The book is aeut f i ee to all readers of
the Nebraska Indfpkkdknt. Send vonr ad
dress to R. M KELLOGG,
THREE RIVERS. MICH.
The wonderful fodder
plantYields three to seven
crops each season from
one planting and has pro
duced 95 tons per acre in a
carefully weighed test.
Highly nutritious and relished
by cattle, horses and hogs; dors
well in all parts of the United
States. Seeds are small so tliat
one pound willplantan acre;
Crews 12 Feat Hlah.
Price pe' lb. 7.')C, lb.aSc,
Sample free if you mention
this paper. AsIc for our Urge
Illustrated catalogue of farm
and garden seeds.
IOWA SEED COMPANY.
ps Moirwa, low.
The taxable wealth of .the inhabit
ants of England before the conquest
consisted chiefly of hogs, sheep,, cattle
and horses. Other articles may; have
been included in the tax lists, but it
is not important for our present pur
Dose to do more 'than include these
four articles of taxable wealth, which
are known to -have been taxed: The
services 'of men will likewise be left
out of consideration, because although
actual service of men formed an im
portant part of what was the revenue
of the nation, yet the investigation re
quires to be simplified in order to
reach the secret of the method em
ployed in exercising the taxing pow
er. . .--
Let us then suppose a Saxon king to
have levied a tax, for example, of one
tenth - upon a. the horses, cattle, , sheep
and hogs of his kingdom subject to
taxation, to be paid by the delivery of
the tenth part of. the specific things
taxed. : , Suppose one ; of his subjects
to be the possessor of 1,000 hogs, 100
sheep, 10 cattle and 1 horse. The tax
gatherer could sieze and take in pay
ment of his taxes 100 hogs, 10 sheep
and Lcow or ox; but what would he
do about the tenth of the horse? It
will become clear in a moment that
this difficulty constituted the neces
sity which compelled the adoption
of the device ' we have called the
"standard of money," by means of
which quantity of value may be ex
The attempt to levy and collect an
equal and uniform tax made such a
device a necessity. It was -impossible
to take the tenth of a horse, and it
would-be iniquitous to take the entire
horse in payment of a tenth. Some
device must be discovered by which
the burden of taxation could.be made
to bear equally upon every, article of
taxable "wealth. Neither weights- nor
measures could avail anything in this
dilemma, because the taking of things
by weight or by measure, in the case
supposed, would be no more feasible
than taking by number. . A system
might have been adopted based upon
the capacity of . the articles to per
form service beneficial to man or to
the nation. In fact, there is some rea
son to believe that such was originally-the
purpose. .' - , .
But the quantity of that ca
pacity, with which the articles named
were endowed, could not in any way
be accurately, ascertained, and .would
have equally required some device to
express it when ascertained. There
was no appliance by the use of which
it couid be expressed; neither was
there any term in which it could be
. The nearest approach to such a basis
possible, therefore, was to adopt a sys
tem founded on, an appraisal, or. esti
mation of the quantity of power to
perform beneficial service to the king,
with" which each article was" endowed.
This appraisal or estimation could
only In the beginning be relative.
The record is not sufficient to enable
us to learn how these four' articles of
taxable wealth were ranged in the
scale with relation to each other. It
ia known, however, that a "scale or
table of taxable equivalents" was es
tablished." Since the particular rela
tion in" which one of these articles
stood toward the others, in the scale
or tables, is quite immaterial, we will
employ the scale of tens as most sim-
Dle and convenient: and this will il
lustrate the matter as well as if we
knew the correct relation. .
Ten hosrs. ' then, for example, were
declared to be the equivalent; for pur
poses of 'taxation, of one sheep; ten
sheep the " taxable equivalent of - one
cow, and ten cattle the -taxable equiv
alent of one horse. Each article sub
jected to taxation was empowered to
pay that, tax, subject to one exception,
to be carefully noted., That exception
is that behind all disguises every gov
ernment, in all times; has asserted the
power to determine the specific article
in which taxes may be paid.
, With the table of taxable equivalents
in -his mind, the tax collector when
confronted by the problem of how to
take the tenth of the one horse, aDove
supposed, would easily solve that
problem. The taxable equivalent of
one horse .would be ten -cattle, ; or 100
sheep, or 1,000 hogs. Since the tenth
of a horse could not be taken, it was
commuted into its established equiv
alent of cattle, sheep, or hogs. , The
government would then assert it3 pre
rogative to determine the article in
which the tax due upon the horse
should.be paid, and would take 1 cow,
10 sheep, or 100 hogs at its own op
tion, instead of the impossible tenth or
the horse. , : ... .
Owing to the perpetual annual re
currence of - this - difficulty, it would
inevitably soon come to pass that the
entire list of taxable wealth of each
citizen would be reduced to its taxa
ble equivalent, represented by the
smallest unit of taxable wealth, and
be expressed as so many "hogs."
In the case suppose, the entire tax
able wealth of the supposed citizen
would be expressed In the tax list as
4,000 hogs, although in fact consist
ing of 1 horse; 10 cows, 100 sheep and
1,000 hogs. And this would be cor
rect, because 4,000 hogs would.be tue
taxable equivalent of the articles sup
posed, r v..- ; - . ' "
Now, it is perfectly manifest that if
all taxable wealth should be habitual
ly extended on the tax lists, not by its
specific name, but in its taxable equiv
alent of "hogs,", it must necessarily
come to pass that the word "hog,",
when so used, would stand not as the
name of, a real, concrete animal, but
as a term expressing the smallest
unit of taxable valuation.
But when a government enters the
arena and . engages, , like individuals,
in the struggle for the exclusive pos
session of articles endowed with util
ity, it must necessarily resujt in the
generation of the force of. demand and,
under . a system of appraisal, their val
uation would be what we call their
"value." The necessary result would
be that the whole system, instead of
being buiit (as first, perhaps, intend
ed) upon the relative utility of the
taxable articles, would -in fact be built
upon the relative degree of intensity
of the force of demand for them, re
sulting in a definite quantity of "val
ue," as appraised or estimated or
"valued" by the king's agents, and ex
pressed by means of the word or
term "hog," adopted as the symbol of
the quantity of taxable value, thus
made the "unit of taxation."
But in the absence of "coin," all
taxes are necessarily payable in the
articles taxed, and thefr quantity of
"valuation," for taxation and as a
means of paying that tax, being nec
essarily identical, their quantity of
"valuation" would be expressed by the
number of "hogs" to which each ar
ticle was. equal. The "valuation" or
"value" of each taxable article would
thus ' be expressed by the symbol
"hog," which in connection with the
numerals has thus become the "stand
ard of money." But whenever the
quantity of valuation or value of an
article Is expressed in the "term of
money," that expression is its "price."
Price is always a valuation, expressed
in a money symbol,; aided by "the
(Continued Next Week.)
MARCH 5, 1303.
The readers of this papef will be
pleased to learn that there is at least
one dreaded disease that science has
been able to cure In all its stages .and
that Is Catarrh. - Hall's Catarrh Cure
is the., only positive cure now. known
to the medical fraternity. Catarrh be
ing a constitutional disease, requires
a constitutional treatment. T Hall's
Catarrh Cure is taken internally, act
ing directly upon the blood and mucous
surfaces of the system, thereby de-
strovine the foundation of the dis
ease, and giving, the patient strength
by building up the constitution ana
assisting nature in doing its" work.
The DTODrietors have so much faith
In its curative powers, that they offer
One" Hundred Dollars for any case
that it fails to cure. Send for list of
testimonials. Address, -F.
J. CHENEY & Co., Toledo, O. 1
Sold by druggists,x75c. -
.Hall's Family, Pills are the best. '
Pure Bred Seed Corii.
REID'S YELLOW. DENT.
The corn that pays the rent. The acknowledged
king: of the corn belt, tweeted, safe, sound seed,
sent on approval in the ear. Write today for de
scriptive circular of pure bred corn., . .; -
CM. RICHARDSON, ' !
Buffalo Hart. ill. (Sangamon Co.)
FREE TREATMENT! !
Rheumatism, Uout, L.urobso, Neuralgia,
Catarrh, Liver and Kidney Troubles, Heart
Weakness and all diseases arising from impure
blood. We vrill send you a complete trial treatment
CBCC only aaklng that w en you are cured you
rnCCf will rwommend our remedy toothers. Write
today. CtlARARTBi 1UID! CO., Utpt. , Oak r.rk. III.
D J Par R Li
1 Fit EE i
ggoon the Sure Hutch isi eally auto-
improvement of yew. Don't pay
don ble price for old sty le machines.
i-ur imik miu xree trial offer.
SURE HATCH INCUBATOR CO.,
viaj wsnier, aes M vwumeut, Uhlo.
Vineyards on Shares.
soi0M stamp for oufHALT CROP
wblcb uplMBs bow w. fur-
nl.ii rwpoMlbt pMpto witk H AKDT
FKUIT TRIES AND TINES tor
comaercial orehftrdtac on fthani. Ad4nM
The Gardner Nurecry Company.
Box 146. Ozae. Iowa.
- w - 1
isau iruuuauu nui ks
Iso well that wedont
ask you to buy It !
run you try u. uumy t
iftutom.ne: crtail in re
mits. May wenodyoaon.
on trial UaUloiruo rro.
" EVioney in Poultry.
Our new 68-p. illustrated
book tells how to make it.
Aim how to feed, breed, grow and
market poultry for best results.
Plana for houaea, diseasei, cures, how
to kill line, mitei and gives many valu
able receipts. Illustrates and describes I
largest pure-bred poultry establishment
'.'Choice Seed Potatoes"
We have a fine lot of hand picked
seed potatoes consisting of Early
Ohio and Early Michigan at-75 cents
a bushel. A limited number "of Won
derful at 80 cents a bushel. No small
' L. B. HARRISON & SON,
Pure Bred Seed Corn in the Ear.
Leroy Homines, Box iW, Martinsyille, 111.
and brooder on trial. Be your
own judge. Improved automatic
regulator keeps the temperature
exactly ripht. Ko night work. No
complications. . Everybody suc
ceeds. Your money back If you
say so. atalogue frre. vBi RB 1N
cubatoeCo.,Box w 23,Cniaha,Neb
WitltOur 1501 GrinrJer
any 8 or 10 loot V Ind Ml'.t now
Itiiupintr your water will also
grind all kinds of grain. A great
in h eti ice at a bargain to intro
duce. - ' . - ,
K. B. WIJCGER-
S32 Kenwood Terrace, Chicago,
Trees of Various Kinds
Adapted to the western climate, at very
reasonable prices, can be obtained from
the Jefferson County Nurseries, Jansen,
Neb. Address box 25. D. D. Thiesen,
Jansen, Neb." Send for catalogue.' .
TIFFANY'S Sure Death to
Lice (Powder) sprinkled
la the nest keeps your
fnorla fMa fmm linn UnwinMA
hen and the little chicks will
"Linnid" Irillu mirnci inotontln
Sprinkle bed for hogs, roosts
for fowls. Box powder forlit-.
tie turkeys and chicks post
paid 10c. We want agents.
THE TIFFANY CO.,
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