Image provided by: University of Nebraska-Lincoln Libraries, Lincoln, NE
About The Wageworker. (Lincoln, Neb.) 1904-???? | View Entire Issue (July 5, 1907)
mmeini Wfln Maw
Of AH the Cbirmiirjg and
Is 4b fj!y sre
The passing of Mrs. William Mc
Kinley appreciably depleted the list of
surviving White House ladies, to the
point that they have become almost
as few as living ex-presldents and of
this latter there Is only one. While
Mrs. McKlnley, by reason of the con
tinuing illness which had for many
years beset her, could scarcely be
looked upon as an active figure in
social life at the executive mansion,
her Influence on the American nation,
through the thoroughly sympathetic
relations she enjoyed with her hus
band, was not slight.
There have, , In the course of our
comparatively very brief history, been
gay White Houses and quiet White
rumps to tne latter class Deionc
administrations of William Mc
Klnley and Theodore Roosevelt and of
some earlier executives. Of the for
mer, Dolly Madison Is generally
looked upon as the most notable ex
ample, with the period of Orover
Cleveland's occupancy of the throne
as a close second by reason of the
great public Interest which attended
his marriage with Miss Frances Fol
som. The Roosevelt Regime.
Certainly, of recent years, the
Cleveland regime must stand out as
the most socially Important, In any
consideration of the activities of the
ladles of the White House. Mrs. Mc
Klnley, practically an Invalid, had not
the strength necessary to the prosecu
tion of a vigorous social campaign.
Mrs. Roosevelt has not the Inclination.
She has been ever a retiring woman,
content with her family and her home
life,- caring nothing at all for the pomp
and circumstance that go with high
Whatever gaiety of the sort Wash
ington expects from the executive
mllv hoc hAAn tn Vm ri n (n dim fA
. Nicholas Lone worth, formerly
enjoyed a national popularity which
few ladles of the White House have
The wife of President Benjamin
Harrison was never particularly prom
inent in Washington fashion.
President Arthur's administration
was unrelieved by the presence of a
An Everyday Heroine.
'Lucretla Rudolph Garfield was es
sentially a homebody. She had been
a school teacher in Ohio before she
and James A. Garfield were married.
She took no highfalutin notions to
Washington, when she went there as
the first lady in the land. She was a
farmer's daughter, and her ways were
plain. The Hon. A. M. Pratt, of Bayou,
O., telling of the lives and loves of the
Garflelds some years ago, said:
"Mrs. Garfield sough' d taught
scholars In painting--" wing in
my, then very insignificant, village.
She did not get very large classes and
lived In my house, the guest and
friend of my then wife. The future
president was frequently entertained
at my table; he a young, strong, great
hearted, laree-headed vnuth. hut twn
years iron college, nopeful. full of life
and push; she graceful, sweet, ami
able, retiring, with a disposition as
lovely as a star-lit sky both poor.
Their fortune was their youth, health
hearts, Intellects, hope and, glad am I
to say, love."
Mrs. Garfield before her elevation,
was very often compelled to do much
of her own housework. Ten years be
fore she went into the White House
she wrote her husband, from their
farm home, a letter which shows the
lines of ber character, and which, in
part. Is as follows:
"I am riid to tell that out of all the
toll and disappointments of the sum
mer just ended I have risen up to a
victory; that silence of thought since
you have been away has won for my
spirit a triumph. I read something
like this the other day: 'There is no
healthy thought without labor, and
thought makes the laborer happy.'
Perhaps this is the way I have been
able to climb up higher. It came to
me one morning when I was making
bread. I said to myself, 'Here I am,
compelled by an Inevitable necessity
to make our bread this summer. Why
not consider It a pleasant occupation
Stately Sstrgss of
and make it so by trying to see what
perfect bread I can make?'
"It seemed like an inspiration, and
the whole of life grew brighter. The
very sunshine seemed flowing down
through my spirit into the white
loaves, and now I believe my table Is
furnished with better bread than ever
before; and this truth, old as creation,
seems just now to have become wholly
mine that I need not be the shrink
ing slave of toil, but its regal mis
tress, making whatever I do yield me
its best fruittf You have been king of
your work ij long that maybe you
laugh at me for having lived so long
without my crown, but I am too glad
to have found it at all to be entirely
discontented, even by your merri
ment." Mary Lincoln's Ambitions.
Mary ' Todd Lincoln, wife of the
other American' president to meet
death by assassination, held from
early youth the ambition to marry
a man who should rule the nation.
She picked out as her choice Abra
ham Lincoln, and this at a time
when her selection seemed to have
little of recommendation in it. She
refused the offer of marriage of
Stephen. A. Douglas, and wedded the
man she was sure was to go to Wash
ington as the chief of America. She
realized her ambition and went to the
capital, holding her first reception
March 9, 1S61. This is how an old
timer recalls that occasion:
"Mrs. Lincoln stood a feV paces
from her husband, assisted by her
sisters, Mrs. Edwards and Mrs. Ba
ker, together with two of her nieces,
and was attired in a rich pink moire
antique, pearl ornaments and flowers
in her hair and hands. She is a
pleasant looking, elegantly appearing
lady of perhaps 40, somewhat inclined
to stoutness, but, withal, fine looking
It was the proudest day of Mrs.
Lincoln's life. Laura C. Holloway, in
speaking of the influence of Mrs. Lin
coin of official America, Is Inclined to
the belief that much of unfortunate
effect was due to Mrs. Lincoln's lack
Plucky Dolly Madison.
Of a happier tone was the White
House experience of Dorothy Payne
Madison, wife of the president of
that name. Her family came from
Virginia, and she, herself, despite the
fact of her North Carolina birth, al
ways took pride in referring to her
self as a daughter of the Old Do
minion. When her family removed to
Philadelphia and joined the Quaker
sect. Mistress Dorothy was brought
up in that severe doctrine. She mar
ried, very young, John Todd, a Phila
delphia lawyer, and was a widow at
22. Her second marriage to the
then Congressman Madison took
place less than a year after the death
of Mr. Todd.
Mrs. Madison's disposition was of
the sunniest. She proved an inval
uable ally when her husband was
elected president and moved to Wash
ington. At that early day of our his
tory, Washington was little less than
a wilderness. Steamboats were just
coming in,' railroads were unknown
Five hundred mile trips on horse
back were frequently taken, even by
women. The times were rough. Mrs.
Madison, however, with the softening
influences which were hers from
birth, made of the president's home
a court of politeness, fashion and
charm. She made for her husband
friends by the hundred and was never
happier than when presiding at the
parlor cabinet. That was her history
for awhile the mainspring In the
scheme of happiness. Then came the
darker side of things, wars and
rumors of wars, the bayonets of the
British gleaming in the Washington
sunshine and American officials in
danger of sudden death. Just how
the volatile lady bore herself under
these changed conditions Is well
shown in a letter she wrote to her
sister at Mount Vernon:
"Tuesday, August 23, 1814.
"Dear Sister My husband left me
yesterday morning to join Gen.
Winder. He inquired anxiously
whether I had courage or firmness
to remain in the president's house
until his return on the morrow or
succeeding day, and on my assur
ance that I had no fear but for him,
and the success of our army, h left
Dolly Madison. j
me, beseeching me to take care ol
myself, and of the cabinet papers,
public and private. I have since re
ceived two dispatches from him, writ
ten with pencil; the last is alarming,
because he desires that I should be
ready at a moment's warning to en
ter my carriage and leave the city;
that the enemy seemed stronger than
had been reported, and that it might
happen they would reach the city.
with intention to destroy it.
"I am accordingly ready; I have
pressed as many cabinet papers into
trunks as to fill one carriage; our
private property must be sacrificed,
as It is impossible to secure wagons
for its transportation. I am deter
mined not to go myself until I see
Mr. Madison safe and he can accom
pany me as 1 hear of much hostility
towards him. Disaffection stalks
around us. My friends and acquaint
ances are all gone, even Col. C, with
his hundred men, who were stationed
as a guard In this inclosure. Frencfl
John (a faithful domestic) with his
usual activity and resolution, offers
to spike the cannon at the gate and
lay a train of powder which would
blow up the British should they enter
the house. To the last proposition 1
positively object, without being able,
however, to make him understand
why all advantages in war may not
On the following day, she wrote:
"Will you believe it, my sister?
We have had a battle or skirmish
near Bladensburg, and I am still here
within sound of the cannon. Mr.
Madison comes not, may God pro
tect him! Two messengers, covered
with dust, come to bid me fly; but I
wait tor him. At this late hour a
wagon has been procured. I have had
it filled with plate and most valuable
portable articles belonging to the
house; whether it will reach its
destination, the Bank of Maryland, or
fall into the hands of British soldiery,
events must determine. Our kind
friend, Mr. Carroll, has come to
hasten my departure, and is in a very
bad humor with me because I insist
on waiting until the large picture of
Gen. Washington is secured, and it
requires to be unscrewed from the
wall. This process was found to be
too tedious for these perilous mo
ments; I have ordered the frame to
be broken, and the canvas taken out
it is done, and the precious portrait
placed in the hands of two gentlemen
of New York for safe keeping. And
now, my dear sister, I must leave this
house, or the Tetreating army will
make me a prisoner in it by filling up
the road I am directed to take. When
I shall again write to you, or where
I shall be to-morrow, I cannot tell."
Rachel Jackson's Sad History.
A very sad history was that of
Rachel, wife of , President . Andrew
Jackson. Early in life she had con
tracted a marriage which had result
ed unfortunately, and, on a divorce
being granted or, as was thought at
the time, granted she married An
drew Jackson. The repetition of the
report that this marriage took place
before a divorce had positively separ
ated the woman from her ' first hus
band, Robards, so worked upon Mrs.
Jackson as to aggravate a heart affec-
tion which had given her much
trouble. 1 .
The fact that a second ceremony
positively united Jackson and the
daughter of Col. John Donelson, was
ignored in. the gossip attendant upon
the lives of the parties, and in the
campaign for the presidency made by
Jackson, ' his enemies made much
capital of the situation. Just as she
was preparing to leave for Washing
ton to rule as mistress of the execu
tive mansion, Mrs. Jackson overheard
a gathering of women in a room ad
joining hers in a hotel discussing her
with a freedom and malice that re
sulted In her complete prostration
and subsequent death.
Other Ladies of the White House.
Other women who have graced the
White House have, each, their places
in history. Martha Washington, Lucy
Webb Hayes, Julia Dent Grant, Mar
tha Patterson, who aided her father.
President Johnson; Mrs. Andrew
Johnson,. Harriet Lane, the beloved
niece of President Buchanan, Abigail
Fillmore, Mrs. James K. Polk, Letitia
Christian Tyler, Angelica Van Buren,
Mrs. Martin Van Buren, Louisa Cath
erine Adams and Martha Jefferson.
Their impression on their country's
future has ' been scarcely less defined
than was the mark made by the dis
tinguished men whose names they
bore. For the social influence Is every
bit as important as the political influ
ence, and its victories, though unoffi
cial, just as pronounced.
The population of the world is 1,
400,000,000; of whom 35,124,000 die
every year. The births amount to
36,792,000 every year, or more than
one a second.
CALLED JUDGMENT OF GOD.
Thief's Death at Hands of Child
. Whose Parents He Had Robbed.
The New York ' Sunday World's
correspondent in Budapest sends it
the following account of a recent
tragedy in the village of Kaposvar,
Janos Verga, a stock farmer, sold
some oxen for 900 crowns and con
cealed the money in his house.
Ferenez Gal, a ne'er-do-well of the
village, knew of this transaction and
determined to get the money. He
watched the house until he saw
Varga and his wife leave it. Then
he entered and had no difficulty in
finding the money, which he pock
eted. As he was about to leave he no
ticed sitting in a corner, staring si
lently and intently at him, the Vargas
six-year-old daughter. Realizing that
she had watched his theft, he deter
mined to . get rid of this witness
against him. He threw a rope over a
beam in the ceiling and tied a noose,
in one end of it. Picking up the little
girl, he tried to persuade her to put
her head into the noose, saying it was
a nice game.
"How?" she asked.
"I'll show you," said the robber,
Gal put down the little girl, drew up
a chair, stood upon it and put his
head through the noose.
"Like this," he said, again laugh
ing, is if it was all a game he was
playing with the girl.-
The child pulled the chair away
suddenly; the robber fell, his neck
in the noose and was strangled to
The child watched her victim's
death struggles until they ceased,
then went outside to await for her
parents. Whien they returned she
took them to the room where the
dead thief still dangled and told
them in great glee what had taken
place. The 900 crowns were found
in the pockets of the robber and the
six-year-old child is now the heroine
of the village, where the event is
called a "judgment of God."
New Orleans Cities of the Dead.
"New Orleans has several miniature
cities within its boundaries, and they
are the cities of the dead," said
Louis W. Le Branc 'of the Crescent
"I mean," he explained, "that every
cemetery in New Orleans is a minia
ture city. They are built above the
ground and laid out . in streets, just
cs the larger city. Every house is of
marble and some of the tombs are
miniature. In them are buried many
men who won fame under the domin
ion of Spain and France. In them, too,
are to be found inscriptions -that tell
of sweet Creole romances, such as
that of Jeanne Laclede, the popular
singer of nearly a century ago, who
died df" broken 'heart.
Certain days are set apart, accord
ing to . the old French Catholic cus
tom for visiting these miniature cit-.
ies, and on these days they are crowd
ed all day long. As they were built
so long ago they are now in the cen
ter of the city and at night low weird
indeed. Long ago it was found neces
sary to build the cemeteries above the
ground, because of the fact that the
city itself is below the level of the
Voice of Experience.
A young girl recently went to her
aunt on a momentous occasion. She
explained that a gentleman was com
ing to see her. ,
"I am sure he likes me," she sobbed,
"and and I think he means to pro
pose. I don't like to ask mother how
I should act under the circumstances,
"Do you like him? interrupted
"Very much," observed her niece.
"Enough to marry him?"
The girl blushed and replied in the
"Then," said aunty, with an air of
authority, "don't let there be any
shilly-shallying. When he' pops, don't
turn red and look down at the carpet.
Just throw your arms around his neck,
look him full in the face and begin
talking about the furniture."
A Korean Romance.
A romantic little story comes from
the Ckuk San district, says the Korea
Daily Times. One of the residents
having died of illness, his only wife
declared her intention of killing her
self. Arguing that it was not , right
for a woman to remain alive after
her husband was dead and that she
would be far happier if she followed
him she put her plan Into execution
and committed suicode the same
night. She was only 20 years of age,
"Why should my anxious breast re
pine because my youth has fled?" she
sang with great feeling in the hotel
"Were you married to the youth or
only engaged?" asked an impudent
debutante who stood near the piano.
Mrs. Brown How do you do, Mrs,
Miller? Why haven't you been to see
me? It is six months since you last
Mrs. Miller Dear me! Can it be
possible that it is six months since my
husband has given me any diamonds?
A Fresh Clerk.
Customer What have you got that
Is strictly fresh?
Grocer One moment, please. Here,
Johnny, wait on the lady.
Minneapolis. A beltmakers union
was recently formed here.
San Francisco. Retail grocery
clerks are forming a union.
Toronto, Canada. Guelph stove
workers are out on strike.
Winona, Minn. A new union of
electrical workers has been organized.
Chico, Cal. A local of the American
Federation of Musicians was organ
Newark, N. J. Union men succeed
ed in defeating a nonunion clothing
manufacturer for a place on the city
Toledo, O. The International, con
vention of the bartenders' union will
not be held this year. It will meet in
this city next year.
Grand Forks, N. D. A new union of
carpenters has been formed. The
union starts with a big membership
and bright prospects.
Chicago. Over 4,000 freight han
dlers are negotiating with railroads
for an advance in wages of two and
one-half cents an hour.
Rochester, N. Y. The International
Association of Car Workers will revise
Its constitution at the annual conven
tion to be held here next October.
Edinburgh. The' Scottish Coopera
tive society was organized in 1868
with a capital of less than $9,000.
Now it has a capital of more than
New York. Many members of the
United Association of Plumbers, Gas-
fitters and Steamfitters are urging
that the organization establish a home
for the aged and infirm, along the
same lines as the printers.
Cincinnati, O. The latest labor or
ganization is the Milkers' union, which
has received .a charter from the Amer
ican Federation of Labor. It is com
posed of men who do the actual work
in supplying the city with milk.
.Cleveland, O. The amalgamation
of the International Railway Boiler
makers and the Master Boilermakers'
association was effected at the joint
convention held here recently. The
two associations have been rivals.
Arlzaba, Mexico. The strike In the
textile mills, involving more than 25,-
000 operatives, has been practically
settled by concessions, and those- op
eratives who bad not left the city In
search of employment elsewhere have
returned to work. ?.n 5; v-.i
Litchfield, 111. All the machinists in
the employ of the Litchfield Foundry
and Machine company walked out on
a strike because Superintendent Dan
Sweeney refused to reinstate two men
who had been discharged because of
disobeying the rules of the company.
It is believed the strike will lead to
other labor complications here.
Washington. According to United
States Consul Alexander Heingart
ner of Riga, the conditions governing
the politico-economic life of Russia
during the last two or three years
have influenced manufacturing indus
tries unfavorably; the output of sev
eral branches has been materially re
duced, and that of others have ceased
New York. Remarkable strides
have been made by the Commercial
Telegraphers' union during the last
few mouths, and officials of the organi
zation now boast that the membership
of the international body has passed
the 10,000 mark. Its strength has in
creased so rapidly that the union now
ranks among the best in the country.
Five thousand new members since last
October is the record set by the union.
' San Francisco, Cal. The telephone
linemen have defied the Pacific coun
cil of the International Brotherhood of
Electrical workers and refused to
obey their council, which ordered the
men to return to work because their
strike was unauthorized and in viola
tion of an agreement with the com
pany. Their charter may be revoked,
San Francisco. The Japanese In
dustrial society is planning a move
ment to raise the price of . Japanese
iabor throughout the United States.
It desires to advance wages 40 per
cent, in every line where Japanese la
bor is employed. , As yet it Is an en
tirely local measure, but the Japanese
in every city will be requested to act
in conjunction. The society also be
lieves in the eight-hour day.
Aurora, 111. An increase in wages
has been granted by the officials of the
Aurora, Elgin and Chicago Electric
railway to the members of the Broth
erhood of Interurban Trainmen em
ployed on the various branches of the
third rail line. The new contract was
drawn up last evening. For the first
year the men will receive 23 cents an
hour, second year 26 cents and after
the second year 29 cents.
Buffalo, N. Y. Work on the docks
of the Union Furnace company Is
progressing without interruption., The
Longshoremen's union has furnished
men to take the place of the striking
ore handlers, and no further trouble is
Boston. The Boilermakers' union,'
the members of which are on strike
for a ten per cent, wage Increase, has
t again declined the bosses' offer of a
7 per cent raise. The men original
ly asked for 15 per cent, but .agreed
to compromise on a ten per cent, raise,
and struck for it when the bosses said
that 7 was the best they could do.
Taunton, Mass. A new local of
horseshoers has lately been formed. -
Philadelphia. The Hapgood child
labor bill was defeated in the Penn
sylvania house recently on the ground .
that, as amended, the bill was - un- -
Hamburg, Germany. The "Patriot--
Ic Association of Labor Unions"
has been formed as a means of oppos- ,
ing socialists in the labor movement '
of that country. ' ,
Burr Oak, 111. One hundred and
twenty-five freight handlers and clerks
have gone on strike against the Rock
Island road because their demands for
more wages were refused.
' Minneapolis, Minn. Fourteen or
ganizations have affiliated with the
Minnesota State Federation of Labor
since April 15, and this number may
be doubled before the convention
meets this month.
San Francisco. Street Carmen's
union having failed to secure the .
eight-hour day In the recent arbitra- .
tion proceedings, will ask the board
of supervisors to insert an eight-hour
provision in its future franchises.
Edinburgh. T-he Scottish . concilia
tion board decided to concede , six
and one-fourth per cent, advance in
wages at its meeting in Glasgow, to
come into effect at once. This is the
third advance in the present year.
The concession affects 80,000 miners. !
Detroit, Mich. After several weeks'
correspondence between the two or
ganizations, the National Foundry
men's association has decided to co
operate with the Pacific Coast Foun-.
drymen's association in the effort to
break the strike which exists In sev
eral branches of the iron trade along
Washington. The latest and most,
up-to-date form of government sick
insurance is now being considered by
Holland. The proposed Insurance Is
obligatory, and extends to all labor
ers employed regularly. Every labor-'
er,. 16 years old, who receives less
than $480 a year, is obliged to insure
himself and family against the risk of
Swansea, England. A conference
between the unions engaged in the
steel trade and the employers result
ed in an eight-hour, working , day. be
ing conceded; also other concessions
were granted, by means of which the
Jower-paid men will not suffer in pock
et through the reduction, of hours.
This decision affects 3,000 men.. It
will provide work for 1,500 men ad
ditional. ' ' '-.
Boston. 'Cigar Factory . . Tobacce
Strippers', union, recently,, .presented
an increased wage list to the cigar
manufacturers. The C. L-. U. unani
mously indorsed the requests as fair
and equitable and pledged full support
of organized labor in Boston in any
efforts 1 necessary to' obtain a better
ment of wages and conditions for the
500 women and girls ' who compose the
' Albany, N. Y. A decision which
will be far-reaching regarding the em
ployment of women was handed down
by the New York court of appeals
when it held that the penal law pro
viding that women shall be employed
in factories only within certain hours
is unconstitutional, and thereby sus
taining a decision of the lower courts
The court maintains that adult wom
en must be recognized as on an equal1
plane with men in matters of employ
ment, and that the state cannot exer
cise any authority to prohibit or limit
their hours of work.
San Francisco. There is a move
ment on foot to organize the salesmen
in cigar stores. ''.-. ''..'
Toronto, Canada. It Is possible
that the dispute between the master
plumbers and men will be submitted
Fair Haven, Vt. There is a strike
of the slate- workers in and around
this city that has practically tied up
all the quarries in the vicinity. The
men are all members of the Interna
tional Union of Slate Workers, and
are connected with the American Fed
eration of Labor. The strike Is for a
reduction of the work day from ten
hours to nine hours, without reduc
tion of pay. The wages have been $2
and $2.50 a day of ten hours.
San Francisco, Cal. Local Union
No. 22, United Brotherhood of. Car
penters and Joiners, has unanimously
adopted a resolution to the effect that
"any member known, to violate any
law of the state or city by interfering
in any way with strike, breakers or
nonunion men or riding on any car
run by a nonunion man, shall be fined
$25 for the first offense, and the fine
increased by $10 for each succeeding
offense." , , ,
Washington. Out of every s five
women over. 16 years of age the coun
try over, one is a bread winner. As
if this were not startling enough, out
of all the women In the country be
tween the ages of 16 and 20, which is
really the time of girlhood, one in
three is a wage earner.
Spring Valley, 111. John Mitchell,
president of the United Mine Workers
of America, who has been here since
April 28, most of the time in the hos
pltal, left for Indianapolis ' to resume
his work. He was a special guest at
the St. Margaret's hospital picnic here,
his first public appearance. J
Powered by Open ONI