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About The Wageworker. (Lincoln, Neb.) 1904-???? | View Entire Issue (June 2, 1905)
THE WAGE WORK
Tne Wageworker I :
j Advertisers j
A Newspaper with a Mission and without a Muzzle that is published in the Interest of Wageworkers Everywhere.
-LTPTCOIjN, NEBRASKA, FITN"E 2, 1905
. NO. 8
t . -
In pursuance of a custom established a year aero Lincoln Typo
graphical Union No. 209, assisted
served JMinday, May 28 as memorial day, and on that day especial
tributes of respect were paid to the honored dead of the union.
In the morning the Union and Auxiliary to the number of nearly
fifty gathered at the Lindell hotel, and at 10 :30 marched in a bo jy
to the First Congregational church. Rev. J. E. Tuttle, the pastor,
preached a sermon on Brotherhood, and from the text, SA11 ye
are brethren," he drew a lesson of fraternity and humanity that made
a deep impress upon the minds of his hearers. He pointed out the
fact that before men could be brothers in fact, with all of the love
that brothers have, there must be the tie of a common fatherhool,
and this common fatherhood exists only in God. As earthly broth
ers look up to and emulate the example of the elder brother, so
brethren in the world, acknowledging a common fatherhood, should
look up to and emulate the example of the elder brother, Chirst
Jesus. The sermon was prepared with especial reference to the
Typographical Union's mmorial, and the members appreciated the
earnestness and the sentiment of the sermon. The morning service
of song was along patriotic lines, and was fully appreciated.
In the afternoon the Union and the Auxiliary took a special car
to Wyuka, and on the lot owned by the Union memorial services
were held. Rev. Samuel Zane Batten, pastor of the First Baptist
church opened the service with prayer, and the assembly then sang
"Blest Be the Tie that Binds." Harry T. Dobbins, editor of the
Evening News, and Jesse E. Mickel, both members of the Union,
clelivered addresses, which will be found below. The assembly then
sang '"Nearer, My God, to Thee," and then as the roll of the Union's
dead was called members of the Auxiliary stepped forward and lay
at the foot o fthe banner the memorial flowers brought as tributes to
the departed members. Miss Ruth Walter then sounded "taps," after
which the graves pi all the Union dead were visited and decorated
with flowers. The ceremonies were impressive and were witnessed
by a large number who were attracted to the spot by the singing and
the sight of the Union banner.
Address of H. T. Dobbins.
Sorrow is the Universal heritage of the human race. Fortunate,
indeed, are they who have journeyed far along the path that
stretches from the cradle to the grave without feeling grief's grip
upon the heartstrings. As we have all lived, so we have all suffered,
and in the crucible of affliction all hatred and envy are transmuted
into pity and compassion. ' -
The tread of .death seems to grow heavier with the passing years.
Here he halts to grasp the high and the mighty there he stops to
lay his palsying touch upon the lowly. The wail of the stricken
marks his progress from home to home, and in his train all is sad
ness. x .: , , -
Within the confines of this citadel of the dead wherein today
we stand are unnumbered sepulchres beneath which rest many of
those we loved and lost in the long ago. Within the circle of this
iot whereon we are gathered lie mouldering back to the p.shes from
which they sprung that which once was mortal of those ve called
It is no meaningless ceremonial that calls us here today, no. per
functory fulfillment of a craftsman's oath, no blind obedience to the
mandate of a superior officer. We are here because we have heard
within us that call to break the shell of convention and to twine from
the happy recollections of these our dead a wreath of pleasant mem
ories wherewith" to adorn their abiding places.
There is none of us who has not upreared within his heart some
shrine before which he pays his silent devotions, some misty tomb
whereon the offerings of a fragrant memory are laid. There is no
family, no nation, no race, but that in obedience to inner instinct,
pauses now and then to recall the past and those who were part and
parcel of it, to live again, insofar as fading remembrance can revivify
hat which is dead and gone, the hours and the scenes implanted
within the pale of reminiscence.
Out of this feeling has grown the beautiful custom of holding
memorial days, days upon which we' may gather beneath the cloud
embroidered canopy, of heaven's blue and there intone the litany of
praise for those who have gone before. , This feeling and this custom
.re as old as humanity itself. Man has always felt an intuitive desire
for memorials. In the past this has been expressed in many way?.
Nations have reared monuments of marble, erected statues of bronze
md pierced the arched sky with their pointed columns in honor of
heroes and statesmen who trod their brief march across the stage of
fame and left upon their fellows the impress of their prowess. Na
tions, too, have set aside days whereon to celebrate great events in
Mieir national life or history. Thus we have our Washington's birth
day, Decoration day, oFurth of July, Labor day an l Thanksgiving
day. This same instinct is shown in the desire of the surviving
members of families to mark the resting place of their departed
with shafts of marble or of granite.
Forty and five years ago this nation, was plugged into fratri
cidal strife. In the determination of the great questions involved
in that struggle thousands of lives were sacrificed upon the altar of
patriotism. Out of it arose the graceful custom of remembering the
heroic dead by setting aside each year a day; just when the sun
shines the brightest, just when the flowers give forth their sweetest
and most penetrating perfumes, that the nation might pause and
drop upon their turf-topped habitations a loving tear and a bright
blossom and to drape the thin air above them in folds of : he flag they
followed to glory's gate.
The various fraternal orders, too, have taken up the custom, and
yearly a day is appointed upon which the members of the numerous
lodges and camps meet and pay ceremonial visits to the graves of
their dead. It is a pretty custom and one worthy of preservation. It
is fitting, too, that you craftsmen should also set aside one day in
the year to forget the cares of everyday life and pay your devoirs to
your dead'. It is hot a melancholy task upon which you are set to
day. Providence has so ordained that gentle time heals all wounds,
mental as well as physical. The mother bowed above the bier of
her child, the husband kneeling before the inanimate form of his
wife, the children bent over the toil worn, kindly face of father or
mother clasped in the embrace of everlasting sleep, grope in an
anguish the depths of which not even the plummet of human sym
pathy can sound. Yet as the days go by and the numbing effects of
the blow pass away, a tender grief, a cherished sorrow, supplant the
bitterness, and in time they can say with sincerity, "it was all for
the best.' "After life's fitful fever they sleep well." ,
Life is a puzzle men have sought in vain to solve. We know not
whence we came and we know not whither we go. A little sunshine,
a little rain, a little joy, a little toil; there are tears and there is
laughter ; there is love and there is sorrow and we call it life. And
what a brief span it covers ! How short the time between the hour
that ushers us into the world and that which tolls our leaving it;
Our consent is not asked to our birth and it is denied to us in our
death. We lift our puny hands in vain to stay the flight of time,
we strut our brief hour upon the stage and flit unnoticed into the
We are standing here today on sacred ground, ground dedicated
to holy purposes, the resting place of the dead. This is the city of
the silent. Its streets are grass-grown, its houses windowless, its
inhabitants mute.. . From them no message comes and to them we
can but bare our aching hearts and breathe our love. Theirs are
indeed "the voiceless lips of the unreplying dead," and soar though
(Continued on Page 4.) , , f t ,
by Capital Auxiliary No. 11, ob
News Notes of Laborers Picked Up at
Home and Elsewhere
The Stereotypers' Union meets on
For union made shoes go to Rogers
The Wageworker's office telephone
is Bell 835. Don't forget it.
The largest line of union made shoes
In the city at Rogers & Perkins.
' Herb Armstead of North Bend, Neb.,
was the guest of Mrs. W. M. Maupin,
his sister, several days this week.
Ten men killed and twenty-five
wounded is the record of a mine dis
aster at Montrose, Colo., on May 29.
The Star ball team has been re-organized
and in a few days will be a
candidate for championship honors.
Why not let the labor organizations
of the city have charge of a rousing
meeting in the interests of a city
The Central Labor Union does not
meet next Tuesday night. The odd
week in May causes a skip of one
A vote against Woodward is a vote
against a man who has no love for
unionism. Let Mr. Woodward remain
The Westera Newspaper Union
press room has a ball team that rather
thinks it can do things to any old craft
nine in town.
Work in the building trades lines
continues remarkably good. There is
a new building going up in nearly
every block in town.
Mrs. S. J. Kent, delegate from the
local Woman's Union Label .League,
and get one new application by that
international convention of the League
begins next Tuesday.
The Brickmakers' ball team went
down to Rocca the other day and
taught the ball tossers of that village
to play the national game.
Before voting for an aldermanic can
didate, make sure that he is in favor of
submitting a proposition to vote bonds
for the purchase of a city park.
Sam Best, former secretary of the
Teamsters' Union, is located in Crete.
He is still interested in unionism and
wants The Wageworker sent to him.
Remember the open meeting of the
Central Labor Union on June 13. T.
W. McCullough, a union man, will
speak on the subject, "The Union or
Closed Shop Contract." Tell your
friends about it.
Foreman Walter Brown of the Frieie
Presse press room is taking a lay-off
and is visiting the old home in Indi
ana. Mr. Brown has not been in the
best of health for some time and hopes
the vacation will put him to the good.
A FEW FABLES IN RHYME
When Justice Limss
It happens every now ana then we
e a contract twixt two men, and
then it is that we observe how justice
from the right will swerve, and let
her scales get out of plumb by free
ing one and cinching some. So com
mon has this come to be that we no
longer blush tj see.
A well known "master of finance
ne'er let go by a single chance to talk
of national honesty, ctean honor and
sound currency; and all who differed
from his plan he dubbed a "bad, dis
honest man." In fact, he posed as one
so pure tnat wrong near mm could
He ran a bank, this honest man, un
til into the ground it ran. While pos
ing bravely night and morn he
'fliers" took in wheat and corn with
money -left within his care. until there
was no money there. He stole the
bank's deposits clean until no more
were to be seen.
While spouting out his "honest" rot
he stole what trusting patrons brought.
While prating of Integrity he stole
upon the strict "q. t." Exposed, he
pulled a tearful face and mourned
about his deep disgrace. And, heed
ing his heartbroken tears, the judge
gave him two little years.
He stole two millions held In trust.
and though his victims raved and
cussed, he salted down a goodly pile
and lived in princely state the while.
But those whom he had robbed and
spoiled got nothing for the years they
toiled. And then, by buying venal
men, this banker never , reached . the
A man who stole a loaf of bread
found vengeance quick brought on his
head. He had a starving babe and
wife and stole to save each precious
life. But what of that? A thief was
he, and dangerous to be left free. In
to the pen twelve years he's thrown.
and loved ones left to starve alone.
If there's a moral herein spread
Tis this Don't steal a loaf of
The Ulterior Motive
- A man there was who claimed to be
a friend of all human'tv, and every
where and all the while he wore a
broad engaging smile. "I love the
man who toils," satd he, "but he
should be forever free f.-om union
rules in every form, for uniens do
men nought but harm."
"The independent workingman,"
s&id he, "I think much better can get
well along than he who tries with
fellow men to organize. The union
teaches strife and hate, supports the
walking delegate, and makes a slave
who should be free and working in
dependently." Much more he said of same effect
till many people did expect this man
would pav the best of wage t work-
ingmen he might engage. And some
here were who lost their head andl
M. E. McKnight, of the Teamsters.
was in Milford several days this week.
Mrs. H. W. Smith has been suffering
for several weeks from a recurrence
of rheumatism. The improved condi
tion of the weather, however, has ma
terially benefitted her. :
Rudge & Guenzel's page advertise
ment in this issue is worthy of your
earnest consideration. The bargains
offered are something unusual and the
values are strictly all right.
The Typographical Union' meets
Sunday. Election of officers is on
tapis and. while there is no competi
tion for the offices considerable in
terest is manifested in the outcome.
The Leatherworkers are preparing
for a sharp struggle over the closed
shop contract when their present con
tract expires this month. The local
is preparing for It.
Governor Douglas of Massachusetts
declares that under no circumstances
will he be a candidate for re-election.
This is good news to the sweatshop
managers and union busters of that
The railway brotherhoods are work
ing hard to make their Fourth of July
picnic, at Seward a ' rousing success,
and the railroad boys have a habit of
winning out in all their enterprises.
The Barbers' ball team is still ready
to meet all comers from the organized
crafts, and will bet a series of shaves
against any old kind of legal tender
that the barber boys can do 'em all up.
Every printer who wants to attend
the Toronto convention should see the
editor of The Wageworker about rates,
etc. The trip may be made at com
paratively small expense, and a glo
rious time is going to be had by those
The Barbers have amicably adjusted
all their differences with the employ
ing barbers. Everything is now har
monious. At no time was there the
least danger of trouble. Employers
and employes met in a spirit of friend
ship, talked the matter over as man to
man, and the result was just what
might have been expected under the
circumstances an agreement satisfac
tory to all concerned.
All members of Carpenters Union,
1055, will take notice that at next
meeting Tuesday, June -.6, the trade
rules are to be revised. Every mem
ber is expected to be present.
Some men deceive themselves only
in their efforts to deceive others.
We get no particular credit for
bearing crosses of our own deliberate
Real genius looks for the right way,
not the easiest way.
into fighting unions led, until he had
an "open shop" and then .' .is love had
sudden stop. -
With men he had disorganized one
day he sprung a sad surprise by post
ing high a cign which meant a wage
cut of nineteen per cent. 1- 1 when
the men complained he said: "Go
each of you and soak your head. You
have no union no recourse so yawp
away until you're hoarse."
Alas, too late the men discerned
their fingers hr.I been badly burned.
The man who claimed to lo e them
so was really out for all the "dough."
He didn't care a snap for men, but
only used thjm up and then stopped
up his ears nd quick did flee to his
fine cottage by the sea.
"In union there is strength," they
say. Twas never truer than today.
And men,, who. listen to the pleas of
Parryites may starve and freeze for all
they think or feel or care their open
shop's not on the square. Thoy mere
ly want the unions dead so they can
pay men less per head.
When men profess great love for you
Twere well all sides of them to view.
The Price of Blood
A man who robbed folk right and
left and did it in a manner deft
through purchased laws and venal
courts ai-d sut-idizing press reports,
hit on a plan to silence blame and
glorify his name and fame likewise
to make his graft secure as long as
time should e'er endure.
He formed a; trust. i coal and oil
and -heaped up high his wealth of
spoil; then when the people kicked
he spent a little bit with wise intent.
He, with deep thought and wisest
care, endowed a college here and
there. And foolish victims with ac
claim paid graceful tribute to his
With schools dependent on his
whim they dared not lay the blame
on him. Indeed, to get more of his
gold, big stories of his good were told;
and students taught to emulate the
ways of him who paid the freight.
'Twas thus he choked our largest
schools and played the faculties for
He thrived by starving women, men
and children by the thousands; then
gave thousands into mission hands to
spread God's word in other lands.
He robbed and wrought his wicked
ways, and with the spoil bought
churchly praise by sending missiona
ries out to spread the gospel's truths
The tears of widows stained his
gold. The sobs of orphans, hungry,
cold; and men with hopeless, broken
hearts who begged a crust in labor's
marts, black marked the coin he gave
so free and bought a name for charity.
And all the blood-bought coin he ten
dered the church snapped up and deep
.When Judas, filled with grief, re
Some Newsy Notes from the Largest
Union in the City
Decoration day, dedicated to the
heroes who gave their lives for the
Union, was loyally observed by the
members of Carpenters Union 1055. Of
course the non-union men worked on.
Comment is unnecessary.
The following contractors have been
J. A. Sumner.
Thos. H. McCaslin.
Henry A. Fricke.
. . Tipton.
Bros. Emberson, Kent and Pirn were
appointed a committee to revise, trade
rules and report at next meeting.
Revised trade rules will also be con
sidered at this meeting. Let every
member be present.
Bro. S. J. Kent's resignation was
laid over with the request that he
work on until he takes up the duties of
his new position.
Three new candidates were initiated.
This makes eighty-one new members
since the early part of last October.'
Only one more month and the new
initiation fee of $10 goes into effect.
Let every member of the Union try
will leave for Chicago Sunday. The
Lincoln is being overrun by carpen
ters from the small towns on the out
The Union made a donation to assist
the Ladies' Label League in sending
a delegate to their national convention
that meets in Chicago June 6. This
band of union men's wives is doing a
splendid work for the cause of union
ism. Every carpenter's wife should
help along by becoming a' member,
Every union man's family should be
enlisted in the battle against Parryism,
which means a lowering of the stand
ard of living of every wage worker. It
means long hours, low wages, the fac
tory slave and the sweater den.
Bro. Mike Dullenty, one or our
staunch union men, left Sunday for
Springfield, 111. We hate to see him
leave, but can not. blame him, for
Springfield is a beautiful place, a
sterling union town, 8 hours and 40
cents per hour, minimum for carpen
Work is reported good in St. Louis
with no trouble for a good union man
to get $4.60 for 8 hours. Hurrah for
the union carpenters of St. Louis!
"And if one is unable to keep the
enemy from crossing the river? ask
ed the pupil.
"In that case," replied the master of
strategy, "the press censor should al
low rumors to circulate that you are
trying to lure him across.
turned the bloody coin his treach'ry
earned, the priests and elders turned
aside, and in their very shame they
cried: It is the price of blood!
Don't touch! God has no use for any
such." The bought a potters' field
straightway "The Field of Blood" 'tis
No matter from whom the money
The blood stains show up just the
A man who cornered wheat and
corn and people's rights looked on
with scorn; who lived in state with
princely pose while thousands 'round
him starved and froze; who thrived
on wants of fellow men 'aad, .gave no
heed' to how.-'OT' when they ate this
man one day went prancing down the
Men hailed him as he passed along
"Behold, he's rich!" exclaimed the
throng. And' women vied to catch
his eye as in his auto he sped by.
He bought a legislature', laws; he
bribed a judge to gain his cause; he
robbed beneath a legr.l guise while
justice only winked her eyes.
He owned a senator or two who did
just what he bade them do; And offi
cers winked at his crimes because
he paid them well betimes. He starved
ten thousand that he might build hos
pitals upon a site where men might
see and point and say. "Such kind
ly men are scarce to day."
He forced the children la the shop
to toil ten hours without a stop. His
sweat shop was to him a thing of
profit unto which to cling. And wid
ows' tears an J . childish moan affect
ed not his heart of stone. His gods
were Money and Applause, and these
he chased without a pause.
An humble man there was, and he
worked hard and long and faithfully.
He'd no desire for lots cf pelf, and
loved his neighbor as himself. The
world of him heard not a word but
hearts about him all were stirred to
love him as a man who tried' to do
the right whate'er betide.
These men died on the self-same
day; their souls together sped away
to where - St." Peter stands nd waits
beside the Great White T-arly Gates.
"Halt!"' Peter cried. "Show cause or
go to nether regions down below.
We're rather choice in company here
you've got to have a record clear."
The rich man had to tell his tale,
and Peter's loo!: made him quick quail.
"Go down telow!" St. Peter cried.
"Your victims all are now inside."
The poor man took one forward pace
and children laughed to see his face.
"Come in," said Peter, "here's your
crown: whom children love we'll not
What boots the richest early goal
To saving your immortal roul?
Last Friday's Lincoln Evening News contained a strenuous edi
torial protest against leasing the labor of the Nebraska convicts to a
manufacturer of shirts and overalls. . ' "
And thereby hangs a little tale. ; . . ' -
First and foremost, The Wageworker endorses the protest of the ,
Lincoln Evening News. But the Wageworker , emphatically dis
sents from the grounds for protest occupied by its esteemed con
temporary.' . . . y -
The Wageworker protests against contracting the labor of con
victs to any man or set of men whose wares will com into compe
tition with -the wares produced by the free labor of "the country ,
That, and that alone, is the base of The Wageworker's opposition to
the convict contract system. ' v '
How is it with the Lincoln Evening News? -,..-
A few citations from history may have some tearing upon this
interesting situation. '"-. -
When the labor of the convcts was farmed" out to a .firm that
made barrels, and the convict competition practically destroyed the -cooperage
business transacted by free labor, not one word of protest
was heard from the Lincoln Evening News, nor any other newspaper.
When, the labor of the convicts was farmed out to the notorious'
Lee Broom and Duster company, and the convici;com,petition ruined
a half dozen free and independent broom factories in Lincoln, Oma-
ha, Fremont and Crete, not one-word of protest was heard from the
Lincoln Evening News, nor any other newspaper. . s.
Now comes a manufacturer of shirts and overalls and seeks to
secure the labor of the convicts and immediately the Lincoln Even
ing News is up in arms. - .; :..
Why? . . :
The Lincoln Evening News says that to farm out the labor-of '
the convicts would spell ruin for three or four local firms engaged in
the manufacture of the same line of goods. , . ,. i
The dear public will please excuse Thd Wageworker for smiling.
Ruin whom? . ' , . ;-
Well, there is the firm of Hermann Bros., for instanceV'scab" '
from Alpha to Omega. '' f
But the welfare of Hermann Bros, is not worrying the Lincoln,
Evening News to any considerable extent. '"V ,
What then? - ' . ' y.
Well, there is the Lincoln Overall and Shirt Co. "scab" from
Hell to Breakfast. V , 1
Now we are getting down to brass tacks. ' , "
But let us go back just a few weeks. -When the legistiture was
in session the free workingmen of Nebraska asked the legislature-to
enact a law compelling the brand "convict made" to be put on all
prison made goods. Not one word of sympathy or support did the
free and independent workingmen of the state get from, the Lincoln
Evening News, or any other daily newspaper in the state. . , 1 .
Why. did the News fail to take as much interest when the -convicts
made brooms as it takes now when it is proposed that the con;
victs make shirts and overalls?; - .' -
Are there any newspaper editors or publishers financially inter-,
ested in the Lee Broom and Duster Company? ' ' - V -
Perhaps and perhaps not. - , ;'7! .'. . -
Are there any newspaper editors or publishers , financially inter
ested in the Lincoln Overall and Shirt Co.? , . s.
O, yes; it does make a difference whose ox is gored, doesn't it?
Let's call the roll.. How many gentlemen interested in the pub
lication of the Lincoln . .vening News are financially interested in
the" Lincoln Overall and Shirt Co.?
When the names of these gentlemen ' are know we may have
some adequate idea of why this sudden interest in freehand inde
pendent labor has made itself manifest.
Free workingmen receive never a sign of help when they ask
that they be relieved from the competition of convict labor. "
But when convict labor threatens to touch the pocket books of a
few eminent gentlemen of local prominence they raise a "holler" and
begin talking about "injury to local industry."
For the toiler not a bit of consideration for thef dollar a sudden
howl for protection. . ,., V,
The Wageworker protests against the leasing of convict labor
to any manufacturer not because
ndustries, but because it is unjust to the law abiding, peaceable,
thrifty, hard working toilers who
homes and support enterprises that
It s a safe bet that the almighty dollar will take care of itself
t'ell with the workingman.
The plea for the protection of
sweat in the News' editorial sanctum. But. when a few paltry dol
lars were endangered the News
leading its protests,
The Wageworker would just
shirts and overalls as to see . them
protests against being compelled to see either. And it bases its
protest on higher grounds thank the Lord ! than the fear of losing
7 or 8 per cent on a few dollars invested in some local enterprise.
The Wageworker ferventlv
News' protest will have the effect
labor of convicts to a manufacturer of shirts and overalls not be-
cSuse The Wageworker is financially' interested in a dinky little
local enterprise employing labor
the whole prison contract system is a damnable outrage upon the
law abiding and free toilers who-haye made this country what it is
THE YOMAN'S UNION LABEL LEAGUE.
Listen to Gratifying Reports and
The Woman's Union Label League held a special meeting last
Monday night, the purpose being
and to give some instructions to
the local at the international contention in Chicago next weeir.
i he committee having in charge
a report that filled the members with
cially it was a huge success, and the
Three new members were admitted and the officers were, in
stalled. It was decided to appropriate for the delegate s expenses
the sum realized from the social, together with $9' donated by the
Bricklayers and $4 donated by the
tary was instructed to tender the
donating to the delegate fund, and
during the social.
Mrs. S. J. Kent, the delegate
for Chicago next- Sunday to participate in the convention, which be-
aSns on Tune 6. No specific instructions were given her, but it is the
sense of the local that the annual
triennial canvention, or convention
substituted. " ,
The newspaper managers of
vertising commissions to the Typographical Unions. The Unions
have made C. W. Post go on advertising to beat the band in order
to make good the losses he has sustained in his little set-to with the
printer boys. X "' . . l , l-ifcij;J
Of the Bovine
it would work an injury to local
obey the laws, pav taxes,, build
are both local, state and national.
' V k
free workingmen never raised the
began sweating blood and double-
as soon see the convicts making
making brooms or barrels. It
hopes that the Lincoln Evening
of preventing the leasing of the
at starvation wages, but because
. . .
Instruct the Delegate to the Inter-
to install the newly elected officers
the delegate elected to represent
the social given last weeK maae
rejoicings.- Financially and so
League profits about 30.
Building Laborers. The secre
thanks of the League to the unions
to Mark Carveth tor his services
from the local League, will leave
convention feature be "opposed, and
called by referendum vote, be '
tine country owe some goodly ad
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