The Red Cloud chief. (Red Cloud, Webster Co., Neb.) 1873-1923, September 13, 1923, Image 7

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fWOT Cnhokla Mounds nt any rate the g v-v ?wv , - wV'i' 'V vfffi
mm: last Mute legislature passed n n ," .Vv' " ' 'V,,., fev ., V$K '$?'$
II 1,111 mrproprliitliiR WiO.OOO for feW'W Slt
p .heir purchase nnd Governor MS 0"
m Small LlKiictl It. So these lm- :&t W
TsJft portant relies of a prehistoric ts r n 1
JjjgL. iMMipl.. will he preserved to pns- Y0' ?SC JttZZVZ I "
VfWVMff? torl,y "s " S,!,te ,"irk Bl " ill I ',,!': 1 v ;' - 1M. '!
mpMm'r' Tll('so Cllll,,kl" bounds add I. , i L 1.', .f ml'li'J
T- ' " " 11 the attraetton of myMery to a .. J, t i .V, ' Chk A'".f AV
(Copy for This Urpartmrnt Htippllrtl bjr
thp Atiirrloun I-cKlon News Rcrvlco.)
Alleged Veterans Publlcatlono
to Appeal to Sympathy
Patriotic Cltlzcm.
M.IXOIS has at last hotiKht the
t'ahokla Motindh at any rate the
laM state legislature passed n
hill approprlathiK S.riO,WH) for
their purchase and Governor
Small sljined It. So these Im
portant relies of a prehistoric
people will he preserved to pos
terity as a state park.
These Cahokln Mounds add
the attraetlon of mystery to a
region rich In historical associa
tions of national Importance. Monks Mound Is
the largest structure of Its kind In the world. The,
Mississippi valley Is dotted with the enrth struc
tures of prehistoric peoples and these Cahokln
Mounds are presumahly the most Important of
them all from an archeoloRlcnl viewpoint. When
were they htillt? Who built them? What became
of the builders?
These same questions were asked of the Illinois
Indians when the first white men set eyes on the
Cahokln Mounds uriO years ago. The answer wna
the same then as now "Nobody knows."
These first white men were .Toilet and Mnr
quette Flench explorer nnd Jesuit priest who
came down the Mississippi In 1G7J5 from Cnnadn
by canoe. In 1075 the famous Jesuit founded n
mission among the Indians at Kaskaskln. LaSallo
began his operations In the Mississippi Valley In
3070 by building Fort Creve on the Illinois river
at l'eorln. Then the French settled nil along the
east side of the Mississippi from Cahokln to Fort
jblmrtres. Until the English wrested Cnnadn from
trance In 1705 all this region wns French. The
French staid on, with the British ns overlords.
JThen cntne the Revolution and George Rogers
("lark's splendid military coup, with results that
aade the American march across the continent In
pvltnhk of which more later.
First, as to the Cnhokla Mounds: The Illustra
tions herewith are by courtesy of Prof. Warren
K. Mnorehcad and nre from an article by Robert
II. Moulton In America Today, Chicago, with the
title, "Movement Is Launched to Preserve Prehis
toric Mounds In Illinois." This nrtlclo contains
the following:
"There Is In Illinois a group of relics that stnnd
to the prehistoric Indian culture of the United
States as the pyramids do to that of Egypt the
Cnhokla Mounds, near East St. Louis, Including
the Monks Mound, the largest known mass of earth
ever built up by the labor of human hands.
"Notwithstanding the fact that the Egyptian
pyramids are masses of stone and that they stand
in a region without value, they have been partially
demolished. Complete destruction would before
now have been their fate, In all probability, had
the Egyptian pyramids Iwcn great earthworks nnd
the surrounding land needed for Industrial devel
opment. A warning was sounded by Professor
"Warren K. Moorehead, the well-known nrcheolo
fllst, and largely through his efforts n movement
Iins hten stnrted to have the state of Illinois pur
chase the entire Cahokln Mound region for park
purposes. A hill having In view the preservation
of these mounds failed of passage In the Illinois
legislature In lflKl, It appenrs, however, that It
wns not so much the cost of the land thnt deterred
the state legislature from acting favorably In the
matter, ns the question raised by some nB to
whether the mounds were built by man or were
n natural formation, notwithstanding thnt there
has never been nnyjdouht In the minds of nrche
ologists as to their artificial construction.
To set at rest nil doubts In the matter, Profes
sor Moorehead, with the co-operation of the Uni
versity of Illinois, Phillips Acndemy of Andover,
Mnss., nnd n number of Individuals, begnn a series
of explorations of severnl of the mounds during
the fall of 1021 nnd continued them the following
uprlnjj with the most gratifying results. Pottery
fragments In great nhundnnce, large quantities of
flint chips, animal bones, and many complete
human burials unearthed at considerable depths In
eoveral of the mounds, prove conclusively that they
arc the work of human hands. It Is the belief of
(Professor Moorehead thnt the largest of the group,
MonkB Mound, so-called because of the presence
there of the Trnpplsts during a short period be
tween 3808 and 1813, was n very long time In the
'building nnd thnt It probably wns begnn ns n re
pository for the dend. That Is, certain burials
twero made and other suinll mounds ndded as burl
tela took place. Finally the stmcture became so
'largo that the natives made It Into a pyramid,
added the upper terraces and used the top ns u
place of residence.
"While practically nil of the Cahokla group of
mounds, 72 In number, remain, their extornnl con
Itour has nltered since the pioneers In Cnhokla ar
jcheology gave us clenr word pictures of conditions
qb they existed severnl generations ngo. In nil
'written accounts of tho mounds most attention
aeeniB to have been concentrated on tho largest
'ftutnulus known as Monks Mound. In fact, nearly
11 the descriptions center In thin ranking struc-
The salo of fake "veternn" maga
zines and publications has cost tho
public more than $r),(XX),000 within a
period of fourteen months, according
to Information received by the Amer
ican Legion which has Issued u warn
ing against the operations of promot
ers of the spurious publications.
Publishers often use tho name
"veteran" to persuade the public that
former service men get part of tho
proceeds of sales. Their salesmen do
not hesitate to use the disabled and
wounded plea. Investigations by tho
Legion nnd other Veterans' organiza
tions and the Hepartment of Justice
have disclosed that entire proceeds of
publications go Into the pockets of
persons who did not senc In the war,
and who capltalle the patriotism of
the American public and the reputa
tion of World war lighters to enrich
Salesmen often pcddlo tho publica
tions with the plea of "help ex-sol-dlers"
; "proceeds help disabled men" ;
"wounded myself In France, and can
not get a Job." In some cases It was
found to be the "game" for publishers
to disown agents soliciting ndvanco
subscriptions. Other agents wero
found to have bought nnd worn
"wound buttons" from private con
cerns. Many peddlers who have been
arrested admitted that they were not
former service men. lly using tho
"Iielp - the - boys - who - fought-for-you"
plea, they have disposed of magnzlnes,
some nt '25 cents n copy, their profit
rouging from 17 to 10 cents.
In a number of cases salesmen have
represented their publications as In
dorsed by tho American Legion, which
la untrue.
American Legion posts In nil sec
tions of the country nro urged to glvo
publicity to these fakes In order to
protect pntrlotlc citizens In their communities.
Mist Louise Wells of Chicago is Re
Elected President of Women's
Service League.
MIm IOulse Wells of Chicago bus
been reelected president of the Wom
en's Overseas Horvlc lencuo, known
ns the little sister of the American
Legion becnuso many Legion women
nre also members of tl league, muk
lng for closer co-operation between
the tvto organizations.
Members of the league were th
Army and Red Cross nurses, Saltation
Army lassies, the ""' glrl, signal
corps girls, canteeners, librarians and
entertainers who served Amerlcn's
fighting men In France. Many wore
gassed nnd wounded and more than
100 of them died of such plagues as
trench fever and Influenza. A few
wero killed In action.
Miss Wells entered the service from
Los Angeles. She Is the daughter ol
Arthur G. Wells, vice president of the
Santn Fe railroad. After serving at
-r imriir-i
Miss Louise Wells.
ARmZM&l&? VS&Jj&J
ture. The highest point of this mound as it ex
ists today Is 102 feet, Its longest axis Is 1.0S0 feet,
nnd It covers slightly more than 10 ncres. Tho
great pyramid of Cheops In Egypt la 7-10 feet
square, and the temple of the Aztecs in Mexico,
0S0 feet square. In volume, therefore, this Ca
hokla pyramid Is the greatest structure of Its kind
found nnywhere In the world.
"There Is so much nhout the huge Cahokla Mound
thnt Is similar to the works of the Aztecs that It
undoubtedly wnB from thnt part of the world that
those people came, bringing their religion, their
priesthood, their corn, their mode of life, and their
middle order of primitive civilization. It Is gen
erally accepted, however, that the mound builders
of Illinois did not observe the burbarous human
sacrifices of the Aztecs.
"Eminent nrcheologlsts estimate that the settle
ment of the Cahokln mound builders numbered
150,000 nt the height of Its prosperity.
"They probably fished and hunted to some ex
tent, but they likely depended for their subsist
ence upon their labor In the field, and their staple
food was unquestionably corn."
Now for the historical associations of national
Importance. Kaskaskln was the first permanent
European settlement In the Upper Mississippi Val
ley, as well as the first capital of the "Illinois Ter
ritory." Fort Chartres, named for the son of the
regent of Frnnce, wns built In 1720 by the French
with the Men of giving protection to the operations'
of the Company of the West John Law's famous
"Mississippi Ruhble"organlzed In 1717. The fort
was abnndoned In 1772, the Itrltlsh garrison going
to Kaskaskla. It has now been In pnrt restored
by tho state and Its powder magazine, the oldest
building in Illinois, wlh be used ns a historical
museum. When in 170.'! the Jesuits were sup
pressed In France nnd their property confiscated
to the crown, tho decree was enforced by the
French commnnder against tho Jesuits In Knskas
kin. The priests were expelled nnd their proper
ty, Including 200 ncres of cultivated land, many
cnttle and n brewery, was sold. This was Just
before the British occupation.
During tho Revolution "Ilalr-Huyer" Hamilton,
tho British commander of the region, with bond
quarters at Detroit, Incessantly harried the Ameri
can settlements In Kentucky by Indian raids
George Rogers Clark, a heaven-horn military
genius rnlsed up by Providence for the occasion,
conceived tho plan of winning pence for Kentucky
by carrying the wnr to Ilnmllton nt Detroit. He
began operations by capturing Kaskaskla, taking
It by surprise, without bloodshed.
"The French of the Illinois territory called the
Amerlcnns "Long-Knives" and believed them to be
bloodthirsty and cruel. They hnd no love for
their British overlords, but feared the Americans
exceedingly. When Clark captured Kaskaskln
without bloodshed, treated tho Inhabitants with
kindness nnd announced that there would he no
Interference with their church nnd religion the
simple vlllngers wero overjoyed and enthusiasti
cally took the oath of alleglanee to the United
Stntes. They rnlsed n company of mllltln nnd
accompanied Major Bowman to Cahokla, where
there waB another bloodless victory. Then tlioy
volunteered to take Vlneennes the same way
which they did. So Clnrk got possession of every
British post In tho Illinois country without a bat
tle and without the loss of n life. Later thnt fall
as everyone knows, Hamilton led an expedition
from Datrolt and recaptured Vlneennes, only to
lose It to Clnrk tho next spring and be taken to
Virginia as n prisoner.
Clark'B sudden appearance nnd rapid capture of
these western posts of the British astonished be.
yond raenBure the Indiana and their chiefs for COO
miles round about flocked to see the "mighty war-
jjoAzi, JKozmD Bw& ctrrjw&r
rlor of the Long-Knives." By concerted nctUn
they could wipe out his scanty force In n twin
kling. Clark met them In council nt Cahokla with
stern and loftv dignity. He showed no fear. Ho
gave no Indication of desire for friendship, Ho 1
Inld before them n wnr-helt nnd a peace-belt and
told them to take their choice. In short, this young I
leader of backwoods mllltln bluffed the great crowd I
of restless, bloodthirsty, pro-British savages to a ,
standstill. One chief lifter nnnther arose and mndo 1
submissive speeches. Clark refused to smoke the
pence-pipe with any till he had heard from all and I
tho treaties wero concluded. These proceedings j
lnsted live weeks and their Influence extended to
all the tribes around the Great Lakes. Clark had
no further trouble with the Illinois Indlnns.
Vlrglnln, which then claimed nil this region. Im
mediately clinched Clark's victory by creating thn
"County of Illinois." Col. John Todd, as "County
Lieutenant," took possession, set up a capital nt
Kaskaskla In May of 1770 and established a com
plete civil government.
Cahokla also figures large In an ambitious plnw
by the British cabinet In 170 to enpture New Or
leans, the Spanish posts west of the Mississippi
and the Illinois Country. War had been declared
Mav 8, 1770, between Spain and Great Britain.
May 20, 17S0, n raid was made on St. Louis, thn I
Spanish headquarters, by a force of 1-10 English
nnd Canadian traders and 1 ,500 Indians, fitted out j
by Lieutenant Colonel Sinclair of Mlchlllmaclnae
(Mackinac) and led by n Sioux chief named Wa
basha. A portion of the party crossed the river
and raided Cahokln, Sinclair's official report says: 1
"At Pencour (St. Louis) 08 were killed, and 78
blacks and white people taken prisoners; l', scalps
wero brought In. The rebels lost nn officer and
three men at Cnhokla, and five prisoners."
Suddenly, without pressing the nssault, the en
tire party decamped nnd scattered. They hnd
discovered that Clark had returned In haste from
Kentucky and was at hand, prepared to aid tho
Spanish The very name of Clark was a terror
to the Indlnns. A high wind prevented signals
from being heard ; otherwise Clark would have had
11 bund In the hostilities.
This attack was part of a general plan devised
by Lord George Germain for the complete con
quest of the West. Features of this plan were to
bring down a force of Northwestern Indians on St.
Louis; to send nn expedition from Detroit to In
vado Kentucky and keep Clark busy; to bring a
fleet nnft nrmy tip tho Mississippi under General
Campbell to unite with the northern expedition.
The plan was a good one. It failed In pnrt be
cause Governor Galvez of New Orleans got busy,
licked the British nnd captured their posts along
the lower Mississippi nnd nt Mobile and Pensa
cola. It also failed because Clark blocked tho prog.
rosB of the northern expedition and also brought
to naught the expedition from Detroit to Kentucky
under Captain Byrd.
If this British plnn of conquest hnd been suc
cessful the country north of tho Ohio and west
of tho Mississippi would have thereupon become n
pnrt of the Province of Quebec.
Clnrk's brilliant exploits in 1778 nnd 1770 there
fore have a place of Importance In American his
tory thnt cannot he overestimated. They enabled
the new nation of the United States In tho peaco
negotiations successfully to Kislst upon the Mis
slsslppl ns its western bnundnry ns against the
British contention of the Alleghunles.
With the Mississippi and the Ohio carrying their
trudo to the Gulf, tho American people could not
rest until Now Orleans was nn open port to them.
This desire of the frontier brought about tho
Loulslann Purchase of 3803. And with tho conti
nent theirs from the Atlantic to the Rockies the
march to '.he PaclQ Leeamo n matter of eourae.
Veterans of World War and British
Legion Now Are "Comrades
In Peace."
Closer co-operation between veterans
f tho World war of tho United States
ind Great Britain Is Indlented by the
(act that the American Legion was
represented nt the annual convention
3f the British Legion nnd nt the blcn
alnl meeting of tho British Emplro
Service League.
Replying to n message sent by Alvln
Owsley, American Legion national com
nander, to the British Legion, Sir
Douglas Halg, head of the British or
ganization, suld:
It seemed to me that your splendid
A-ords found an echo In tho hearts of
tveryono present. To your wish, 'Lot
as be comrudes In pence, I hnsten to
issuro you that that Is tho sincere wish
of every member of the British Le
gion. Tho alms of our respective Le
gions seem to be Identical for all prac
tical purposes and I hopo that by somo
means wo English-speaking ex-servlco
men may become more closely affiliat
ed. Please convey to your colleagues
of the American Legion the heartfelt
thanks of the British Legion for your
assurnnco of fellowship, which wo cor
dially reciprocate."
Past National Commnnders Hanford
MacNlder of Mason City, In., nnd Mil
ton J. Foreman of Chicago represented
the Legion at the British convention.
Camp Upton, she went oversens ai a
canteen worker. At Glenoblo, at AJ-lcvard-Les-Balnn
and nt Lyon, she
served as a canteen worker nnd with
tho entertainment forces. She organ
ized the Los Angeles unit of the
league, and later was president of the
Chicago unit.
Speaking nt n recent convention of
tho league, Brig. Gen. Charles D.
Dawes said:
"You never looked so good to me nB
you did In your somber uniforms nnd
hnts, wndlng through tho mud and
mire, trnmplng through the rain, Berv
lng hot chocolate for hours at n time,
In that country which, before wo went
over, wo called 'sunny France.' "
Respects of tho American Legion
wero paid to the overseas women by
Past National Commander John Q.
Emery of Grand Rapids, Mich.
Idaho Law Provides for Recognition
of Thooe Who Gave Lives in
World Conflict
Stnte aid in memorial construction
projects Is provided by Idaho, by tho
terms of a law recently enacted by
the legislature of that state. Under
tho law n memorial commission is au
thorized In each county, to bo com
posed of the commander of the Amer
ican Legion post, heads of other "es
tablished and recognized" war vet
erans' organizations and the county
commlssloneis. Each county com
mission Is empowered to decide on a
meinorinl to honor tho World war
dead. When the county appropriates
51,000 und acquires a site for a mo
tnorlul, the state will provide an equal
County recorders aro directed to re
cord all discharge certificates of World
wnr service men on nppllcatlon, and
to mnke certified copies of tho record
when requested. A fee of 25 cents
Is authorized for making the record
or furnishing a certified cojy.
Modern Hospital Opened.
A Soldiers' Memorial hospital for
the cure of men disabled In the World
war has been opened near Muskogee,
Okla. The hospital was built by the
soldiers' relief commission created by
the Oklahoma legislature on request
of the American Legion. The Institu
tion has been declared by veterans'
bureau officials to bo one of the most
1 uiodern in the country.
Arkansas Legion Members Plan Fit.
ting Tributes to Ex-Service Man
In Unmarked Grave.
Arkansas members of the American
Legion are assisting In plans for ths
Herman Davis Memorial Foundation
In honor of Herman Davis, Arkunsas'
outstanding hero of the World war,
who died In January from the effects
of gas and Is hurled In an unmarked
grave at Manila, Arlc.
Plans of the foundation call for the
erection of a suitable monument to
his memory at Manila, and n slmllnr
monument on the lawn of the State
War Memorial building nt Little Rock.
In addition, a scholarship will bo en
dowed at tho University of Arknnsas,
to he known ns tho Herman Davis
A highway leading through the
northern part of Mississippi county,
through Manila and past the burial
place of the young hero will be known
ns the Herman Davis Meinorlal high
way. Placed fourth on the list of 1(a)
heroes of the war by General Persh
ing, DnvlB was always modest and
reticent. He did not seek to capital
ize his fame, but when the wnr was
I over returned to his native soil and
again took up tho ways of tho simple
Ufo which he always had led.
Disabled Veteran Declares Organiza
tlon Demands Justice for Every
Ex-Service Man.
"We knew It would be a benefit to
the town to get a post of the American
Legion here. The Legion deserves nil
the assistance that every ex-service
I man can give It, for I, as a disabled
man, know that through thnt organiza
tion n disabled mnn can get Justice."
( This was the declaration of Fied
erlck Graham, n veteran of tho World
war nnd of tho Spanish-American war,
who now resides In Edmonds, Wash.
The town has no post of the American
Lgclon, owing to a smnll number of
ex-service men, and Grahnm lino been
suggested as ono to start such n move
ment among the former soldiers In the
Gratifira wroto national headquar
ters of the Legion that he was unable
to take up the organization work on
account of his physical condition. Ha
said that he was betag cored for by
tho veterans' bureau, ufter his case had
been presented by American Legion