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About The Red Cloud chief. (Red Cloud, Webster Co., Neb.) 1873-1923 | View Entire Issue (Sept. 27, 1923)
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MAXIJHI.1AN-CAIU.OTTA CHRONOLOGY -Vl ' Vffl S-fT ' " ' '" 'Sr '
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(Copy (or Thin Department Supplied br
tin' Ainrrtrnn I oplon Nown 8irvlr
WILL ATTRACT LEGION MEN
STOP BUILDING AIR CRAFT
isr.7 Mnvltnlllun (1RR2-C7) nppoliitod kov
ornor L'unlmnlo-Vi'PPtliin UlnKilom. M:rrled
ls:,sl!pnlto Pn.ln Jimrrx (IROO-TS) elected
president "f Melco; i'lll war.
is:,.r,3 Miiin;lllnn riBlpiuxl Kovcrnorshtp:
literal y work at Mlriinntr (Trieste).
isco Mexico pu-prnded payments; Prance,
On at P.rituln and Spain Intervcnul.
Ixf!'! Prrnrli troops enteiod Mexico City;
Ju-irez retreated to mountains
ISO t Maximilian entered Mexico City as
onipeior of Mexico, supported by French
ISOfi Napoleon III told by United States
to Ret out of Mexico nnd take Mnxlmlllnn
away. Carlotta lied to Kuropc, vainly naked
.ild of Napoleon ind pope; became Insane.
1S07- I'rench troops left Mexico, Maximi
lian captured by .Innrez, tried nnd executed
Juarez resumed ptesldency.
Dy JOHN DICKINSON SHERMAN
I HIS year of l!)':t Is tlio ccntcnnlnl of
the .Monroe Doi-trluc, And Carlottn
bf Mexico Is rejiorted lyln;j in lior
old cliutcitu of lloticliout In Hiiilinnt.
liclltim, at tlio ajit-' of eighty-four,
after llfty-seven years of madness.
iiiereiore me story oi uie niieiuin ot
Nnjioleon III to estnlillsh n French
empire In Mexico in doilanee of tins
Monroe Doctrine mnlceu timely read
ing. lienltn Pablo Juarez, an Indian,
wnfi elected iiresident of Mexico In
1S."8, after eleven years of public
service. Juarez, In defeating Mirumon in the
civil war that followed, exhausted the Mexican
treasury. Suspension of payments In ISCO caused
Kiifjland, France and Spain to Intervene.
Napoleon III saw here a chance to establish In
Mexico the French empire that had failed of es
tablishment in Canada (170.") and In Louisiana
(1S0J). The United States government was 100
busy with tlio HI1 war to make forcible resistance
to violation of the Monroe Doctrine. As the Itrit
Isli nnd Spanish withdrew, he sent over larj;e
French forces. These made war on Juarez, drove
him Into the mountains and In lStSU entered Mex
Napoleon III selected Archduke- Ferdinand Max
lintlluu Joseph, second son of Archduke Francis
Charles of Austria and brother of Kmperor Fran
cis Joseph I, as emperor of tills French empire in
Mexico. Maximilian, then thirty-one, was hand
some and soldler-Hke, with a line education and a
taste for the line arts. lie was living with Car
lotta at Miramnr, near Trieste, a palace that ho
had built for residence. Carlotta Marie Char
lotto Amelle the only tlnughter of Leopold I of
I'.elniuin, was twenty-three and a royal beauty,
"tall, beautiful, graceful, with a gentleness that
won all who met her nnd of courtly and gracious
manner." She spoke fluently In tongues of F.ng
land, France, Germany, Italy and Spain. She was
popular in every court of Europe.
Through French wire-pulling In Mexico, In Sep
tember of 1S0H, a deputation of Mexican notables
arrived at Miramar to ask Maximilian to become
emperor of Mexico. Maximilian, history says, was
reluctant to accept. Hut Carlotta was as ambi
tious as she was able. Francis Joseph was pre
sumably glad to see his popular brother go. Maxi
milian, after the form of n popular election hi
Mexico had been gone through with and Napoleon
had made n secret ngreement with him to support
him with French troops, accepted the throne April
ID, lsv.t, and arrived June 111 in Mexico City to
establish his empire.
Maximilian attempted to establish n mild reign.
Some of the Mexican leaders accepted him. Hut
a large proportion of the Mexicans did not. Juarez,
to whom Maxliiiillan made friendly overtures,
would have none of him. A hitherto unpublished
letter, from Juarez to Maximilian, recently brought
to light, reads:
"I admire your generosity In leaving the father
land In coming to Mexico. Hut I tell you It Isn't
true we aM you on your own free will to accept
the throne. On their own responsibility some
traitors went to Miramnr, only eight or ten of our
"You came hero without nny knowledge of the
country's needs or conditions and jour advisers are
the moM dangerous people in Mexican society. You
promise me security, but I don't trust a man who
deals with traitors. You say that by an under
standing wo could work together for the benelli
of Mexico If I would give more of my talents and
"It H a true history of our time that glnrllles
people who give up their principles and tradition
Pretty GlrlB to Help Entertain Visitors
Attending National Convention
at Sr.n Francisco.
When San Francisco opens Its gates
to the ir.0.0(H members of the Amer
ican Legion expected to lie present at
the llftii annual comcntlon, some of
the nation's prettiest girls will be
ready to show the "doughhoj" and
"gob" visitors about the city. An of
ficial committee, composed of I lie
cllj's society matrons and debutantes,
has been named to work In conjunc
tion wllh tlie convention committee
and will act as hostCKses to sponsor
the many affairs to be held for the
men and women who will attend the
Special entertainment has been ar
ranged for the women of the Ameri
can Legion itUNlllary and other wom
en guests by the committee of the
city's society lenders. Haniitiets and
dinner dances will be tendered the
guests while the Legion men are busy
with convention matters. Hostesses
at these affairs will Include national
leaders and wotkers of the aulllnry
and women prominent In Legton af
fairs In addition to the local recep
Mrs. Alfred Curlier, wife of a Hei
ght!! war veteran and a former war
worker In army cantonments herself,
has agreed to return ftom New York
to assist In entertaining the Legion
visitors during their stay In her na
tive city. Mrs. Curlier will have
only to serve their personal passions, nnibltlens
and imporiousncss. Hut I, who hold the ollice of
president of the republic, nnd who came up from
the lowly classes, will only succumb If Provldenoe
"I shall hold out until the end and ftilllll t.'io
hopes of my countrymen.
"Sometimes It occurs, It Is true, that people are
allowed by faith to attack the holy rights of othen
and threaten the rights of those who defend their
nationality. Hut I believe In the Judgment of his
tory, which stands apart from wrong and evil.
Tills will slve Its verdict on us. Mtistltla regnorum
Juarez soon took up arms and civil war fol
lowed. In ISO." Maximilian proclaimed nil tho;,o
la arms to be outlaws a fact that probably sealed
his fate when tried for his life.
In the meantime, the United States, In the
throes of the Civil war, had refused to recogn'.r.o
Maximilian. With ihe close of the Civil war t'.io
United States government found Itself In posses
sion of the strongest military force that the world
had over seen. Thereupon Gen. Philip II. Sheridan
appeared at the Mexican border with an Impressive
force iiinl the United States government said In
effect to Napoleon III of France:
"You are violating the Monroo Doctrine. Get
your French troops out of Mexico forthwith and
takeMaxlmlllan with them!"
Napoleon had no choice hut to do exactly as the
United States government commanded. lie
warned Maximilian that he must withdraw the
French troops from Mexico, Maximilian declined
to abdicate. Carlottn saw that they were lost with
out French support and fled to Europe to appeal
The Inst of the French troops withdrew from
Mexico In 1807. Juarez promptly besieged Maxi
milian In Quoretaro. May M Maximilian was cap
tured, the night before he hud fixed upon for es
cape. He was tried by a council of war, con
demned to death and June II) fnced a firing sipmd
on the Hill of the Hells. He gave each of the live
soldiers a gold piece and asked them to aim well.
He died like n brave man and a gentleman.
Juarez, on aide man of few words and honest
purpose, resumed the presidency and held It till
Ids death, live years later.
Carlotta's vain attempts to secure aid In Europe
were as dramatic as tragic. Napoleon III feared
to face her and evaded a meeting until she forced
an Interview. The meeting was without witnesses.
Napoleon refused to aid her. He may have wanted
to keep his pledged word to Maximilian, but lie
did not dare to defy the United States. Just what
was said behind those closed doors Is not known,
but Carlotta was beard to shriek at Its close:
"I ought never to have forgotten what I am and
what you are. I ought not to have forgotten that
there Is Hourbon blood In my veins, and should
not havo disgraced my descent by lowering myself
before a Honaparte and being led away by wi ad
venturer!" Attendants, entering, found her unconscious on
Carlotta next saw Pope Plus IX, who received
her at a reception In the throne room nt the Vati
can and accorded her the honors of n reigning
monarch. She suspected that tills was a ruse- to
prevent the discussion of her affairs. Later, the
pope returned the lslt, as etiquette demanded. An
ample escort accompanied him, and again Carlotta
could not llnd opportunity. Hut she made an
other effort. Dressed In mourning, with one wom
an attendant she had an uudlence. At Its close
she was so overwrought that the pope's ph.Mdchtc
declared It unwise to remove her. So, contrar
to all precedent, she passed the night at the Vati
can. She awoke the next morning hcrcit of rea
son. She waii placed in the care of her fatally.
During the Invasion of Helglum In the World
war a German commander passed Houchout at the
head of bis troops. He halted in astonishment nt
the slslt of the Austrian flag flying over the
chateau. He demanded to know who had the 'n
solence to display It.
"Her majesty the Empress Carlotta of Mexico,
widow of Archduke Maximilian of Austria, em
peror of Mexico," was the answer.
"Who aie you?" asked the German.
"Huron GolTinet, her majesty's major doitio."
"Take me to hrl"
"It hi I'oihlddci. Her majesty Is an Invalid and
sees no one."
To the Gemini) In Helglum nothing wns forbid
den and the major doiao took him to an uppei
window, from which he saw a very old woman,
dressed In black nnd leaning on the arm of an
attendant, walking in the garden. Thu German
rent back to his troops and ufllxed to the gate this
"This property, l,longlng to the crown of Hel
ghiiu. Is occupied by the widow of Archduke Maxl
nitlluti of Austria. 1 instruct German soldiers
net to dlbtur'o the Ixmsehold, not So ring the hell
nuM not to sing In passing." And Carlotta'o home
rermlned untouched through the devastation.
Many stories about Carlotta have been circulat
ed during her long seclusion In Houchout. It h
l.no.'.n that at llrst she was violently Insane, her
mitlti ol session being that everyone was trying to
poison her. Later she became more rational- so
riitl&ml that her actual rasanlty was questioned.
lit!'- rojal family neer tool; nny stejis to have
her t'eclared legally incompetent, and it Is said
she bis never spoken or written anything that s-ct-tied
ik'llnltely whether she was sane or Insane, or
rea 1 1 .id that she had lost her place.
AHIiiugh ill, she managed for a long while the
most l'dnute details of her lavish establishment,
Ever May she wrote out her orders In one of the
grand 'iions, and these commands were executed
by the servants. With her toilet sho was scrupu
lously c'jrofiil. and attired herself with the same
taste ard distinction that sho used when moving
In the u'tirt circles of Europe. Her painting and
drawing occupied hours each day, and site passed
much of 'icr time playing the piano.
It hiifi ttlso been broadly hinted that Leopold II
kept her cequestruted as Insane, though she was
not so, u ennceal the fact that lie had taken and
squandered her fortune.
One qcevlun Is still unanswered: Has Carlotta
read till- ilual letter from .Maximilian which lie
penned slevtly before Ills execution?
"My Jieit vetl Carlotta: If God permit that your
health be restored and you slienhl rem! theso few
lines you will learn thu crucify with which falo
has stricken mo since your departure (or Europe.
You tccK wbh you not only mr heart, but my good
fortune. Wl'y did I not give heed to your voice?
So mary ttiilowanl events! .nlas! So iaan. sud
den bio am huve shattered all my hopes; so that
death Is but a happy dell cranio, not an agony, to
me. I sliail die gloriously like a soldier, like a
monarch, vanquished but not ills-honored. If your
f.iiffi'rluir-s his too great, and God shall calljoii
soon to Join me, I shall bless His divine hand
which lias weighed so heavily upon us. Adieu,
"YUUIt POOH MXIMILIAN."
' -V' K$ U 1 4' &
. XV Vi V
Mrs. Alfred Carticr.
charge of several Important social
events during the week of the con
clave. Other San Francisco women
have promised to take charge oi a
number of "canteens" to be estab
lished throughout tlie city In order to
assist In providing food for the vis
itors. The popularity of canteen workers
was well known during the war, and
It Is not likely that the average Le
gion man has forgotten them since
his return to civil life. As a conse
quence, a "buddy" Is likely to be found
hanging over the counter of one of
those places, talking o some pretty
San Francisco miss
American Lerjlon to Recommend Inter.
national Dloarmament Conference
Conduct National Referendum.
An International nlr disarmament
conference to stop tlie present air con
st met Ion race will be recommended by
the American Legion, which will con
duct a national referendum to obtain
the views of prominent Americans as
to the aiMsablllty of such a confer
ence. All members' of congress, gocruort
of all slates, 1,000 ed'tors, KM) college
pro'ldciits and a number of prominent
citizens will he tH.cd by the Legion to
cpress inn opinion on the proposal
which would Involve tlie holding of it
meeting in Washington, similar to tho
naval disarmament muiference, to lw
attended by representatives of all lead-,
lug world powers for the purpose of
reaching pome agreement as to tlio
number of lighting and observation
planes to be maintained by each.
If the opinion of the national lead
ers Is favorable to the Legion's proj
ect, Piesldent Coolldge will he usketl
to call an International conference. A
necessity for Immediate action In the
matter or limitation of air armament
elss since France took tlie lead in an
air-const met Ion program, and the re
maining European powers have en
tered the mad race to overtake thu
French. France at the present time
has III) squadrons of the military ma
chines and plans to, have 'J-0 at tlie
end of lt)'j."i. The planes will carry 7,"
mlllliiieter cannons and will also be
used to transport six- machine guns
and their crews. The plans Includu
machines which will serve as actual
troopships of the ulr.
England Is the maiest competitor,
having appropriated ?'J7.r00,000 to en
large her air arinada. It has been es
timated that by 10110 England will hu
able to send aloft only O'Jl battle ma
chines In comparison with France's 1,
fi.'to air lighters. Italy -and Hussla have
ncllvely entered the race, the latter
planning to have lo.OOO planes In op
eration. A statement Issued recently by Na
tional Commander Alvln Owsley calls
attention to the fact (hot naval and
bind forces have been reduced by na
tional agreement and that the Legion
I reposes to attempt to obtain similar
measures governing aircraft.
"The crying need of the world today
Is peace industrial, commercial, eco
nomic peace a restoration from tlie
ravages ami horrors of war, a settling
down and Kcttlng hack to the sane pur
tuits of industry, quietude of heart and
mind, to live In safe seclusion away
from the covetotistiess of the Invader,"
he statement reads.
"Can wo of the Legion who wero
their comrades In arms not ask the
nations to pause nut! see what they
a it doing? I'rcpniodness In n larger
tense means a temptation to use that
which Is being prepared to light. Tho
wounds of the last titanic trouble aro
sill! gaping open; the life blood of tho
nations Is still pouring out because of
loo much preparedness for battle.
"I propose to the world preparedness
for peace a coming together in it
great world conference for the limita
tion of airplanes for war instead of war
to destruction. I challenge the right
of any nation to prepare any Instru
ment of destruction and claim thu
name of defender of world peace.
Peace will come when the people of the
world will to have peace and express
their will In solemn declaration nnd
covenant sealed with honor.
"America Is ready to lead tlie way to
secure peace In tlie air and site litis
gone far by example to make war Im
possible on laud and sea."
.DRAWING CLOSER TO LEGION
MANY POSTS SEEK TROPHIES
Legion Organizations Display Great
interest in Honors to De Award
ed at National Meeting.
Competition for membership Is keen
hinoiig departments of the American
Legion tills year, due to the plan to
present national trophies and awards
to tho departments making the best
fctiowlngs before the flftb annual na
tional convention In San Francisco
Legionnaires will strive for two
principal trophies the Ilant'ord Mac
Nider and the Franklin D'Oller tro
phies. Tlio department that has the
highest percentage oCinembers as com
pared with the membership total for
tho j ear lOLiU will win tho MacNider
cup, which Is presented by the Iowa
department. Tlie Georgia department
Ion tills cup at the Now Orleans con
rcnllon and Is leading In the race this
Tlie D'Oller trophy has not ot been
awarded, as It was first announced at
the New Orleans convention. The de
partment obtaining as members the
highest percentage of eligible ex-service
men In the ttate will receive thlcfc
trophy, the gift of the Pennsylvania
The trophies will not remain the
permanent property of departments,
but must bo tinned over each year.
A gold plate will he awarded to each
department winning a trophy. This
will he suitable to he attached to tho
department's banner, which will bear
an Inscription reciting the honor won.
There will bo presented each year a
i sliver one hundred per cent member
ship lienor plate to each department
maintaining or Increasing Its preceding
..nnii'.i .tti.i,il.nt.-lilti In .lililttliiH in Mm
I juil r U-HlM-,0j', ... ,t..,ll'l,
1 twe trophies and their plates.
Public Ic More Intel ested in Members
of Organization, Commander
The American public Is drawing
closer to the American Legion In the
opinion of Alvln Owsley, Legion na
tional commander, who has recently
completed n speaking tour which car
ried him Into eight states, Cuba unit
"I believe tho people nro more In
terested In the question of disabled
veterans obtaining nmplo hospitals
and sanatorlums for the' sick and
wounded than they ever were before,"
he said. "They are beginning to un
derstand that the llrst duty of the
United States Is to care for these
Commander Owsley said that the
stand of the Legion for exclusion of
Immigrants and in opposition t'o
those wiio preach radical doctrines
had found Immediate Response.
Other Legion policies which were
met with favor by the public, ho said,
were the stand for a universal draft
act, under which capital and labor and
nil the resources of America would be
called for national defense; support
of the action of the French nnd Hel
glan troops in occupying tho Ruhr,
and war on profiteers.
Declaring that the Legion members
aro rising to responsible positions In
tlie state and nation, Commander Ows
ley pointed out that three governors,
four lieutenant-governors, four United
Stntes senators and more than thirty
members of the lower house In the
ccngress nro members of tho Legion.
Wife (reading newspaper) Ameri
can soldiers brought ba,ck from Ger
many beer steins, In the bottoms of
which nre music boxes which nmko
noises llko birds! Wonder what kind
Veteran Hubby (dry:y, very dryly)
Mocking btrdB. Th'i American Le
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